Overview

Comprehensive Description

General Description

Monoecious and male. Tuber subglobose, 1.5-2.5 cm in diameter. Cataphylls 3-5, green, inter 8-25 cm long. Leaves 1-2. Petiole green to purplish, unmarked, 11-35 cm long, 4/5 of the length sheathing in flowering plants, not sheathing in nutritive plants. Leaf blade pedate, leaflets 5-11, green above, glaucous beneath, oblong lanceolate, obovate-lanceolate, acuminate, base cuneate, sessile, central one largest, 9-12 cm long, 3-5 cm wide, outer (lateral leaflets) gradually decreasing to the outermost. Peduncle emerging from leaf-sheath, green, 15-30 cm long. Spathe smallest in the genus, 2.5-6 cm long in total; spate tube yellowish green, ovoid to globes, 1-1.5 cm long, 1-1.4 cm wide, constricted at dark purple throat; limb oblong-ovate, yellow or green, accumulate, inside dark purple at least as basal part, slightly incurved. 1.5-4.5 cm long, 0.8-2 cm wide. Spadix bisexual and male, very short 1-2 cm long in total. Basal part female portion, ovaries greenish congested, obovate, stigma sessile, discoid male portion continued cylindric 3-7 cm long, 2-3 mm thick, light yellow, male flowers congested, synandria usually composed of 2, anthers, anthers 2-loculed, sessile dehiscent by apical pore; appendix very short, yellowish or yellow green, rugose when dry, short ellipsoid, 2-51.5 mm. Mature infructescence erect, subglobose, 4 cm in diameter; berries obovate, seeds 3, pale yellowish, 2-2.5 mm long.
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Distribution

Arisaema flavum is occurring in W Sichuan, NW Yunnan, S and SE Xizang of China, NW India, Nepal, Bhutan, Afghanistan, Kashmir.
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Distribution: Temperate W. Himalaya to Garhwal, S. Tibet, W. China and Afghanistan, Yemen.
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Afghanistan, Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), S.E. Tibet, W. China.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Monoecious. Bulb subglobose 2-3.5 x 2.5-3.5 cm. Leaves 2 or 1, pedate. Leaflets 7-11, elliptic-ovate to elliptic-lanceolate; median leaflet 5-10.5 x 1.6-3.8 cm, subacuminate, lateral ones narrower, petiole 15.5-32.5 cm long, petiolule 0.6-1.5 cm. Spathe not longer than the foliage, yellowish-green, purplish within; tube ovoid-globose, 1-1.2 cm long; limb longer than or equal to the tube, ovate-acuminate. Spadix included. Male zone: 4.5-6 mm; female zone: 6-9 mm; appendage clavate, included. Male flowers: anthers dehiscing by an apical pore. Female flowers: ovary ovoid-subglobose; c. 1.5 mm broad, stigma capitate. Seeds 4-5, subglobose, 2.5-3.5 mm broad, dark-brown, minutely rugose.
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Elevation Range

2400-3800 m
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Ecology

Habitat

Growing in rocky slope, thickets, cropland, field sides; 2200-4400 m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering from May to June; fruiting from July to October.
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: June- July.
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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

The evolution of Arisaema is reconstructed, based on combined sequences from the chloroplast trnL intron, trnL-trnF spacer, and rpl20-rps12 spacer (Renner et al., 2004). Sections in Arisaema are mostly based on leaf, stem, and inflorescence characters and, with one exception, are not rejected by the molecular data; however, statistical support for sectional relationships in the genus remains poor. Constraining the age of Arisaema triphyllum to 18 million years (mya) and applying either a semiparametric or an ultrametric clock model to the combined data yields, thus the genus provides an example of the Oligocene/Miocene floristic links between East Africa, Arabia, the Himalayan region, China, and North America. The phylogeny also suggests secondary loss of the environmental sex determination strategy that characterizes all arisaemas except for two subspecies of A. flavum, which have consistently bisexual spathes. These subspecies are tetraploid and capable of selfing, while a third subspecies of A. flavum is diploid and retains the sex-changing strategy. In the molecular trees, the sex-changing subspecies is sister to the two non-sex-changing ones, and the entire species is not basal in the genus.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

The chromosomal number of Arisaema flavum is 2n = 56 (Murata and Iijima, 1983).
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Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Arisaema flavum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Arisaema flavum is used medically by Tibet people.
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Wikipedia

Arisaema flavum

Arisaema flavum (Konso litota or panshalla) is a species of flowering plant native to southern Ethiopia.

Description[edit]

The plant is 0.4 metres (1 ft 4 in)[1] with its tuber being subglobose and 1.5–2.5 centimetres (0.59–0.98 in) wide. Its petiole is either green or purplish in colour, is unmarked, and is 11–35 centimetres (4.3–14 in) long. The species' spathe is only 2.5–6 centimetres (0.98–2.4 in) while the spate tube is yellowish green in colour, is ovoid, and is 1–1.5 centimetres (0.39–0.59 in) long by 1–1.4 centimetres (0.39–0.55 in) wide. The throat is dark purple in colour and have oblong-ovate limb, which is also either yellow or green coloured. The limb is also accumulate, inside of which its dark purple in colour and is slightly incurved. The size of a limb is 1.5–4.5 centimetres (0.59–1.8 in) by 0.8–2 centimetres (0.31–0.79 in). It is bisexual and have an 1–2 centimetres (0.39–0.79 in) long spadix. Female basal part have ovaries and is greenish in colour. The male basal part is slightly different; it is lightly yellow coloured and is 3–7 centimetres (1.2–2.8 in) long by 2–3 millimetres (0.079–0.12 in) thick. The species' appendix is very short and is yellowish-green in colour. Flowers have 2 anthers which are 2-loculed.[2] The flowers blooming from June to July which are being pollinated by flies.[1] It berries are obovate the 3 seeds of which are pale yellow in colour and are 2–2.5 millimetres (0.079–0.098 in) long.[2]

Uses[edit]

It is a famine food, eaten during periods of crop failure or famine in the Konso special woreda, where it is endemic. It is preferred to other species of Arisaema due to its relatively acceptable taste, can be prepared within a short time, and is less perishable. But all varieties must be crushed and dried prior to further preparation. The dried parts are then ground to powder, which is mixed with water and cooked like maize for approximately 30 minutes.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Arisaema flavum". PFAF. Retrieved June 18, 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "Arisaema flavum (Forrsskaol) Schott". Plants of Tibet. Retrieved June 18, 2013. 
  3. ^ Yves Guinand and Dechassa Lemessa (March 2000). "Wild-Food Plants in Southern Ethiopia: Reflections on the role of ‘famine-foods’ at a time of drought" (PDF). UN-OCHA Report. Retrieved January 15, 2009. [dead link]


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Notes

Comments

Fairly common in sunny and open places from 1700-3000 m.
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