Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Endemic to eastern Texas, Navasota River, in Brazos County. Also in Burleson, Grimes and Navasota Counties.

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Tex.
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Historic Range:
U.S.A. (TX)

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants 15–33 cm. Roots few, spreading to descending, slender to somewhat tuberously thickened, mostly to 0.8 cm diam. Leaves fugaceous, basal, ascending to spreading, linear-lanceolate to somewhat broader. Spikes loosely spiraled, usually 5 flowers per cycle of spiral; rachis moderately to densely pubescent, some trichomes capitate, glands obviously stalked. Flowers horizontal to ascending, white to pale yellowish green, scarcely gaping, urceolate-tubular; sepals distinct to base, 5–8 mm; lateral sepals directed nearly forward, apex straight or apical 1–2 mm curved upward; petals whitish to yellow-green with longitudinal central green stripe, ovate, obovate, or suborbiculate, 4.5–6.7 mm, apex obtuse to emarginate-erose; lip centrally yellow to yellowish or greenish white, ovate to ovate-oblong, 5–7 × 3.8–4.9 mm, apex truncate, obtuse to deeply emarginate, erose-crisped, glabrous; veins several, branches parallel; basal calli incurved to elongate, prominent; viscidia linear-lanceolate; ovary 4–6 mm. Seeds partly or wholly polyembryonic. 2n = 60.
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Margins of post oak (Quercus stellata) woodlands in sandy loams along intermittent tributaries of rivers. Often in areas where edaphic or hydrologic factors (such as high levels of aluminum in the soil or a perched water table) limit competing vegetation in the herbaceous layer. Besides post oak, associated species include water oak (Q. nigra), blackjack oak (Q. marilandica), and yaupon (Ilex vomitoria).

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Dry open to lightly shaded sites in post-oak savanna; of conservation concern; 100m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering Oct--Nov.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N3 - Vulnerable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G3 - Vulnerable

Reasons: Primarily known from 2 river drainages in east-central Texas, with 1 location in east Texas. Although about 100 populations with a total of about 10,000 plants are currently known, many of the sites are threatened by strip mining. Rapid urban expansion has also encroached on some of the species' habitat.

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Current Listing Status Summary

Status: Endangered
Date Listed: 05/06/1982
Lead Region:   Southwest Region (Region 2) 
Where Listed:


Population detail:

Listing status: E

For most current information and documents related to the conservation status and management of Spiranthes parksii, see its USFWS Species Profile

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Threats

Comments: Commercial develpment, lignite mining, cattle grazing, road building and maintenance.

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Wikipedia

Spiranthes parksii

Spiranthes parksii (Navasota Ladies'-tresses) is a species of orchid that is endemic to Texas, United States. The flower was first discovered in 1945 and was first described by Donovan Stewart Correll in his 1950 book, Native Orchids of North America North of Mexico.

Description[edit]

Spiranthes parksii is a slender-stemmed perennial, 8–15 inches (200–380 mm) tall. Leaves are long and thin and found mostly near the ground level, but usually disappear when the flower buds. Flowers petals are round or oval and off-white in color. The flowers typically spiral up the stem. Conspicuously white-tipped bracts occur underneath each 14-inch-long (6.4 mm) flower. The side petals have a green central stripe, and the lip (bottom petal) is distinctly ragged.

Habitat and range[edit]

Navasota ladies-tresses is primarily found in the East Central Texas forests, usually along creeks in the Brazos and Navasota River watersheds. In 1982, when the species was listed as endangered, only two populations were believed to exist, both in Brazos County. Since then, biologists have identified the species in Bastrop, Burleson, Fayette, Freestone, Grimes, Jasper, Leon, Madison, Milam, Robertson, and Washington Counties.[3] The population in Jasper County is disjunct and the only one that occurs in the Piney Woods.[4]

Conservation[edit]

Navasota ladies'-tresses was listed as an endangered species by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in May 1982. The decline of the plant is mostly due to loss of habitat from human encroachment and activity.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Spiranthes parksii - Correll Navasota Ladies'-tresses". NatureServe Explorer. NatureServe. Retrieved 2013-02-08. 
  2. ^ "Taxon: Spiranthes parksii Correll". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2000-03-23. Retrieved 2013-02-08. 
  3. ^ a b "Navasota Ladies'-tresses (Spiranthes parksii)". Texas Parks and Wildlife. Retrieved 2013-02-08. 
  4. ^ Pelchat, Cliff (March 2005). "Spiranthes parksii Correll - Navasota Ladies' Tresses". The McAllen International Orchid Society Journal 6 (2): 9–15. 
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Notes

Comments

The tetraploid chromosome number and apomictic development of polyembryonic seeds indicate that Spiranthes parksii is a member of the S. cernua complex. The broad petals with central green stripe, several veins (instead of the three typical of the group), and erose-emarginate apical margin furthermore evidently represent partial peloria. Peloria is common in S. cernua, especially in the prairies, although in most cases it involves the suppression of the lip rather than the elaboration of the petals to a condition approximating the lip, as is the case in S. parksii. With a very limited distribution in east-central Texas, S. parksii might therefore represent merely a local, minor form of S. cernua. Other characteristics, however, including the small flower size and often upturned lateral sepal apices, lie outside the normal range of variation in S. cernua and suggest that the plants represent a distinct species.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Taxonomy still questionable, possibly a polypoid member of the S. cernua complex, or may be a non-persisting hybrid of S. lacera var. gracilis and S. cernua. This taxon is variable and robust, exhibiting hybrid vigor.

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