Spiranthes sinensis is one of the most widespread species of orchids, occurring in Europe, Asia and Australia. The natural distribution extends from the Russian Far East through Mongolia, Siberia, Kazakhstan (Nevski 1968) to the Ural Mountains (Ivanova 2001) and reaches Europe in the region of Volga-Kama (Smolianinova 1999) and the Carpathians (Matlai 1984, Protopopova 1996). The species can be found in Georgia in: Kolkheti Sphganum dominated mire, Ispani mire complex, Grigoleti mire (Matchutadze 2001, Mathcutadze 2009, Akhalkatsi et al. 2009).
It reaches Europe in East European Russia and extends western and eastern Siberia, including Kamchatka, Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands, Japan, China, Korea, and to Australia. It is found in these countries of Southeast Asia: Mongolia, Japan, Ryukyu Islands, Korea, China, Taiwan, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, western Himalayas, Pakistan, Assam, India, Sri Lanka, the eastern Himalayas, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, Malaysia, Sumatra, Moluccas, Sulawesi, New Guinea, Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, Philippines, Vanuatu, Tonga and Samoa, New Zealand, and Niue.
Indo-Malesia to Pacific Islands
State - Kerala, District/s: Idukki, Palakkad"
Habitat and Ecology
Spiranthes sinensis grows in quite variable ecotopes. It occurs often in disturbed habitats, damp grassland, mosses dominated wet grassland, forest glades, Sphagnum dominated percolation mires and degraded peatland (Matchutadze 2002, Akhalkatsi et al. 2008). It prefers wet, acidic to alkaline substrates. This species grows in full sunlight and flowers from July to August.
In Kolkheti mires peat is created by Sphagnum moss species like: Sphagnum papillosum, Sphganum austinii, Sphagnum rubellum. The Sphagnum convex is mixed with flowering plants. Dominant species are: Molinia litoralis, Rhododendron ponticum, hododendron luteum, Rchynchospora alba, Potentilla arecta, Juncus effusus, Scirpus colchicus,Drosera rotundifolia,Calluna vulgaris, etc.
Life History and Behavior
Evolution and Systematics
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Spiranthes sinensis
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Spiranthes sinensis
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
Spiranthes sinensis occurs localized but often abundant, forming large aggregations. The population size is unknown but decreasing in the northern part of its distribution area but not in its main part. Spiranthes sinensis is affected by numerous anthropogenic threats including drainage, ploughing, urbanisation, plant collection (Delforge 1995, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008) and fire (Akhalkatsi et al. 2004, Matchutadze 2009).
The population in West Georgia consist of about 500 mature individuals on an area of about 2 ha in Ispani I (a mire degraded by peat extraction and melioration in the past century) (Akhalkatsiet al. 2004)and 300 mature individuals in the adjacent Ispani II (Ramsar site). As there is no distinct boundary, they can be considered as one population. A second small population of 10 mature individuals is located north from Ispani mire complex in Grigoleti mire. A third small population with 100 mature individuals is found in Imnati mire (Central Kolkheti).
In Georgia, this species is affected by numerous anthropogenic threats including drainage, ploughing, urbanisation, climate change and plant collection (Delforge 1995, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008), fire (Akhalkatsi et al. 2004, Matchutadze 2009).
All orchid species are included under Annex B of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).
Spiranthes sinensis, commonly known as the Chinese Spiranthes, is a species of orchid occurring in much of eastern Asia, west to the Himalayas, south and east to New Zealand, and north to Siberia.
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