Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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B.C.; Alaska, Calif., Idaho, Mont., Oreg., Wash.; naturalized in Europe.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Roots white, contractile. Rhizomes to 30 cm or more, 2.5--5 cm diam. Leaves large; petiole stout, 5--40 cm; blade to 135 ´ 70 cm, base cuneate to subtruncate, apex obtuse to acute; midvein thick, grading into petiole. Inflorescences erect, malodorous, distinctive indoloid odor remaining even in old herbarium specimens; spathe wilting shortly after anthesis, basal portion 8--40 cm; blade basally contracted into long sheath enclosing stipe, 8--25 cm, stipe elongating in fruit; spadix stipitate, 4--12(--14) cm, initially shorter than spathe, eventually long-exserted because of elongation of stipe. Flowers yellowish green; tepals 4; stamens 4, dehiscing longitudinally; ovaries (1--)2-locular; ovules 1--2. Infructescences oblong-ovate, 4--15 × 1.5--4 cm. Seeds gray-brown to red-brown, (3--)5--11 mm. 2n = 28.
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Type Information

Lectotype for Lysichiton americanus Hultén & H. St. John
Catalog Number: US 958615
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: ; Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): O. D. Allen
Year Collected: 1895
Locality: Cascade Mountains, upper valley of Nesqually., Washington, United States, North America
  • Lectotype: Hultén, O. E. G. & St. John, H. 1931. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 25: 455.; Hultén, O. E. G. & St. John, H. 1934. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 28: 362.
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Ecology

Habitat

Swamps, wet woods, along streams, and other low wet areas; 0--1400m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering late winter--spring.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Lysichiton americanus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Lysichiton americanus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Lysichiton americanus

Lysichiton americanus, also called western skunk cabbage (USA), yellow skunk cabbage (UK),[1] American skunk-cabbage (Britain and Ireland)[2] or swamp lantern, is a plant found in swamps and wet woods, along streams and in other wet areas of the Pacific Northwest, where it is one of the few native species in the arum family. The plant is called skunk cabbage because of the distinctive "skunky" odor that it emits when it blooms. This odor will permeate the area where the plant grows, and can be detected even in old, dried specimens. The distinctive odor attracts its pollinators, scavenging flies and beetles. Although similarly named and with a similar smell, the plant is easy to distinguish from the eastern skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus), another species in the arum family found in eastern North America.

Description[edit]

Flower detail

The plant grows from rhizomes that measure 30 cm or longer, and 2.5 to 5 cm in diameter. The leaves are the largest of any native plant in the region, 50–135 cm long and 30–80 cm wide when mature. Its flowers are produced in a spadix contained within a large, bright yellow or yellowish green spathe 30–40 cm tall; it is among the first flowers to appear in spring.[3] Unlike the genus Symplocarpus (which includes S. foetidus, the eastern skunk cabbage), the flowers of Lysichiton species do not produce heat,[4] although this is widely and incorrectly said to be the case.[5]

Range[edit]

L. americanus is found from Kodiak Island and Cook Inlet, Alaska south through British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and Northern California as far south as Santa Cruz County. Isolated populations are also found in northeastern Washington, northern Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.[6]

The plant was introduced into cultivation in the United Kingdom in 1901 and has escaped to become naturalized in marshy areas in Britain and Ireland, for example in Hampshire and Surrey, including Wisley Gardens, and in the north and west of the UK.[7]

Cultivation[edit]

It has been used as an ornamental garden plant in Britain and Ireland, where it grows well in marshy conditions. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[8]

Hybrids with Lysichiton camtschatcense, called Lysichiton × hortensis, are also cultivated. These have larger spathes than either of the parents.[7]

Other uses[edit]

While some consider the plant to be a weed, its roots are food for bears, who eat it after hibernating as a laxative or cathartic. The plant was used by indigenous people as medicine for burns and injuries, and for food in times of famine, when almost all parts were eaten. The leaves have a somewhat spicy or peppery taste. Caution should be used in attempts to prepare western skunk cabbage for consumption, as it contains calcium oxalate crystals, which result in a gruesome prickling sensation on the tongue and throat and can result in intestinal irritation and even death if consumed in large quantities. Although the plant was not typically part of the diet under normal conditions, its large, waxy leaves were important to food preparation and storage. They were commonly used to line berry baskets and to wrap around whole salmon and other foods when baked under a fire. It is also used to cure sores and swelling.

See also[edit]

Foliage of L. americanus
  • Lysichiton camtschatcensis (Asian skunk cabbage): a related plant from north-east Asia, but not known for producing a foul smell
  • Symplocarpus foetidus (eastern skunk cabbage): although not in the same genus, it is often confused with western skunk cabbage
  • Calla palustris (bog arum): a similar plant grown as an ornamental herbaceous perennial

References[edit]

  1. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964. 
  2. ^ "BSBI List 2007" (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Retrieved 2014-10-17. 
  3. ^ "Lysichiton americanus". Learn 2 Grow. Retrieved 2012-12-04. 
  4. ^ Onda, Yoshihiko; Kato, Yoshiaki; Yukie, Abe; Ito, Takanori; Morohashi, Miyuki; Ito, Yuka; Ichikawa, Megumi; Matsukawa, Kazushige; Kakizaki, Yusuke; Koiwa, Hiroyuki; Ito, Kikukatsu (2008). "Functional Coexpression of the Mitochondrial Alternative Oxidase and Uncoupling Protein Underlies Thermoregulation in the Thermogenic Florets of Skunk Cabbage". Plant Physiology 146 (2). pp. 636–645. doi:10.1104/pp.107.113563. 
  5. ^ See as one example "Lysichiton americanus". Learn 2 Grow. Retrieved 2012-12-04. 
  6. ^ USDA. "PLANTS Profile:Lysichiton americanus". Retrieved 2008-03-13. 
  7. ^ a b Armitage, James D. & Phillips, Barry W. (2011), A hybrid swamp lantern, The Plantsman (New Series) 10 (3): 155–157 
  8. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Lysichiton americanus". Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
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Notes

Comments

Reports of Lysichiton americanus in Wyoming (R. D. Dorn 1977; E. Hultén and H. St. John 1931) are based on a single specimen labeled "Yellowstone National Park." Despite recent attempts to locate Lysichiton at this locality, it has not been found (R. Hartman, personal . communication.). In addition, Wyoming is extralimital to the range of this species, which follows a biogeographic pattern typical of many plant and animal species in western North America. 

 Lysichiton americanus is pollinated by adults of Peelecomalius testaceum (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), which feed on the pollen and use the inflorescences as a mating site. The distinctive odor produced by the inflorescences acts as an initial attractant for the beetles, which respond by initiating search behavior for yellow spathes (O. Pellmyr and J. M. Patt 1986).

Plants of this species were used as food, as medicine, and also in the material culture of Native Americans of northwestern North America (S. A. Thompson 1995). Although considered to be a famine food and rarely part of the diet under normal conditions, almost all parts were eaten. Perhaps the most important and widely used parts of Lysichiton americanus were the large, waxy leaves, which served the same functions as waxed paper does today. Medicinal use of the leaves, especially as a poultice for burns and injuries, was widespread among northwestern Native Americans. Like Symplocarpus foetidus, this species is widely planted in European gardens (F. W. Case 1992).

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