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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Open Localities / Moist Localities, Naturalized, Native of Tropical America"
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Herb Distribution notes: Exotic
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Description

Erect annual, up to 60 cm.
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Derivation of specific name

heterophylla: with differently-shaped leaves (see note above)
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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"Maharashtra: Ahemdnagar, Pune Karnataka: Dharwar, Mysore Kerala: Alapuzha, Idukki, Kollam, Kottayam, Kozhikode, Malapuram, Pathanamthitta, Thiruvananthapuram Tamil Nadu: All districts"
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"
Global Distribution

Native of Central America; now a Pantropical weed

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Kottayam, Alappuzha, Pathanamthitta, Idukki, Kollam, Thiruvananthapuram, Malappuram, Kozhikkode, Wayanad, Thrissur, Kannur, Ernakulam, Palakkad

"
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Distribution in Egypt

Nile and Mediterranean regions, oases.

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Global Distribution

Pantropical weed, originating from central America.

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Euphorbia taiwaniana S.S. Ying:
Taiwan (Asia)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Euphorbia prunifolia Jacq.:
Bolivia (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Euphorbia heterophylla var. heterophylla :
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Poinsettia geniculata (Ortega) Small:
United States (North America)
South Africa (Africa & Madagascar)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
  • Gibbs Russell, G. E., W. G. Welman, E. Reitief, K. L. Immelman, G. Germishuizen, B. J. Pienaar, M. v. Wyk & A. Nicholas. 1987. List of species of southern African plants. Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa 2(1–2): 1–152(pt. 1), 1–270(pt. 2).   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1371 External link.
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1515 External link.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Euphorbia pandurata Huber:
Madagascar (Africa & Madagascar)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Poinsettia heterophylla (L.) Klotzsch & Garcke:
United States (North America)
Peru (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Euphorbia morisoniana Klotzsch:
Panama (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Euphorbia geniculata Ortega:
Bolivia (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Euphorbia heterophylla L.:
Argentina (South America)
Belize (Mesoamerica)
Bolivia (South America)
Brazil (South America)
Costa Rica (Mesoamerica)
Ecuador (South America)
El Salvador (Mesoamerica)
French Guiana (South America)
Gabon (Africa & Madagascar)
Guatemala (Mesoamerica)
Guyana (South America)
Honduras (Mesoamerica)
India (Asia)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
Madagascar (Africa & Madagascar)
Panama (Mesoamerica)
Peru (South America)
Paraguay (South America)
Suriname (South America)
United States (North America)
Venezuela (South America)
Caribbean (Caribbean)
South Africa (Africa & Madagascar)
China (Asia)
Colombia (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Worldwide distribution

Pantropical weed, originating from Central America.
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Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Global Range: WI, to SD, south to FL and AZ, and tropical America.

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Native of central America, now a pantropical weed.
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Physical Description

Morphology

"
Field Tips

Upper floral leaves form a green rosette. Presence of milky white latex.

Flower

Cyathia in terminal clusters, greenish yellow. Flowering throughout the year.

Fruit

A capsule. Seeds angled, green. Fruiting throughout the year.

Leaf Apices

Acute

Leaf arrangement

Alternate

Leaf Bases

Acute

Leaf Margins

Entire

Leaf Shapes

Oblanceolate

Leaf Types

Simple

Habit

An erect herb.

"
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Description

Herbs, annual, erect to 1 m tall, often tinged red. Stem glabrous to sparsely pilose at apex, hollow. Leaves alternate; stipules purplish glands, fairly conspicuous; petiole to 2(-4) cm; leaf blade ovate, to 12 × 6 cm, abaxially pilose especially on midrib and veins, glabrescent, adaxially glabrous to sparsely pilose near margin, base cuneate, margin with minute distant gland-tipped teeth, apex obtuse. Cymes terminal and axillary, each forking ca. 5 times, cyathia densely clustered; basal bracts similar to leaves but paler green, progressively smaller. Cyathia ca. 3.5 × 2.5 mm; involucre barrel-shaped, glabrous; gland ca. 1 mm, funnel-shaped, opening circular, ca. 1.2 mm across, often red-rimmed; lobes ca. 1.3 mm, subcircular, deeply toothed with minutely ciliate margins. Male flowers: bracteoles few, ligulate, feathery; stamens ca. 4 mm. Female flower: ovary pedicellate, glabrous or occasionally minutely puberulent, perianth forming an obvious rim; styles ca. 1 mm, occasionally minutely puberulent, bifid to halfway. Fruiting pedicel reflexed to 6 mm; capsule exserted, ca. 4.5 × 5.5 mm, deeply 3-lobed. Seeds conical, ca. 2.6 × 2.4 mm, apex acute, bluntly warty, blackish brown.
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Elevation Range

760-1100 m
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Robust annual herbs, glabrous to pilose. Leaves alternate below, opposite above, 4-12 x 0.3-7 cm, broadly ovate, elliptic, obovate, or panduriform, rarely linear, glabrous or pilose, margins entire to coarsely serrate, apex acute, short-acuminate, or short-cuspidate, base rounded to cuneate, green, sometimes floral leaves white or with splotches of purple at base, never red; petioles 1-4 cm long; stipules absent or minute and gland-like. Cyathia in dense terminal cymes; involucre 2-2.5 mm high, glabrous, gland 1, cup-shaped with a circular opening, without an appendage; staminate flowers numerous. Capsules subglobose, 3-4 mm long, glabrous; seeds dark brownish gray to black, sometimes mottled, truncate-ovoid, angled, 2-2.5 mm long, coarsely tuberculate, ecarunculate."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
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Synonym

Euphorbia epilobiifolia W. T. Wang; E. geniculata OrtE. taiwaniana S. S. Ying; Poinsettia geniculata (Ortega) Klotzsch & Garcke var. heterophylla (Linnaeus) Klotzsch & Garcke.
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"Weed of cultivation in fallow lands. Found along hills, riverbeds above 500m. Native to central America, now a pantropical weed."
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General Habitat

Weed in waste places and degraded deciduous forests
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Weed of cultivation, naturalized.

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Comments: Alluvial soils, thickets, open or rocky woods, glades and among railroads, often in shade.

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Habitat & Distribution

Weed of cultivation and other disturbed areas. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [native to America, now pantropical].
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Population Biology

Frequency

Common
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: June-August
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Life Expectancy

Annual.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Euphorbia heterophylla

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

The plant is fed to rabbits grown in farms.
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Wikipedia

Euphorbia heterophylla

Euphorbia heterophylla, also known under the common names of (Mexican) fireplant,[2] painted euphorbia,[2] Japanese poinsettia,[2] desert poinsettia, wild poinsettia, fire on the mountain, paintedleaf,[2] painted spurge,[2] milkweed,[2] and kaliko plant, is a plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae or spurge family.

Distribution[edit]

It is a native plant of Mexico, and its original distribution includes an area spreading from California to east Texas and to much of Central America.

This plant has spread to South and Southeast Asia, having become a weed in India and Thailand, where it has invaded cotton fields and other agricultural terrain. In Thailand, it is called "ลูกเขยตายแม่ยายทำศพ" (RTGS: Luk Khoei Tai Mae Yai Tham Sop), which literally means 'The funeral of a son-in-law is the responsibility of the mother-in-law".[3]

Introduced for ornamental purposes, it quickly spreads, becoming a common sight by the side of the roads and rural pathways.

Description[edit]

Water droplets on Euphorbia heterophylla

It is a hardy, ruderal species, growing between 30 and 70 cm in height. The leaves at the upper end of the stalk, close to the cyathium, have a striking, scarlet red coloration.[4] Leaves are mainly 2-4 lobed and 4–7 cm long by 1.5–3 cm wide. Their contrast with the lower dark green leaves gives this euphorbia most of its common names.

The stalk exudes a toxic milky white latex. The cyathia or false flowers, are located in clusters at the head of the stalk and are yellowish green. They have no petals, the red color being part of the young leaves' coloration. The fruits are small, segmented capsules.

This plant often loses its coloration when it grows wild as a weed. It is resistant to herbicide.[5]

Toxicity[edit]

Toxicity is documented in most members of the genus Euphorbia. Individuals sensitive to latex are known to have strong reactions, including dermatitis and anaphylaxis, to the latex exuded by this plant.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". 
  2. ^ a b c d e f "USDA GRIN Taxonomy". 
  3. ^ "พจนานุกรม ฉบับราชบัณฑิตยสถาน พ.ศ. 2542". ราชบัณฑิตยสถาน. ม.ป.ป. Retrieved 15 พฤศจิกายน 2554. 
  4. ^ Good picture of a mainstream variety
  5. ^ Herbicide Resistant Weeds
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