Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

General: Orchid Family (Orchidaceae). This plant is a native, perennial herb. The upright stems will grow 30 cm to 1m tall. The roots are tuberous or fleshy. The plant has numerous lance-shaped leaves. The lower leaves are about 30 cm long, 3 to 6 cm wide, with smaller leaves toward the top. The plants have showy spikes (5 to 20 cm long) of loosely clustered flowers. The flowers grow in racemes, opening from bottom to top. The flowers can be bright yellow through apricot to deep orange. The lower petal or lip of the flower is linear-oblong (8 to 12 mm long, 2-3 m wide) with long ciliated fringe (12 to 16 mm long). The spurs are 20 to 33 mm long. Blooming time is variable, but usually from late June in the North to late September in the South.

Distribution: For current distribution, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site.

Habitat: The plants are native to sphagnum and sedge bogs, swamps, marshes, wet sandy barrens, thickets on borders of streams and ponds, moist woods, wet meadows, prairies, and in deep humus of upland forests in the Eastern United States and Canada.

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Alternative names

Orange-plume, orange-fringe, bobwhite’s moccasin, owl’s head. This plant is referred to as Blephariglotis ciliaris (L.) Rydb. or Habenaria ciliaris (L.) R. Br. ex Ait., in much of the older literature.

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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Absent

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Ontario (historic) and New Hampshire (historic), south to south Florida, west to Michigan, Missouri, and Texas (Kartesz 1999).

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Ont.; Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Ky., La., Md., Mass., Mich., Miss., Mo., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va., W. Va.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants 24–100 cm. Leaves 2–4, spreading to ascending, gradually to somewhat abruptly reduced to bracts distally; blade lanceolate to lance-elliptic, 5–40 × 0.6–6 cm. Spikes rather dense. Flowers resupinate, showy, orange; dorsal sepal entire or rarely emarginate; lateral sepals reflexed; petals linear to linear-cuneate, margins apically fringed; lip porrect to descending, oblong to broadly ovate-spatulate, without basal thickening, 8–19 × 4–18 mm, margins deeply filiform-fringed; spur slenderly cylindric, rarely slightly clavate, 20–35 mm; rostellum lobes scarcely to markedly curving forward, slightly spreading, angular-elongate; pollinaria with stalks nearly straight to curved forward; pollinia remaining enclosed in anther sacs; viscidia orbiculate; ovary slender, 12–27 mm.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Orchis ciliaris Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 939. 1753; Habenaria ciliaris (Linnaeus) R. Brown
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Tolerant of a wide variety of habitats; from wet, humus areas to dry rocky mountain slopes.

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Moist sandy and peaty meadows, marshes, prairies, pine savannas, open woods, wet wooded flats, seeping slopes, roadsides, dry wooded slopes, sphagnum bogs; 0--1700m.
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Dispersal

Establishment

Yellow-fringed orchids are attractive and easier to grow than most fringed orchids. They do well in either partial shade or full sun. The plants grow in slightly acid soils with a pH from 5 to 6.

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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Orange-Fringed Orchid in Illinois

Platanthera ciliaris (Orange-Fringed Orchid)
(butterflies and Sphinx moths suck nectar; observations are from Smith & Snow; this plant is also called the 'Yellow-Fringed Orchid')

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Danaus plexippus sn; Lycaenidae: Satyrium liparops strigosum sn; Papilionidae: Papilio glaucus sn, Papilio troilus sn fq

Moths
Sphingidae: Hyles lineata sn

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Comments: Frequent in the southeast. In NC and SC it is found in 18 counties in the mountains and approximately 40 counties on the coastal plain.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering (Jun--)Jul--Sep.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Platanthera ciliaris

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Platanthera ciliaris

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NX - Presumed Extirpated

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Widespread and occuring in a variety of habitats. Frequent in the southeast, only becoming rare at the northern edge of its range (McCance and Burns 1984, Homoya 1993, Weakley 2000).

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Status

This plant may be listed as threatened in your state. This rare plant is threatened by loss of habitat, harvesting, and changes in land management practices, such as fire suppression, in much of its native range. It is listed as threatened by many states and is probably locally extinct in Canada. It is also listed in Appendix II of the CITES database of threatened plants. Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status (e.g. threatened or endangered species, state noxious status, and wetland indicator values).

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Threats

Comments: In the northern portion of its range, threatened by shading due to succession, alterations to hydrology, collection, and roadside mowing (McCance and Burns 1984, Homoya 1993).

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Pests and potential problems

The plants need to be protected from slugs, snails, and cutworms.

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Management

Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

These plant materials are not readily available from commercial sources. However, there are specialty growers who are propagating this plant. Do not harvest these plants from the wild as they are threatened throughout most of their range.

Contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service) office for more information. Look in the phone book under ”United States Government.” The Natural Resources Conservation Service will be listed under the subheading “Department of Agriculture.”

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Ethnobotanic: The Cherokee and Seminoles as well as other Native American tribes in the Eastern United States used the yellow-fringed orchid for medicinal and other purposes. The roots were used to make infusions to treat diarrhea. The roots were also used to treat snakebites. A cold infusion of the root was taken to relieve headaches. A piece of the root was used on fishhooks to “make the fish bite better.” In Florida, it was known as “rattle snake’s master” and was used both internally and externally to treat snakebite.

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Wikipedia

Platanthera ciliaris

Platanthera ciliaris, commonly known as the yellow fringed orchid yellow-fringed orchid, or orange-fringed orchid, is a large and showy species of orchid. It grows in "acid soil of hillside seepage bogs" in the longleaf pine landscapes of the Gulf Coast.[1] Like many species in these habitats, including flatwoods, it is dependent upon recurring fire to create open conditions.[2] Further north it is found in bogs, but even here it may be dependent upon fire to create open conditions. [3]

It is pollinated by large butterflies, mostly swallowtails.[1]

The species is at risk in some areas from loss of habitat and collecting. For example, it is endangered in Michigan.[3] It has been recorded from extreme southern Ontario, but is now thought to be extirpated.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Liggio, J. and Liggio, A.O. 1999. Wild Orchids of Texas. University of Texas Press, Austin. 228 p.
  2. ^ Keddy, Paul A. (2008). Water, Earth, Fire: Louisiana's Natural Heritage. Philadelphia: Xlibris. p. 229. ISBN 978-1-4363-6234-4. 
  3. ^ a b M.R. Penskar and S.R. Crispin. 2004. Special plant abstract for Platanthera ciliaris (yellow fringed-orchid). Michigan Natural Features Inventory. Lansing, MI. 3 pp
  4. ^ Oldham, M.J., and S.R. Brinker. 2009. Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario, Fourth Edition. Natural Heritage Information Centre, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Peterborough, Ontario. 188 pp
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Notes

Comments

Selection for longer spurs in response to local pollination pressures on the southeastern Coastal Plain has been documented in Platanthera ciliaris, but the extent of variation is minimal, and the situation does not appear to be comparable to that in P. blephariglottis

 Hybrids of Platanthera ciliaris with P. blephariglottis are P. × bicolor (Rafinesque) Luer and with P. cristata are P. × channellii Folsom; until recently the latter was confused with P. chapmanii (J. P. Folsom 1984).

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