Overview

Distribution

Range Description

C. extensa has a mainly coastal distribution with a few inland records, from Scandinavia south to North Africa and east to the Crimean Peninsula. It has been introduced to a few sites in the United States (The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Garden, Kew 2013).
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution in Egypt

 

Mediterranean region and western desert.

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Global Distribution

Western and northwest Europe, Mediterranean region, Sinai, Black Sea coasts, Sara Island in the Caspian Sea.

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introduced; Md., N.Y., Va.; Eurasia; n Africa.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Culms 15–75 cm. Leaves: basal sheaths reddish; blades of flowering stems channeled or involute, glaucous to grayish green, shorter than to equaling stems, widest blades 1–3.5(–4.3) mm wide. Inflorescences: peduncle of terminal spike 0.2–1 cm; proximal bract 2–10 times as long as inflorescence; pistillate spikes 2–5, spreading to ascending, ovoid to ellipsoid; distal 2–3 spikes clustered, sessile; terminal staminate spike 5–30 × 2–4 mm. Pistillate scales reddish brown with green midribs, apex acute or apiculate. Staminate scales reddish brown with green midribs, margins scarious, apex obtuse to acuminate. Anthers 1.2–3 mm. Perigynia grayish green, with reddish brown speckles, 2.7–3.9 × 1.2–1.9 mm; beak 0.5–1.1 mm. 2n = 60.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
C. extensa typically grows in salt marshes including inland, sandy coastal wetlands, as well as occasionally on moist coastal rocks and cliffs (Preston et al. 2002). It often occurs with species such as Blysmus rufus, Eleocharis uniglumis, Juncus gerardii, J. maritimus and Puccinellia species in the UK (Jermy et al. 2007).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Salt marshes.

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Borders of brackish marshes, meadows, and swamps; 0–50m.
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Associations

Foodplant / parasite
pycnium of Aster tripolium parasitises live Carex extensa

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pseudothecium of Didymella proximella is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex extensa
Remarks: season: 3-7

Foodplant / parasite
telium of Puccinia dioicae var. extensicola parasitises live Carex extensa

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Fruiting Jun–Jul.
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Life Expectancy

Perennial.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Carex extensa

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Carex extensa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 10
Specimens with Barcodes: 12
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Lansdown, R.V.

Reviewer/s
Smith, K.

Contributor/s
Ali, M.M.

Justification

This species is classed as Least Concern as it is widespread with stable populations and does not face any major threats.

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Population

Population

This species is widespread and abundant throughout its known range, apart from Norway where it is declining. There is no detailed information available on population size.


Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is threatened mainly by infrastructure development in coastal areas.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The are no conservation measures in place or in need.
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Wikipedia

Carex extensa

Carex extensa is a species of sedge known by the common name long-bracted sedge.[1] It is native to Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East.[2]

References[edit]

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Notes

Comments

Carex extensa, native to Eurasia, is locally established along the coast from Long Island, New York, to Norfolk County, Virginia. It was first collected on Coney Island, New York in 1860, and it persists in Maryland and Virginia. Additional localities should be sought along that stretch of coast. 

 Chromosomes counts are not available from North American material; European materials are consistently counted as 2n = 60 (E. W. Davies 1956; W. Dietrich 1972; M. Queiros 1980).

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