Overview

Comprehensive Description

Brief

Flowering class: Monocot Habit: Herb
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General Description

Plants 30-40 cm tall. Rhizome, bearing fascicle roots and leaves. Leaves linear-oblong, 5-15 cm long, becoming much longer in tall grass clumps, 5-8 mm wide, fleshy, apex acute, base truncate in radicle ones and attenuate in cauline ones, with 3 main veins, veinlets reticulate. Peduncle 1-4, glabrous, 10-35 cm tall, with 2-3 sterile bracts; rachis 5-15 cm long, with few to many spirally arranged flowers; floral bracts lanceolate. Flowers white or pink; ovary pale green, curved at apex; sepals narrowly lanceolate, 4.5-5 mm long, dorsal one concave at base, lateral ones oblique and slightly gibbose at base; petals oblanceolate, 3.5-4 mm long; lip separated from column base, oblong when expanded, concave and short clawed at base, bearing 2 clavate calli at each side, erect and slightly inflexed at middle, ovate or rounded at apex, apex recurved, with crispate margins, disc hairy; column erect, clavate, 1.8-2.1 mm long; anther broadly ovoid, 0.7 mm long; pollinia ca. 1mm long; stigma orbicular, slightly convex; rostellum thin, triangular-lanceolate, lower margins toothed; viscidium narrowly oblong.
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Distribution

Range Description

Spiranthes sinensis is one of the most widespread species of orchids, occurring in Europe, Asia and Australia. The natural distribution extends from the Russian Far East through Mongolia, Siberia, Kazakhstan (Nevski 1968) to the Ural Mountains (Ivanova 2001) and reaches Europe in the region of Volga-Kama (Smolianinova 1999) and the Carpathians (Matlai 1984, Protopopova 1996). The species can be found in Georgia in: Kolkheti Sphganum dominated mire, Ispani mire complex, Grigoleti mire (Matchutadze 2001, Mathcutadze 2009, Akhalkatsi et al. 2009).

It reaches Europe in East European Russia and extends western and eastern Siberia, including Kamchatka, Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands, Japan, China, Korea, and to Australia. It is found in these countries of Southeast Asia: Mongolia, Japan, Ryukyu Islands, Korea, China, Taiwan, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, western Himalayas, Pakistan, Assam, India, Sri Lanka, the eastern Himalayas, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, Malaysia, Sumatra, Moluccas, Sulawesi, New Guinea, Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, Philippines, Vanuatu, Tonga and Samoa, New Zealand, and Niue.

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"
Global Distribution

Indo-Malesia to Pacific Islands

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Idukki, Palakkad

"
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Distribution: Widely distributed in the Himalaya region from the foot-hills up to 3700 m; S. E. Asia, E. Rossia, China, Japan, New Guinea, Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand.
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Spiranthes sinensis is occurring in Siberia, China, Japan, Indochina, India, Malay Peninsula and the Philippines southward to New Zealand and Tasmania.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants up to 30-50 cm. Roots narrowly cylindric. Stem slightly flexuous, leafy below. Leaves erect-spreading, linear to lanceolate. Inflorescence with flowers on a spirally twisted, densely glandular-pubescent rachis, rarely arranged in a single row with the tendency of twisting, up to 10-15 cm long. Bracts ovate-lanceolate, the lower slightly exceeding the ovary. Flowers rose to rose-purple, rarely whitish, fragrant. Sepals lanceolate, up to 5 mm long, the dorsal forming a tube with the narrower petals and labellum. The latter sessile, obovate in outline, 4-5 mm long, somewhat constricted in the middle, basal section whitish, with 2 small glands on each side near the column, apical section rose-purple, ± pubescent, with the margin undulate-crispate. Column 2 mm long. Ovary sessile, cylindric-fusiform, bent at apex, ± densely glandular-pubescent.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Terrestrial herbs, to 50 cm tall, with fleshy tuberous roots. Leaves 3-4, radical, 10-18 x 0.5-1 cm, oblanceolate-linear, acute. Flowers yellowish-white, in 20-30 cm long glandular, slender, spirally twisted spikes; bracts 6 x 1.6 mm, lanceolate, acuminate, 3-veined; dorsal sepal oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, 3-veined; lateral sepals subfalcate, linear-oblong, obtuse, 1-veined; petals oblong, obtuse, 1-veined; lip 4 x 2 mm, sides incurved, apex obcordate, papillate, base with 2 fleshy globose calli."
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology

Spiranthes sinensis grows in quite variable ecotopes. It occurs often in disturbed habitats, damp grassland, mosses dominated wet grassland, forest glades, Sphagnum dominated percolation mires and degraded peatland (Matchutadze 2002, Akhalkatsi et al. 2008). It prefers wet, acidic to alkaline substrates. This species grows in full sunlight and flowers from July to August.

In Kolkheti mires peat is created by Sphagnum moss species like: Sphagnum papillosum, Sphganum austinii, Sphagnum rubellum. The Sphagnum convex is mixed with flowering plants. Dominant species are: Molinia litoralis, Rhododendron ponticum, hododendron luteum, Rchynchospora alba, Potentilla arecta, Juncus effusus, Scirpus colchicus,Drosera rotundifolia,Calluna vulgaris, etc.


Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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General Habitat

Grasslands
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Growing in moist grasslands, roadsides, slopes, along rivers; below 3400 m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: April-May
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Flowering from July to August.
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: May-September.
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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

Molecular variations of Spiranthes sinensis Ames var. australis (R.Br.) H. Hara et Kitam. ex Kitam. was examined using the trnL-F sequence. Sequence differences in S. sinensis var. australis from Sabah, Malaysia, clearly differed from that of Japanese S. sinensis var. australis, suggesting genetic heterogeneity of Spiranthes sinensis var. australis in Asia. Molecular analysis based on the sequences of nuclear ITS1 regions indicated that there are two major groups of S. sinensis var. australis in Japan, with a geographic distribution boundary on Kyushu Island (Tsukaya, 2005).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

The chromosomal number of Spiranthes sinensis is 2n = 30 (Terasaka et al., 1979; Martinez, 1985; Aoyama et al., 1992; Rudyka, 1995).
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Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Spiranthes sinensis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Spiranthes sinensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Lansdown, R.V.

Reviewer/s
Smith, K.

Contributor/s
Rankou, H. & Matchutadze, I.

Justification
This species is local but often abundant. The population size is unknown but the species forms large aggregations, except for the northern border of it distribution. The existing threats for the species and the habitats are unlikely to cause the populations to decline quickly in the near future. Therefore, Spiranthes sinensis is assessed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population

Spiranthes sinensis occurs localized but often abundant, forming large aggregations. The population size is unknown but decreasing in the northern part of its distribution area but not in its main part. Spiranthes sinensis is affected by numerous anthropogenic threats including drainage, ploughing, urbanisation, plant collection (Delforge 1995, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008) and fire (Akhalkatsi et al. 2004, Matchutadze 2009).

The population in West Georgia consist of about 500 mature individuals on an area of about 2 ha in Ispani I (a mire degraded by peat extraction and melioration in the past century) (Akhalkatsiet al. 2004)and 300 mature individuals in the adjacent Ispani II (Ramsar site). As there is no distinct boundary, they can be considered as one population. A second small population of 10 mature individuals is located north from Ispani mire complex in Grigoleti mire. A third small population with 100 mature individuals is found in Imnati mire (Central Kolkheti).


Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats

In Georgia, this species is affected by numerous anthropogenic threats including drainage, ploughing, urbanisation, climate change and plant collection (Delforge 1995, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008), fire (Akhalkatsi et al. 2004, Matchutadze 2009).

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

All orchid species are included under Annex B of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

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Wikipedia

Spiranthes sinensis

Spiranthes sinensis, commonly known as the Chinese Spiranthes, is a species of orchid occurring in much of eastern Asia, west to the Himalayas, south and east to New Zealand, and north to Siberia.[1][2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames, Flora of Pakistan
  2. ^ Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames, Digital Flora of Taiwan
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