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Overview

Brief Summary

Introduction

The pineapple is a popular exotic fruit that is often used in the preparation of tropical cocktails, appetisers, desserts, and in cooking.It was first discovered by the Tupi-Guaraní Indian tribe, and then in 1493 on Guadaloupe Island off the coast of Mexico during the second voyage of Christopher Columbus.It was first named pineapple in 1498 by European explorers, who noticed its resemblance to the reproductive organs (pine cones) of conifer trees. But it was classified by Carl von Linnaeus as Bromelia comosa L., and then in 1917 Elmer Drew Merril renamed the plant Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.Ananas comosus is the most economically important plant in the family Bromeliaceae. The family is divided into 3 subfamilies:
  • Pitcairnioideae
  • Tillandsioideae
  • Bromelioideae
A. comosus belongs to the subfamily Bromelioideae.
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Taxonomy

The Paraná-Paraguay river drainage basin is thought to be the region where the pineapple originated. It was also the home of the Tupi-Guaraní Indian tribe.In the scientific binomial Ananas comosus has the following etymology:
  • Ananas comes from the Tupi word nanas, meaning ‘excellent fruit’, as recorded by André Thevet in 1555
  • comosus means tufted, and refers to the stem of the fruit
The pineapple is a perennial monocotyledonous plant with terminal inflorescence and fruit.The hermaphrodite flowers are trimerous, they have:
  • 3 sepals
  • 3 petals
  • 6 stamens
  • 1 tricarpellary pistil with an inferior ovary
The placenta and ovules are located in 3 deep cavities called locules.Flowers are normally self sterile and fruit development is parthenocarpic (meaning fruit is produced without fertilisation of ovules, leading to sterile, seedless fruit).The fruit consists of up to 200 berry-like fruitlets which are fused together on a central axis that is the continuation of the fibrous peduncle.Most of the floral tissue and the tissue of the central cylinder turns fleshy and becomes edible. As soon as this process is complete, it is no longer possible to distinguish between different types of tissue. The outside surface of each individual fruitlet forms the ‘eyes’ of the pineapple.
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Comprehensive Description

Derivation of specific name

comosus: with tufts formed from hairs, leaves or flowers
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Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Biology

Pineapple belongs to the Bromeliaceae family. Members of this ecologically interesting group have adapted to life in hot and dry climates. Even in a ground plant like pineapple (most of the bromeliads are epiphytes), there are some signs of this adaptation, these are:
  • stomata specially adapted to prevent water loss
  • optimum recovery of minimum precipitation
  • absorption of water and mineral elements by leaves
  • relative fragility of root system
  • crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) - a special way of absorbing CO2 common in plants adapted to arid conditions
Pineapples can survive periods of drought thanks to CAM. This ability was a key factor in the pineapple’s successful dispersion around the world.It is relatively easy to propagate pineapples under cultivated conditions. The top of the pineapple can be planted in soil and a new plant will grow. Slips and suckers are planted commercially.Pollination is required for seed formation. However, seeds are unwanted, just like in bananas or grapes. In Hawaii, where pineapple is cultivated on an agricultural scale, the import of hummingbirds is prohibited to reduce pollination.In commercial farming, flowering can be induced artificially, and early harvesting of the main fruit encourages a second crop of smaller fruits to develop.
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Unknown in the wild, but grown worldwide in tropical areas, mainly between the latitudes 24 degrees N and 25 degrees S. and occasionally persisting after cultivation.

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Worldwide distribution

Native of S America, possibly Paraguay, but domesticated for many centuries
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Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Cultivated in warm countries.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Leaves sword-shaped, margin coarsely and laxly spinose serrate. Scape short. Inflorescence many flowered; floral bracts inconspicuous, margin serrulate or entire. Flowers numerous. Sepals free, slightly asymmetric, apex obtuse. Petals violet or reddish, free but connivent and tubelike. Stamens included. Syncarp globose, ovoid, or elongate, 15 cm or longer at maturity, becoming fleshy and fragrant. Seeds absent or very rare.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Bromelia comosa Linnaeus, Herb. Amb. 21. 1754; B. ananas Linnaeus.
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Warm Temperate Moist (without frost) to Tropical Very Dry to Wet Forest Life Zones. Thrive in climates that are uniformly warm on sandy loam, mildly acidic and medium fertility. Survives in a wide range of rainfall conditions, from 60-410 cm, 100-150 being ideal.

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Habitat & Distribution

Cultivated. Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan, S Yunnan [native to South America].
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General Ecology

All members of A. comosus are cultigens with no wild ancestral forms. Propagation is mainly vegetative. Since pineapples flower erratically, forcing of flowers and subsequent fruiting with plant hormones is common

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Distribution ecology

Pineapple plants probably originated in the Paraná-Paraguay river drainages.In 1980, Leal et al. suggested that the centre of origin is an area located between 10° N to 10° S and 55° to 75° W, because the flora of this region is endemic and a large number of economically important species are found there.The first European to see and taste the pineapple was Christopher Columbus, on Guadalupe Island off the coast of Mexico, during his second voyage in 1493. It was not until 1719 that pineapples were successfully established in England, in greenhouses.The Spanish took it to the Philippines, Hawaii, Zimbabwe, and Guam during the early 16th century, and reached India and the east and west coasts of Africa by 1548.Even though it wasn’t introduced to Hawaii until 1813, by 1892 it became a major export out of these islands.Southeast Asia still dominates the world production of pineapple.
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Persistence: ANNUAL, Short-lived

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Ananas comosus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ananas comosus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GU - Unrankable

Reasons: Native to American Tropics (possibly to the Parana-Paraguay Basin) now cultivated principally at lower altitudes in Hawaii, Australia, Phillipines, South Africa, Caribbean, and Central America.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Uses: FOOD, Fruit, Beverage (alcoholic)

Production Methods: Cultivated

Comments: There are many species of Ananas that are cultivated, collected and related to Ananas comosus. The fruit of this species was first consumed by people native to South America. Other uses include:

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Uses

Today, pineapple ranks among the most widely cultivated tropical fruits, growing best between 25° N and S latitude where rainfall ranges from 1,000 to 1,500mm.Fruits are often eaten fresh, but much of the commercial harvest is canned. Parts of the plant are used as cattle food playing an important role in the economy of the producer countries.Ananas comosus has medicinal uses attributed to the presence of bromelain, a proteolytic enzyme. It is currently marketed under the name Ananase to treat inflammation and related pain.Sweetened juice promotes digestion and prevents sea sickness according to some users in Venezuela.Serotonin, a vasoconstrictor, is also present in this fruit.Many activities are attributed to pineapple fruit including:
  • antihelmintic (vermifuge)
  • antiscorbutic (treatment for scurvy)
  • cholagogic (promotes flow of bile)
  • decongestant
  • diaphoretic (causes perspiration)
  • diuretic
  • ebolic (smooth muscle stimulant)
  • purgative
  • refrigerant (relieving fever or producing cooling sensation)
Philippine natives fashion a fine cloth from Ananas comosus fibres. Coarser fibres are used in the manufacture of ropes.Pineapple fibre can also be used to make pulp for paper.A fermented beverage is made from pineapple fruits in Panama, Venezuela and throughout much of Amazonia.Ananas comosus is also used to produce cosmetics and creams.
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Wikipedia

Pineapple

For other uses, see Pineapple (disambiguation).

The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries,[2] and the most economically significant plant in the Bromeliaceae family.[3] Pineapples may be cultivated from a crown cutting of the fruit,[4] possibly flowering in 20–24 months and fruiting in the following six months.[4][5] Pineapple does not ripen significantly post-harvest.[6]

Pineapples are consumed fresh, cooked, juiced, and preserved, and are found in a wide array of cuisines. In addition to consumption, in the Philippines the pineapple's leaves are used to produce the textile fiber piña- employed as a component of wall paper and furnishings, amongst other uses.[7]

Etymology[edit]

Pineapple and its cross section
A pineapple flower in Iriomote, Japan

The word "pineapple" in English was first recorded in 1398, when it was originally used to describe the reproductive organs of conifer trees (now termed pine cones). The term "pine cone" for the reproductive organ of conifer trees was first recorded in 1694. When European explorers discovered this tropical fruit in the Americas, they called them "pineapples" (first so referenced in 1664 due to resemblance to what is now known as the pine cone).[8][9]

In the scientific binomial Ananas comosus, ananas, the original name of the fruit, comes from the Tupi word nanas, meaning "excellent fruit",[10] as recorded by André Thevet in 1555, and comosus, "tufted", refers to the stem of the fruit. Other members of the Ananas genus are often called "pine", as well, in other languages. In Spanish, pineapples are called piña ("pine cone"), or ananá (ananás) (example, the piña colada drink).

Botany[edit]

Pineapple in the starting stage

The pineapple is a herbaceous perennial which grows to 1.0 to 1.5 meters (3.3 to 4.9 ft) tall, although sometimes it can be taller. In appearance, the plant itself has a short, stocky stem with tough, waxy leaves. When creating its fruit, it usually produces up to 200 flowers, although some large-fruited cultivars can exceed this. Once it flowers, the individual fruits of the flowers join together to create what is commonly referred to as a pineapple. After the first fruit is produced, side shoots (called 'suckers' by commercial growers) are produced in the leaf axils of the main stem. These may be removed for propagation, or left to produce additional fruits on the original plant.[4] Commercially, suckers that appear around the base are cultivated. It has 30 or more long, narrow, fleshy, trough-shaped leaves with sharp spines along the margins that are 30 to 100 centimeters (1.0 to 3.3 ft) long, surrounding a thick stem. In the first year of growth, the axis lengthens and thickens, bearing numerous leaves in close spirals. After 12 to 20 months, the stem grows into a spike-like inflorescence up to 15 cm (6 in) long with over 100 spirally arranged, trimerous flowers, each subtended by a bract. Flower colors vary, depending on variety, from lavender, through light purple to red.

The ovaries develop into berries which coalesce into a large, compact, multiple accessory fruit. The fruit of a pineapple is arranged in two interlocking helices, eight in one direction, thirteen in the other, each being a Fibonacci number.[11]

Pineapple carries out CAM photosynthesis, fixing carbon dioxide at night and storing it as the acid malate and then releasing it during the day, aiding photosynthesis.

Pollination[edit]

Seed formation needs pollination, but the presence of seeds harms the quality of the fruit. In Hawaii, where pineapple is cultivated on an agricultural scale, importation of hummingbirds is prohibited for this reason.[12] Certain bat-pollinated wild pineapples open their flowers only at night.

Culinary uses[edit]

Pineapple, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy209 kJ (50 kcal)
13.12 g
Sugars9.85 g
Dietary fiber1.4 g
0.12 g
0.54 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(7%)
0.079 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(3%)
0.032 mg
Niacin (B3)
(3%)
0.5 mg
(4%)
0.213 mg
Vitamin B6
(9%)
0.112 mg
Folate (B9)
(5%)
18 μg
Choline
(1%)
5.5 mg
Vitamin C
(58%)
47.8 mg
Trace metals
Calcium
(1%)
13 mg
Iron
(2%)
0.29 mg
Magnesium
(3%)
12 mg
Manganese
(44%)
0.927 mg
Phosphorus
(1%)
8 mg
Potassium
(2%)
109 mg
Sodium
(0%)
1 mg
Zinc
(1%)
0.12 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Pineapple Juice

The flesh and juice of the pineapple are used in cuisines around the world. In many tropical countries, pineapple is prepared, and sold on roadsides as a snack. It is sold whole, or in halves with a stick inserted. Whole, cored slices with a cherry in the middle are a common garnish on hams in the West. Chunks of pineapple are used in desserts such as fruit salad, as well as in some savory dishes, including pizza toppings and a grilled ring on a hamburger.[13][14] Crushed pineapple is used in yogurt, jam, sweets, and ice cream. The juice of the pineapple is served as a beverage, and is also as a main ingredient in such cocktails as the piña colada.

Nutrition[edit]

Raw pineapple is an excellent source of manganese (76% daily value (DV) in a one US cup serving) and vitamin C (131% DV per cup serving).[15] Mainly from its stem, pineapple contains a proteolytic enzyme, bromelain, which breaks down protein. If having sufficient bromelain content, raw pineapple juice may be used as a meat marinade and tenderizer. Pineapple enzymes can interfere with the preparation of some foods, such as jelly and other gelatin-based desserts, but would be destroyed during cooking and canning. The quantity of bromelain in the fruit is probably not significant, being mostly in the inedible stalk. Furthermore, an ingested enzyme like bromelain is unlikely to survive intact the proteolytic processes of digestion.

History[edit]

Charles II presented with the first pineapple grown in England (1675 painting by Hendrik Danckerts)

The plant is indigenous to South America and is said to originate from the area between southern Brazil and Paraguay; however, little is known about the origin of the domesticated pineapple (Pickersgill, 1976). M.S. Bertoni (1919)[16] considered the ParanáParaguay River drainages to be the place of origin of A. comosus.[17] The natives of southern Brazil and Paraguay spread the pineapple throughout South America, and it eventually reached the Caribbean, Central America and Mexico, where it was cultivated by the Mayas and the Aztecs. Columbus encountered the pineapple in 1493 on the leeward island of Guadeloupe. He called it piña de Indes, meaning "pine of the Indians,"[18] and brought it back with him to Europe[19] thus making the pineapple the first bromeliad to leave the New World.[20] The Spanish introduced it into the Philippines, Hawaii (introduced in the early 19th century, first commercial plantation 1886), Zimbabwe and Guam. The fruit is said to have been first introduced in Hawaii when a Spanish ship brought it there in the 1500s.[21] The fruit was cultivated successfully in European hothouses, and pineapple pits, beginning in 1720.

John Kidwell is credited with the introduction of the pineapple industry to Hawaii. Large-scale pineapple cultivation by US companies began in the early 1900s on Hawaii. Among the most famous and influential pineapple industrialists was James Dole who moved to Hawaii in 1899[22] and started a pineapple plantation in 1900.[23] The companies Dole and Del Monte began growing pineapple on the island of Oahu in 1901 and 1917, respectively. Dole's pineapple company began with the acquisition of 60 acres (24 ha) of land in 1901, and has grown into a major company. Maui Pineapple Company began pineapple cultivation on the island of Maui in 1909.[24] In 2006, Del Monte announced its withdrawal from pineapple cultivation in Hawaii, leaving only Dole and Maui Pineapple Company in Hawaii as the US's largest growers of pineapples.

In the US, in 1986, the Pineapple Research Institute was dissolved and its assets were divided between Del Monte and Maui Land and Pineapple. Del Monte took variety 73–114, which it dubbed MD-2, to its plantations in Costa Rica, found it to be well-suited to growing there, and launched it publicly in 1996. (Del Monte also began marketing 73–50, dubbed CO-2, as Del Monte Gold). In 1997, Del Monte began marketing its Gold Extra Sweet pineapple, known internally as MD-2. MD-2 is a hybrid that originated in the breeding program of the now-defunct Pineapple Research Institute in Hawaii, which conducted research on behalf of Del Monte, Maui Land and Pineapple Company, and Dole.

Cultivation[edit]

Pineapple production – 2009
CountryProduction
(kilotonnes)
 Brazil2206
 Philippines2198
 Thailand1894
 Costa Rica1682
 Indonesia1558
 India1341
 China1042
 Nigeria1000
 Mexico749
 Vietnam500
 Taiwan434
Source: UN FAOSTAT [25]

In 2009, Brazil produced 2,206,492 tonnes, closely followed by the Philippines, which produced 2,198,497 tonnes, and Thailand, 1,894,862 tonnes. Total world production in 2009 was 19,488,240 tonnes. The primary exporters of fresh pineapples in 2001 were Costa Rica, 322,000 tons; Côte d'Ivoire, 188,000 tons; and the Philippines, 135,000 tons.[25] Since 2000, the most common fresh pineapple fruit found in U.S. and European supermarkets is a low-acid hybrid that was developed in Hawaii in the early 1970s.[citation needed]

In commercial farming, flowering can be induced artificially, and the early harvesting of the main fruit can encourage the development of a second crop of smaller fruits. Once removed during cleaning, the top of the pineapple can be planted in soil and a new plant will grow. Slips and suckers are planted commercially.

An unripe pineapple from Nepal 
A pineapple field in Ghana 
Pineapple field, Hawaii (1958) 
Red pineapple
Ornamental pineapple

Ethical and environmental concerns[edit]

Three-quarters of pineapples sold in Europe are grown in Costa Rica, where pineapple production is highly industrialised. Growers typically use 20 kg of pesticides per hectare in each growing cycle,[26] a process that may affect soil quality and biodiversity. The pesticides – organophosphates, organochlorines and hormone disruptors – have the potential to affect workers' health and can contaminate local drinking water supplies.[26] Many of these chemicals have potential to be carcinogens, and may be related to birth defects.[26]

Because of commercial pressures, many pineapple workers – 60% of whom are Nicaraguan – in Costa Rica are paid low wages.[quantify] European supermarkets' price-reduction policies have lowered growers' incomes.[26] One major pineapple producer contests these claims.[27]

Cultivars[edit]

There are many cultivars. The leaves of the commonly grown "smooth cayenne" are smooth[28] and it is the most commonly grown worldwide. Many cultivars have become distributed from its origins in Paraguay and the southern part of Brazil,[19] and later improved stocks were introduced into the Americas, the Azores, Africa, India, Malaysia and Australia. Varieties include:

  • 'Hilo': a compact 1–1.5 kg (2–3 lb) Hawaiian variant of smooth cayenne, the fruit is more cylindrical and produces many suckers, but no slips.
  • 'Kona sugarloaf': 2.5–3 kg (5–6 lb), white flesh with no woodiness in the center, cylindrical in shape, it has a high sugar content but no acid, an unusually sweet fruit.
  • 'Natal queen': 1–1.5 kg (2–3 lb), golden yellow flesh, crisp texture and delicate mild flavor, well-adapted to fresh consumption, keeps well after ripening, spiny leaves, grown in Australia, Malaysia, and South Africa
  • 'Pernambuco' ('eleuthera'): 1–2 kg (2–4 lb) with pale yellow to white flesh, sweet, melting and excellent for eating fresh, poorly adapted for shipping, spiny leaves, grown in Latin America
  • 'Red Spanish': 1–2 kg (2–4 lb), pale yellow flesh with pleasant aroma, squarish in shape, well-adapted for shipping as fresh fruit to distant markets, spiny leaves, grown in Latin America
  • 'Smooth cayenne': 2.5–3 kg (5–6 lb), pale yellow to yellow flesh, cylindrical in shape, high sugar and acid content, well-adapted to canning and processing, leaves without spines, this is the variety from Hawaii, and the most easily obtainable in US grocery stores. Both 73–114 and 73-50 are of this cultivar.
  • Some Ananas species are grown as ornamentals for color, novel fruit size and other esthetic qualities.

Traditional medicine and preliminary research[edit]

Both the root and fruit may be eaten or applied topically as an anti-inflammatory or as a proteolytic agent. In some practices, it may be used to induce abortion or menstruation[29] or as an antihelminthic agent.[30]

Bromelain purified from pineapple stem or fresh juice, then provided in the diet over six months, decreased the severity of colonic inflammation in mice with experimental colitis.[31]

Bromelain from pineapple has some potential against cancer mechanisms, as laboratory research showed that it causes autophagy in mammary carcinoma cells, stimulating turnover of MCF-7 cells through apoptosis.[32]

Pests and diseases[edit]

Pineapples are subject to a variety of diseases, the most serious of which is wilt disease vectored by mealybugs[33] typically found on the surface of pineapples, but possibly in the closed blossom cups. Other diseases include pink disease, bacterial heart rot, anthracnose,[33] fungal heart rot, root rot, black rot, butt rot, fruitlet core rot, and yellow spot virus.[34] Pink disease is characterized by the fruit developing a brownish to black discoloration when heated during the canning process. The causal agents of pink disease are the bacteria Acetobacter aceti, Gluconobacter oxydans, and Pantoea citrea.[35]

Some pests that commonly affect pineapple plants are scales, thrips, mites, mealybugs, ants, and symphylids.[34]

Storage and transport[edit]

Some buyers prefer green fruit, others ripened or off-green. A plant growth regulator, Ethephon, is typically sprayed onto the fruit one week before harvest, developing ethylene, which turns the fruit golden yellow. After cleaning and slicing, a pineapple is typically canned in sugar syrup with added preservative.[citation needed]

A pineapple will never become any riper than it was when harvested,[36] though a fully ripe pineapple can bruise and rot quickly.

The fruit itself is quite perishable and if it is stored at room temperature, it should be used within two days; however, if it is refrigerated, the time span extends to five to seven days.[37]

Marketing[edit]

Pineapple prepared for sale in Haikou, Hainan, China. 
Queen Formosa, one of the Philippines' sweetest pineapples.[38] 
Queen Formosa tidbits for retail. 
A basket of pineapples displayed in a Singapore supermarket. 
Pineapples on a fruit stand in Cagayan de Oro, Philippines
Video of pineapple being prepared by a roadside vendor in Haikou City, Hainan, China. It will sell for 2 RMB (about 30 US cents). This method of preparation is common across the world. 

Usage in culture[edit]

In the Caribbean, Europe and North America, the pineapple became associated with the return of ships from extended voyages, and an emblem of welcome and hospitality that made its way into contemporary art.[39][40]

In the television show Psych, the writers have included a pineapple in every episode as a running joke, and there's a website dedicated to compiling a list of every pineapple.[41]

In the American cartoon SpongeBob SquarePants, SpongeBob's home is a pineapple under the sea.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 25 July 2014. 
  2. ^ "Pineapple Definition | Definition of Pineapple at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 6 December 2009. 
  3. ^ Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge, Geo; Freddy Leal (2003). "Chapter 2: Morphology, Anatomy, and Taxonomy". In D.P Bartholomew, R.E. Paull, and K.G. Rohrbach. The Pineapple: Botany, Production, and Uses. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 0-85199-503-9. 
  4. ^ a b c "How to grow a pineapple in your home". Pineapple Working Group-International Horticultural Society. Retrieved 15 August 2010. 
  5. ^ "Pineapple Growing". Tropical Permaculture.com (Birgit Bradtke). Retrieved 15 August 2010. [dead link]
  6. ^ "Pineapple". Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. 
  7. ^ piña cloth – definition of piña cloth by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia. Thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved on 2 October 2011.
  8. ^ Oxford English Dictionary entries for pineapple and pine cones, 1971.
  9. ^ History of the Pineapple.
  10. ^ Davidson A. (2008) The Penguin Companion to Food. Penguin Books.
  11. ^ Jones, Judy; William Wilson (2006). "Science". An Incomplete Education. Ballantine Books. p. 544. ISBN 978-0-7394-7582-9. 
  12. ^ Hawaii.gov, list of prohibited animals. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2 October 2011.
  13. ^ "The Counter: Custom Built Burgers: Menu". The Counter, Culver City, CA. 2014. Archived from the original on 22 April 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014. 
  14. ^ "The Menu Charburgers: Habit Burger". The Habit Burger Grill, Irvine, CA. 2014. Archived from the original on 13 February 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014. 
  15. ^ "Nutrient data for pineapple, raw, all varieties, per 100 g serving". Nutritiondata.com, USDA SR-21. Retrieved 1 March 2012. 
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Further reading[edit]

  • Francesca Beauman, 'The Pineapple', ISBN 0-7011-7699-7, publisher Chatto and Windus
  • Menzel, Christopher. "Tropical and Subtropical Fruit." Encyclopedia of Agricultural Science—Volume 4. Charles J. Arntzen. New York, NY: Academic Press, 1994. 380–382.
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This species is grown throughout the tropics for its edible syncarp.
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