Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Spanish (2) (learn more)

Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Range: S. FL, Cuba, Bahamas, West Indies.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution: Uncommon in the southern and southwestern zone, in dry forests and coastal thickets at lower to middle elevations. Also on St. Thomas, St. John, and Virgin Gorda; Florida, Cuba, and the Bahamas.

Public Forests:Guánica, Maricao, and Susúa.

  • Ackerman, J. D. 1992. The orchids of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.
  • Ackerman, J. D. 1995. An orchid flora of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. Vol. 73: 1-203.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Fla.; West Indies.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Roots usually 1–2 per node, gray, 1–3 mm diam. when aerial, thicker and villous when in contact with substrate, glabrous. Stems occasionally branched, 3–9 mm diam., smooth. Leaves early deciduous; blade broad basally, otherwise narrowly lanceolate, relatively thin, to 4 × 0.8 cm. Inflorescences axillary on short lateral branches, several- to many-flowered racemes, 1.5–6 cm excluding peduncle; floral bracts broadly ovate, 4–12 mm, fleshy. Flowers: sepals and petals green, somewhat spreading, distinct and free; sepals oblong-oblanceolate, 3–4 × 0.9–1.2 cm; petals oblong-oblanceolate, slightly falcate, dorsally keeled, 3–4 × 1–1.3 cm, apex acute to obtuse; lip greenish abaxially, deep red adaxially, shading to white margin, with broad, yellow midrib, overall triangular-obovate, medially thickened, apex 3-lobed, lateral lobes arching over column, orbiculate, margins involute, sinuses 4–5 mm deep, middle lobe reflexed, fleshy; disc with tuft of rigid, retrorse bristles; claw and basal margins adnate to proximal 1/2 of column; column straight, semiterete, 2.3–3.3 cm; pedicellate ovary 3–4.5 cm. Berries pendent, fusiform-cylindric, slightly curved, 7–9 cm × 9–13 mm.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

  • Ackerman, J. D. 1992. The orchids of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.
  • Ackerman, J. D. 1995. An orchid flora of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. Vol. 73: 1-203.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Synonym

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Hammocks.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Mangroves, coastal hammocks, bay tree islands, rocky pinelands; 0--20m.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering Apr--Jun.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Vanilla (genus)

For other uses, see vanilla (disambiguation).

Vanilla, the vanilla orchids, form a flowering plant genus of about 110 species in the orchid family (Orchidaceae). The most widely known member is the Flat-leaved Vanilla (V. planifolia), from which commercial vanilla flavoring is derived. It is the only orchid widely used for industrial purposes (in the food industry and in the cosmetic industry). Another species often grown commercially but not on an industrial scale is the Pompona Vanilla (V. pompona).

This evergreen genus occurs worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions, from tropical America to tropical Asia, New Guinea and West Africa.[1] Five species are known from the contiguous United States, all limited to southern Florida.[2]

Vanilla was known to the Aztecs for its flavoring qualities. The genus was established in 1754 by Plumier, based on J. Miller. The word vanilla, derived from the diminutive of the Spanish word vaina (vaina itself meaning sheath or pod), simply translates as little pod.

Description[edit]

This genus of vine-like plants has a monopodial climbing habitus. They can form long thin stems with a length of more than 35 m, with alternate leaves spread along their length. The short, oblong, dark green leaves of Vanilla are thick and leathery, even fleshy in some species. But there are also a significant number of species that have their leaves reduced to scales or have become nearly or totally leafless and appear to use their green climbing stems for photosynthesis. Long and strong aerial roots grow from each node.

The racemose inflorescences short-lived flowers arise successively on short peduncles from the leaf axils or scales. There may be up to 100 flowers on a single raceme, but usually no more than 20. The flowers are quite large and attractive with white, green, greenish yellow or cream colors. The flowers' sepals and petals are similar. The lip is tubular-shaped and surrounds the long, bristly column, opening up, as the bell of a trumpet, at its apex. The anther is at the top of the column and hangs over the stigma, separated by the rostellum. Most Vanilla flowers have a sweet scent.

Blooming occurs only when the flowers are fully grown. Each flower opens up in the morning and closes late in the afternoon on the same day, never to re-open. If pollination has not occurred meanwhile, it will be shed. The flowers are self-fertile but need pollinators to perform this task. The flowers are presumed to be pollinated by stingless bees (e.g. Melipona) and certain hummingbirds, which visit the flowers primarily for nectar. Hand pollination is the most reliable method in commercially grown Vanilla.

The fruit is termed "vanilla bean", though true beans are fabaceaen eudicots not at all closely related to orchids. Rather, the vanilla fruit is technically an elongate, fleshy and later dehiscent capsule 10–20 cm long. It ripens gradually for 8 to 9 months after flowering, eventually turning black in color and giving off a strong aroma. Each pod contains thousands of minute seeds, and both the pods and seeds within are used to create vanilla flavoring.

Vanilla species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, such as the wooly bear moths Hypercompe eridanus and H. icasia. Vanilla plantations require some sort of tree planting for the orchids to climb up on; off-season or when abandoned, they may serve as habitat for animals of open forest, e.g. on the Comoros for Robert Mertens' Day Gecko (Phelsuma robertmertensi).

Selected species[edit]

The taxonomy of the genus Vanilla is complex.[3]

see List of Vanilla species

This is a partial list of species or synonyms:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. ^ Flora of North America, v 26, p 507, Vanilla
  3. ^ Bory, Séverine; Michel Grisoni, Marie-France Duval and Pascale Besse (July 21, 2007). "Biodiversity and preservation of vanilla: present state of knowledge". Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution (Springer Netherlands) 55 (4): 551–571. doi:10.1007/s10722-007-9260-3. ISSN 1573-5109. 
  4. ^ "GRIN Species Records of Vanilla". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  • Portéres, R. Le Vanillier et la Vanille dans le monde in Bouriquet, G. Encyclopédie Biologique. Vol. 46. Paul Lechavelier, Paris, 1954.
  • Rolfe, R.A. A revision of the genus Vanilla. Kew Bull. 439-478, 1895.
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Notes

Comments

Vanilla barbellata is known in the flora area from several keys in Everglades National Park, Miami, Miami-Dade and Monroe counties, Florida (P. M. Brown 2002).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!