Overview

Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Amomum subulatum Roxb.:
Burma (Asia)
Bangladesh (Asia)
Bhutan (Asia)
India (Asia)
Nepal (Asia)
China (Asia)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Guangxi, Xizang, Yunnan [Bangladesh, Bhutan, N India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sikkim].
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E. Himalaya (Nepal to Sikkim), N. India.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Elevation Range

1000-2000 m
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Description

Plants 1--2 m tall. Ligule 3--4 mm, membranous, apex rounded, emarginate; petiole absent or nearly so on proximal leaves, 1--3 cm on distal ones; leaf blade oblong-lanceolate, 25--60 × 3.5--11 cm, glabrous, base rounded or cuneate, apex long cuspidate. Spikes subturbinate, ca. 5 cm in diam.; peduncle 0.5--4.5 cm, scalelike sheaths brown; bracts pale red, ovate, ca. 3 cm, apex obtuse with horny cusp; bracteoles tubular, ca. 3 cm, apex acute, emarginate. Calyx glabrous, 3-cleft to middle; lobes subulate. Corolla tube equaling calyx; lobes yellow, central one subulate at apex. Lateral staminodes red, subulate, ca. 2 mm. Labellum with yellow midvein, oblong, ca. 3 cm, white pubescent, veins conspicuous, apex involute. Filament ca. 5 mm; anther ca. 1 cm; connective appendage elliptic, entire, ca. 4 mm. Capsule purple or red-brown, globose, 2--2.5 cm in diam., with 10 undulate wings, apex with persistent calyx. Fl. May--Jun, fr. Jun--Sep. 2 n = 48.
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Ecology

Habitat

Dense forests; 300--1300 m.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Amomum subulatum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Wikipedia

Black cardamom

Black cardamom, also known as hill cardamom,[1] Bengal cardamom,[1] greater cardamom,[1] Indian cardamom,[1] Nepal cardamom,[1] winged cardamom,[1] or brown cardamom, comes from either of two species in the family Zingiberaceae. Its seed pods have a strong camphor-like flavor, with a smoky character derived from the method of drying.

Characteristics[edit]

The pods are used as a spice, in a similar manner to the green Indian cardamom pods, but with a different flavor. Unlike green cardamom, this spice is rarely used in sweet dishes. Its smoky flavor and aroma derive from traditional methods of drying over open flames.

Species[edit]

At least two distinct species of black cardamom occur: Amomum subulatum (also known as Nepal cardamom) and A. costatum. The pods of A. subulatum, used primarily in the cuisines of India and certain regional cuisines of Pakistan, are the smaller of the two, while the larger pods of A. costatum (Chinese: wiktionary:草果; pinyin: cǎoguǒ; Vietnamese: thảo quả) are used in Chinese cuisine, particularly that of Sichuan; and Vietnamese cuisine.

Culinary uses[edit]

Black cardamom is often erroneously[2] described as an inferior substitute for green cardamom by those unfamiliar with the spice; actually, it is just not as well suited for the sweet/hot dishes which typically include cardamom, and that are more commonly prepared outside the plant's native range. Black cardamom, by contrast, is better for hearty meat stews and similar dishes. Although the flavor differs from the smaller green cardamom, black cardamom is sometimes used by large-scale commercial bakers because of its low cost.[citation needed]


In China, the pods are used for jin-jin braised meat dishes, particularly in the cuisine of the central-western province of Sichuan. The pods are also often used in Vietnam, where they are called thảo quả and used as an ingredient in the broth for the noodle soup called phở.

The largest producer of the black cardamom is Nepal, followed by India and Bhutan. In traditional Chinese medicine, black cardamom is used for stomach disorders and malaria.[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Notes

Comments

Tong (Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 18: 140. 1998) referred the plants treated in FRPS as Amomum subulatum to A. glabrum. However, one of us (Wu) notes that the species was correctly identified in FRPS, except for the illustration (pl. 46, f. 1--7), which depicts A. glabrum.
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