Overview

Comprehensive Description

Brief

Flowering class: Monocot Habit: Herb
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Distribution

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Global Distribution

Cultivated throughout SE Asia

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Kottayam, Malappuram, Pathanamthitta, Alappuzha, Kollam, Idukki, Thiruvananthapuram, Thrissur, Wayanad, Ernakulam

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Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan [India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam].
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Rhizomes tuberous. Pseudostems ca. 2 m. Ligule suborbicular, ca. 5 mm; petiole ca. 6 mm; leaf blade oblong or lanceolate, 25--35 × 6--10 cm, glabrous or abaxially pubescent, base attenuate, apex acute or acuminate. Panicles ca. 20 × 30 cm; rachis glabrous or pubescent; branches many, 2--4 cm, 3--6-flowered; bracts and bracteoles persistent; bracteoles lanceolate, 5--8 mm. Flowers green-white, fragrant. Calyx tubular, 6--10 mm, persistent. Corolla tube 6--10 mm; lobes oblong, 1.6--1.8 cm. Lateral staminodes purple, subulate or linear, 2--10 mm. Labellum white with red lines, obovate-spatulate, ca. 2 cm, apex deeply 2-cleft. Filament ca. 1 cm; anther ca. 7 mm. Capsule brown or red when dry, oblong, slightly contracted at middle, 1--1.5 cm × ca. 7 mm, thin, glabrous. Seeds 3--6. Fl. May--Aug, fr. Sep--Nov.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Aromatic perennial; root stock cylindric. Leafy stem to 2 m high, many. Leaves 40-65 x 8-13 cm, oblong-lanceolate, base cuneate, apex acute; petiole c. 5 mm long; ligule 6-7 mm long. Inflorescence terminal on the leaf shoot, dense-flowered; peduncle densely pubescent. Flowers c. 4 cm long, shortly pedicellate; bracts 2-2.5 x 0.5-0.8 cm, membranous; bracteoles c. 1.5 cm long. Calyx c. 1 cm long, cylindrical, split on one side, greenish-white. Corolla tube c. 1.2 cm long, greenish-white; lobes unequal, spreading, pubescent. Labellum c. 2 cm long, white, with a few oblique, lilac lines on either side of the midrib on the upper surface, base clawed, margins wavy, apex emarginate. Lateral staminodes 4-5 mm long, subulate. Anther 6-8 mm long; filament 1.2-1.5 cm long. Epigynous glands 2. Ovary c. 3 mm long, ellipsoid. Fruit c. 1 cm across, globose,orange-red."
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

Widely cultivated
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Forests, scrub, grasslands; 100--1300 m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: April-December
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Alpinia galanga

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Alpinia galanga

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 13
Specimens with Barcodes: 32
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Rhizome: In an infusion to remedy stomach cramps and dysentery.

  • Maas, P.J.M. 1985. Family 193. Zingiberaceae, pp. 29-67. In: Gorts-van Rijn, A.R.A., ed., Flora of the Guianas. Koenigstein, Germany: Koeltz Scientific Books.
  • May, A.F. 1982. Surinaams Kruidenboek (Sranan Oso Dresi). 80 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Vaco; and Zutphen, The Netherlands: De Walburg Pers.

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Uses

Medicinal
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Wikipedia

Alpinia galanga

A. galanga plant

Alpinia galanga, (also Languas galanga),[1] a plant in the ginger family, is an herb used in cooking, especially in Indonesian and Thai cuisines. It is one of four plants known as galangal, and is differentiated from the others with the common name greater galangal (or simply Thai galangal). The galangals are also called blue ginger or Thai ginger.

A. galanga is called laos in Indonesian and is the most common form of galangal used in cooking. It is also known as lengkuas and galanga root. In Manipuri, it is known as kanghu. Myanmar call "Pa De Kaw" (ပတဲေကာ).

Description[edit]

The plant grows from rhizomes in clumps of stiff stalks up to two meters in height with abundant long leaves which bears red fruit. It is native to South Asia and Indonesia. It is cultivated in Malaysia, Laos, and Thailand. A. galanga is the galangal used most often in cookery. The robust rhizome has a sharp, sweet taste and smells like a blend of black pepper and pine needles. The red fruit is used in traditional Chinese medicine and has a flavor similar to cardamom.

Known as chittarattai in Tamil, this form of ginger is used with licorice root, called in Tamil athi-mathuram (Glycyrrhiza glabra) as folk cure for colds and sore throats.

Culinary uses[edit]

The rhizome is a common ingredient in Thai curries and soups, where it is used fresh in chunks or cut into thin slices, mashed and mixed into curry paste. Indonesian rendang is usually spiced with galangal.[citation needed]

Traditional medicine[edit]

Under the names 'Chewing John', 'Little John to Chew', and 'Court Case Root', it is used in African American folk medicine and hoodoo folk magic.[citation needed]

Ayurveda considers Alpinia galanga (Sanskrit:-Rasna) as a Vata Shamana drug. Rasnerandadi kashayam,Maharasnadi Kashayam,Rasnadi Choornam are a few among the classical Ayurvedic Medicinal Preparations.

Potential pharmacology[edit]

The rhizome has been shown to have weak antimalarial activity in mice.[2]

Chemical constituents[edit]

Alpinia galanga rhizome contains the flavonol galangin.[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Duke, James A.; Bogenschutz-Godwin, Mary Jo; duCellier, Judi; Peggy-Ann K. Duke (2002). Handbook of Medicinal Herbs (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 350. ISBN 0-8493-1284-1. Retrieved 1 March 2011. 
  2. ^ Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H.; Nor, Zurainee M.; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Mahmud, Rohela (2010). "Median Lethal Dose, Antimalarial Activity, Phytochemical Screening and Radical Scavenging of Methanolic Languas galanga Rhizome Extract". Molecules 15 (11): 8366–76. doi:10.3390/molecules15118366. PMID 21081857. 
  3. ^ Kaur, A; Singh, R; Dey, CS; Sharma, SS; Bhutani, KK; Singh, IP (2010). "Antileishmanial phenylpropanoids from Alpinia galanga (Linn.) Willd". Indian journal of experimental biology 48 (3): 314–7. PMID 21046987. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Van Wyk, Ben-Erik (2005). Food Plants of the World. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 0-88192-743-0
  • Greater galangal
  • Scheffer, J.J.C. & Jansen, P.C.M., 1999. Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd.[Internet] Record from Proseabase. de Guzman, C.C. and Siemonsma, J.S. (Editors). PROSEA (Plant Resources of South-East Asia) Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. [1]
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Notes

Common Names

Surinam Javan: laos.

  • Maas, P.J.M. 1985. Family 193. Zingiberaceae, pp. 29-67. In: Gorts-van Rijn, A.R.A., ed., Flora of the Guianas. Koenigstein, Germany: Koeltz Scientific Books.
  • May, A.F. 1982. Surinaams Kruidenboek (Sranan Oso Dresi). 80 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Vaco; and Zutphen, The Netherlands: De Walburg Pers.

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