Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Martin and Palm Beach Cos., Fla.; West Indies-Greater Antilles (as O. variegatum).

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Fla.; West Indies (Bahamas).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants to 12 cm (excluding inflorescence). Leaves semiterete 3–10 × 0.4–1 cm. Inflorescences 1–4, erect, to 50 cm, side branches few or none, to 4.5 cm; bracts 2–6 mm. Flowers white with red-brown spots at bases of perianth parts; sepals spatulate, 4–6 × 1–2 mm, apex apiculate; lateral sepals connate to 3/4 length; petals spatulate to pandurate, 5 × 2 mm, apex rounded to retuse, often apiculate; lip with large red-brown spots near yellow callus, 8–12 × 8–13 mm, middle lobe about 1/3 wider than combined lateral lobes, apex retuse-apiculate, isthmus 0.2–0.4 cm wide with serrate margins; callus with 2 sets of tuberculate processes, 3 proximal, broader, 2 distal, smaller; column whitish to pale lavender with yellow base and white to rose-purple column wings 5–6 mm. Capsules 1.5 cm.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Oncidium bahamense Nash ex Britton & Millspaugh, Bahama Fl., 97. 1920; O. variegatum (Swartz) Swartz; O. variegatum subsp. bahamense (Nash ex Britton & Millspaugh) Withner
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Type Information

Isotype for Oncidium bahamense Nash ex Britton & Millsp.
Catalog Number: US 849175
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Status verified from secondary sources
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): L. J. K. Brace
Year Collected: 1905
Locality: Great Bahama Island, Bahamas, West Indies
  • Isotype: Britton, N. L. & Millspaugh, C. F. 1920. Bahama Fl. 97.
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Coastal scrub. Terrestrial becoming epiphytic on scrub species, esp. Ceratiola ericoides, and leaf litter.

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Terrestrial or epiphytic on shrubs and scrub trees in dry thickets; 0--10m.
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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 6 - 80

Comments: Ten recorded occurrences in FL 12/90.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering Apr--Jun.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G3 - Vulnerable

Reasons: Narrow range; narrow habitat requirements; horticultural collecting; uncertain distribution in West Indies.

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Threats

Comments: Highly jeopardized by collectors and development in habitat.

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Management

Biological Research Needs: Species response to successional change and fire.

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Notes

Comments

Tolumnia bahamensis has been regarded by some authors as a synonym or variety of T. variegata (D. S. Correll 1950; C. L. Withner 1980). Flower morphology helps little in the T. variegata complex (J. D. Ackerman and M. Galarza-Pérez 1991); T. bahamensis differs, however, by being a tetraploid (84 chromosomes) and having semiterete leaves. These features also exist in T. sylvestris (G. J. Braem 1986b), a species of eastern Cuba generally found in high elevation pine forests, a habitat somewhat different from that of either Florida or the Bahamas. Whether or not T. sylvestris and T. bahamensis are conspecific awaits further studies.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Distinct species, however, it is not certain whether Florida material is truly this species. Has also been treated in the genus Oncidium.

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