Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: AL, AR, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV.

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Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Md., Mass., Miss., Mo., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Y., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va., W.Va.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants 20–65 cm. Roots numerous, spreading, mostly to 1 cm diam., stout. Leaves persisting through anthesis, to 4–5, basal, reduced to sheathing bracts upward on stem, spreading, linear-lanceolate, keeled, 5–25 × 1 cm. Inflorescences: spikes loosely to tightly spiraled, 3–7 or more flowers per cycle of spiral, sometimes nearly secund; rachis densely pubescent, trichomes articulate, pointed, capitate glands absent. Flowers nodding to somewhat ascending, white to cream, mostly gaping; sepals distinct to base, lanceolate, 6–10 × 2–3 mm; lateral sepals spreading; petals oblong, 6–9 × 2 mm, apex obtuse; lip creamy yellow centrally or some individuals with 2 brown-orange spots, ovate, 5–8 × 4 mm; veins of lip straight, branches parallel; basal calli conic, to 1 mm; viscidium linear-lanceolate; ovary mostly 8 mm. Seeds monoembryonic. 2n = 30.
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Diagnostic Description

Spike conspicuously spiraled in a single rank. Leaves narrow (linear lanceolate). Hairs of pubescence pointed. Lip with a yellowish center.

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Synonym

Ibidium vernale (Engelmann & A. Gray) House
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Type Information

Type collection for Gyrostachys reverchonii Small
Catalog Number: US 27783
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. Reverchon
Locality: Dallas, Texas, United States, North America
  • Type collection: Small, J. K. 1898. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 25: 610.
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Ecology

Habitat

--Oct (north). Dry to moist meadows, dune hollows, prairies, old fields, roadsides, cemeteries, lawns; 0--1000m.
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Depth range based on 6 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Spring Ladies' Tresses in Illinois

Spiranthes vernalis (Spring Ladies' Tresses)
(all insects suck nectar; the honeybee is effective at pollination, while the butterfly and skipper are non-pollinating; except for the wasp, observations are from Catling in Georgia, USA; the wasp observation in Rhode Island by another observer is cited by Catling – however, this may involve a misidentification, as this wasp is not known to survive the winters of temperate areas, except in greenhouses and other indoor locations)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn

Wasps
Eurytomidae: Eurytoma orchidearum sn np

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Vanessa virginiensis sn np

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Erynnis zarucco sn np

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General Ecology

Moist open areas, meadows, swales, bogs.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering Jan (Fla.
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Life Cycle

Persistence: PERENNIAL, DECIDUOUS

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Spiranthes vernalis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Spiranthes vernalis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Notes

Comments

The habit of Spiranthes vernalis is variable: inflorescences range from secund to loosely and even densely coiled, and flower shapes vary as well. The most consistent diagnostic character is the presence in inflorescences of copious articulate, pointed trichomes that readily distinguish S. vernalis from similar species.
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