Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Neottia nidus-avis is found throughout most of Europe eastwards to the Caucasus and western siberia and southwards to northwest Africa. In Europe the species is found in Scandinavia and Finland and south to the Mediterranean including Italy, Greece, Corsica, Sicily and Sardinia and the Balearic Islands, and eastwards to Crimea and the Caucasus; it is mainly restricted to the mountains in the south of the range and absent from the Mediterranean lowland. The species can be found from 100 m up to 2,000 m altitude (Bournérias and Prat 2005, Delforge 1995, GIROS 2009, Harrap and Harrap 2009, Lang 2004, Pignatti 1982, Rossi 2002, The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2010, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The Bird's Nest Orchid is a terrestrial leafless species that lacks green chlorophyll and has a relationship with a fungus which enables it to obtain nutrition (Gardes 2002). Neottia lives in symbiosis with the fungus Rhizoctonia. The fungus/orchid combination is effectively a perennial saprophyte feeding on decomposing leaf litter, or possibly the mycorrhiza may be shared with nearby tree species. The plants do not appear every year. It grows in woodlands, often on basic soil, under shade in deep leaf litter in beech, hazel and pine forests. The species prefers chalk and limestone soils and also grows in clays and sands that have a chalky or limestone component. It grows in shade, even tolerates heavy shade and flowers from May to July (Bournérias and Prat 2005, Delforge 1995, GIROS 2009, Harrap and Harrap 2009, Lang 2004, Pignatti 1982, Rossi 2002, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Plant / resting place / within
puparium of Chyliza vittata may be found in live stem (usu just above rootstock) of Neottia nidus-avis

Fungus / parasite
root of plant of Neottia nidus-avis parasitises ectomycorrhiza of Sebacina

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Neottia nidus-avis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Neottia nidus-avis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Rankou, H., Contu, S. & Chadburn, H.

Reviewer/s
Fay, M. & Bilz, M.

Contributor/s

Justification
The species has a wide distribution range across Europe extending into north Africa and north and west Asia. It is common in many areas and although there are localized population declines, the threats to the species and its habitats are unlikely to cause the population to decline severely in the near future. Neottia nidus-avis is currently assessed as Least Concern. The species needs to be monitored at periodic intervals to detect any significant declines.
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Population

Population
The species is widespread in Europe and while still common in many deciduous forests it is becoming rare in parts of its range. The populations are decreasing and the overall population size is unknown. In Britain the total loss of individuals between 1500 and 1999 was 54% and in Ireland, it was 45.5% of the area. (Bournérias and Prat 2005, Delforge 1995, GIROS 2009, Harrap and Harrap 2009, Lang 2004, Pignatti 1982, Rossi 2002, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
The Bird's-nest Orchid is declining locally in the European part of its range due to the conversion of deciduous woodland into conifer plantations, the use of heavy machinery in forestry operation, and activities that increase the amount of light reaching the forest floor. In addition, this orchid is affected by urbanization, tourism, and related infrastructure expansion, as well as plant collection (Bournérias and Prat 2005, Delforge 1995, GIROS 2009, Harrap and Harrap 2009, Lang 2004, Pignatti 1982, Rossi 2002, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

All orchid species are included under Annex II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). The species occurs in numerous protected areas across its range.

This orchid is included in the following national red lists:

The following actions are recommended to protect Neottia nidus-avis:

  • Protection of woodland from being converted into conifer plantations.
  • Cease of heavy machinery use in forest operations.
  • Sympathetic management of isolated subpopulations.
  • Raise public awareness.
  • Protection of the living individuals through legislation enforcement which bans the species from being picked or dug up.
  • Ex situ conservation: artificial propagation, re-introduction, seed collections.
  • Monitoring and surveillance of the existing populations and sites.
  • Estimate the population size and study their dynamics
(Bournérias and Prat 2005, Delforge 1995, GIROS 2009, Harrap and Harrap 2009, Lang 2004, Pignatti 1982, Rossi 2002, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008).
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Wikipedia

Neottia nidus-avis

The Bird's-nest Orchid, Neottia nidus-avis, is a non-photosynthetic orchid. It is widespread across most of Europe, occurring also in Algeria, Tunisia, western Siberia, the Caucasus, Iran and Turkey. [1] (Codes) [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]

In the British Isles, Neottia nidus-avis is found in shady woodland, especially beech, on basic soils.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families". 
  2. ^ "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families TDWG Geocodes". 
  3. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana, Nido d'uccello, Bird's Nest Orchid, Neottia nidus-avis (L.) L.C. Rich. - Nomencl. ref.: De Orchid. Eur.: 37. 1817 includes European range map
  4. ^ Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2005). Flora Iberica 21: 1-366. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  5. ^ Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  6. ^ Curtis, T. & Thompson, R. (2009). The orchids of Ireland: 1-160. National Museums of Northern Ireland, Cultra, Holywood.
  7. ^ Vázquez Pardo, F.M. (2009). Revisión de la familia Orchidaceae en Extremadura (España). Folia Botanica Extremadurensis 3: 1-367.
  8. ^ Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  9. ^ El Mokni, R., Mahmoudi, M.R. & El Aouni, M.H. (2010). Neottia nidus-avis (L.) L.C.M.Rich.: une nouvelle orchidée pour la flore de la Tunisie. L' Orchidophile. Revue de la Société Française d' Orchidophilie 186: 181-187.
  10. ^ Clive A. Stace (2010). "Neottia Guett. (Listera R. Br.) – twayblades". New Flora of the British Isles (3rd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 864–865. ISBN 978-0-521-70772-5. 
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