Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Circumboreal; in North America, Newfoundland to Alaska, south to North Carolina (listed for Georgia by Russell and Duncan 1972, but currently ranked historically by Georgia Heritage Program), Tennessee, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, California.

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Greenland; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B, Nfld. and Labr., N.W.T., N.S., Ont., Que., Sask., Yukon; Alaska, Ark., Colo., Conn., Del., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., Mont., Nebr., N.H., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.; Eurasia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants cespitose, long-rhizomatous. Culms 25–75 cm, distally scabrous. Leaves 2–3.5 mm wide. Inflorescences: proximal bracts shorter than, equaling, or exceeding inflorescences; spikes separate, erect, short-pendunculate, short-oblong or elongate, 10–25 × 6–10 mm; lateral 2–3(–4) spikes pistillate; terminal spike gynecandrous. Pistillate scales light to dark brown, lanceolate, shorter or much longer and narrower than perigynia, midvein lighter colored than body, conspicuous, often raised, prominent, apex acute or acuminate, mucronate, mucro 0.5–3 mm. Perigynia ascending, gray green or whitish, faintly veined, elliptic, 2.5–4 × 1.5–2 mm, apex beakless or abruptly beaked, densely papillose; beak to 0.2 mm. Achenes nearly filling body of perigynia. 2n = ca. 106.
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Diagnostic Description

Uppermost spike (at least usually) both pistillate and staminate (the similar C. limosa spike is entirely staminate); strongly bicolored pistillate scales; spikes sessile or with short pedicel; glaucous foliage. Within Section Atratae: pistillate spikes mostly sessile or nearly so (C. atratiformis has the pistillate spikes on slender peduncles 1-4 cm); stems of the season aphyllopodic, not surrounded by dried sheaths of previous years (although these may be present on old stems), perigynia densely and conspicuously papillate (C. norvegica and C. parryana have stems of the season phyllopodic or somewhat aphyllopodic, surrounded by the dried sheaths of previous years, perigynia not notable papillate) (Gleason and Cronquist 1991).

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Synonym

Carex buxbaumii var. anticostensis Raymond; C. polygama Schkuhr 1801, not J. F. Gmelin 1796; C. holmiana Mackenzie
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Found in a variety of wet places; most commonly listed habitats are bogs and wet meadows. Others include fens, marshes, wet shores, swamps, "marly bogs and marshes", prairie swales, wet river bottom prairie, alluvial meadows, and springs. (Correll & Correll 1972, Fernald 1950, Gleason & Cronquist 1991, Hough 1983, Lakela 1965, Larson 1993, Radford et al. 1968, Steyermark 1963, Voss 1972). Seldom-listed habitats: rocky places along the Lake Superior shore (Lakela 1965, Voss 1972), swampy or wet woods (Naczi & Bryson 1990, Steyermark 1963), and aspen groves (Weber 1990). In Ohio: "moist situations in sun or semi-shade, usually in calcareous or neutral substrates; wet prairies, fens, swamp woods, pastures, meadows, ditches; rarely on rock exposures" (unpublished material in TNC files).

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Wet meadows, marshes, fens; 20–3000m.
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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

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General Ecology

"In sun or semi-shade" (unpubl. TNC material from Ohio); also see habitat description.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Fruiting May–Sep.
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Life Cycle

Persistence: PERENNIAL

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Reproduction

Lower spikelets are pistillate, uppermost one is gynecandrous (Fernald 1950, Gleason and Cronquist 1991) or androgynecandrous (Radford et al. 1968) or staminate throughout (Fernald 1950). Spreads by long rhizomes. All Cyperaceae except Dichromena are wind-pollinated. The inflated perigynium allows Carex seeds to float for long periods of time (2 days to over 12 months, depending on the species), and various species are also dispersed by ants, birds, and mammals (Ridley 1930).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Carex buxbaumii

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Carex buxbaumii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Carex buxbaumii is widespread and circumboreal, occurring throughout Canada and south to California, Utah, Colorado, Kansas, Arkansas, Tennessee, and Georgia (?).

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Threats

Comments: Land-use conversion, habitat fragmentation, and bog succession are low-level threats to this species (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002).

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Wikipedia

Carex buxbaumii

Carex buxbaumii is a species of sedge known by the common name Buxbaum's sedge. It is native to much of the northern Northern Hemisphere, from Alaska to Greenland to Eurasia, and including most of Canada and the United States. It grows in wet habitat, such as marshes and fens. This sedge grows in clumps from long rhizomes. The stems are 75 to 100 centimeters in maximum height. The leaves are narrow and small. The inflorescence has a bract which is sometimes longer than the spikes. The fruits have dark-colored bracts and a sac called a perigynium which is gray-green and rough in texture.

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Notes

Comments

The plant reported by M. Raymond (1950) as Carex hartmanii Cajander is most likely this species (J. Cayouette, pers. comm.).
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