Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

The fertile leafy culms of this large sedge are 2½-4' tall. They are pale-medium green, glabrous, stout, and strongly 3-angled. The lower half of each culm is largely hidden by the leaves. The leaf blades are ¾-3' long and 8-20 mm. across. They are ascending, arching, or floppy; some blades can overtop the inflorescence of a fertile culm. Each leaf blade is grooved toward the middle and bent downward near its margins; as a result, the cross-section of a blade has a shallow M-shape. The upper blade surface is gray-green, blue-green, or pale-medium green, while the lower blade surface is whitish green and glaucous; both surfaces are glabrous. The leaf sheaths are pale-medium green on 2 sides and membranous on 1 side; they are glabrous. The ligules are much longer in length than they are across; they are short-membranous. Toward the bottom, the fertile culms have leaves with basal sheaths, but no blades (or poorly developed ones); they are often surrounded by the tan remnants of old basal sheaths. The bottom of the culms and their young basal sheaths are often reddish-purple. In addition to the fertile culms, there are also infertile culms that are very short (less than 1' long). These latter culms produce full-sized leaves, but no spikelets. They are usually more numerous than the fertile culms. Each fertile culm terminates in an inflorescence consisting of 2-4 pistillate (female) spikelets and 2-5 staminate (male) spikelets; an inflorescence is typically ¾-2' long. In each inflorescence, the pistillate spikelets are located below the staminate spikelets. Both types of spikelets are organized around a central stalk; they are ascending to erect and relatively straight. The female spikelets are 2-3½" long and cylindrical in shape (about 1.5 cm. across); the perigynia of these spikelets are packed densely together and they are slightly ascending to ascending. The female spikelets have short stiff peduncles up to 1" long or they are nearly sessile. The perigynia (sacs covering the achenes) are 5-7 mm. long and 1.5-2.5 mm. across; they are lanceoloid in shape and slightly flattened, tapering to a beak with a pair of short teeth at its apex. These teeth are about 0.5 mm. in length. Perigynia are glabrous and they have several longitudinal veins that are relatively conspicuous. Immature perigynia are light green, but they later become yellow and finally turn brown at maturity. The pistillate scales are shorter than the perigynia; they are lanceolate-ovate in shape, tapering to an acute tip that is often awned. The scales initially have green central veins and membranous margins; later they become brown or black. The staminate spikelets are 1½-3½" long and very narrow (about 5 mm. across); they soon turn brown. The uppermost staminate spikelet has a short peduncle up to 3" long, while the remaining staminate spikelets are sessile (or nearly so). At the bases of these spikelets are leafy bracts; the lowest bract is large and leafy in appearance, while the remaining bracts become progressively shorter and more narrow in size as they ascend the central stalk of the inflorescence. The blooming period is late spring to early summer (rarely later), lasting about 1-2 weeks. The florets of the spikelets are cross-pollinated by the wind. Afterwards, mature perigynia disarticulate from their spikelets; they are somewhat inflated and can be distributed to new areas by water, carrying their achenes with them. Each perigynium contains a single achene; the achenes are 2.0-2.5 mm. long, broadly ellipsoid in shape, bluntly 3-angled, and glabrous. The root system is fibrous and long-rhizomatous. This sedge often forms large clonal colonies of plants.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Lake Sedge is occasional in central and northern Illinois, becoming less common in the southern section of the state. Habitats include depressions in floodplain woodlands, flatwoods, soggy thickets, wet black soil prairies, wet dolomite prairies, prairie swales, typical marshes and sandy marshes, typical swamps and sandy swamps, seeps and fens, sedge meadows, and borders of ponds or small lakes. Sometimes Lake Sedge is the dominant sedge in these habitats. It is not uncommon to find this sedge growing in shallow water.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Carex lacustris Willd.:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Alta., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.S., Ont., Que., Sask.; Conn., Del., D.C., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., Mont., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.Dak., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.Dak., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants colonial; rhizomes long-creeping. Culms lateral, coarse, trigonous, 50–135 cm, smooth or somewhat scabrous-angled distally. Leaves: basal sheaths reddish purple, strongly fibrillose, bladeless; longest ligules 13–40(–56) mm, much longer than wide; blades glaucous to pale green, M-shaped, (5.5–)8.5–21 mm wide, glabrous. Inflorescences 17–60 cm; proximal 2–4 spikes pistillate, ascending to arching; distal spikes erect; terminal 3–5(–7) spikes staminate. Pistillate scales lanceolate to ovate, apex obtuse to acuminate, glabrous, awn 0.3–3.5 mm, ± scabrous. Perigynia ascending, usually strongly 14–28-veined, narrowly ovoid to narrowly ellipsoid, (4.5–)5.2–7.8 × 1.6–2.5 mm, glabrous; beak obscure, 0.5–1.6 mm, bidentulate, teeth straight, 0.2–0.7(–0.9) mm. 2n = 74.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Lake Sedge is occasional in central and northern Illinois, becoming less common in the southern section of the state. Habitats include depressions in floodplain woodlands, flatwoods, soggy thickets, wet black soil prairies, wet dolomite prairies, prairie swales, typical marshes and sandy marshes, typical swamps and sandy swamps, seeps and fens, sedge meadows, and borders of ponds or small lakes. Sometimes Lake Sedge is the dominant sedge in these habitats. It is not uncommon to find this sedge growing in shallow water.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Open swamps, wet, open thickets, marsh edges, sedge meadows, fens, shores of streams, ponds and lakes; 0–1000m.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Faunal Associations

Like other wetland sedges (Carex spp.), Lake Sedge attracts many insects that feed on its foliage, stems, and seeds. These species include several aquatic leaf beetles (especially Plateumaris spp.), Sphenophorus costicollis (Sedge Billbug), many aphids (Rhopalosiphum spp., Thripsaphis spp., etc.), several leafhoppers (especially Cosmotettix spp.), the spittlebug Philaenus parallelus, the seed bugs Cymus angustatus and Oedancala dorsalis, the plant bugs Mimoceps insignis and Teratocoris discolor, stem-boring larvae of the flies Cordilura varipes and Loxocera cylindrica, sedge grasshoppers (Stethophyma spp.), caterpillars of several skippers (especially Euphyes spp.), caterpillars of the butterflies Satyrodes appalachia (Appalachian Brown) and Satyrodes eurydice (Eyed Brown), and caterpillars of several moths. For more complete lists of these species, see the Insect Table and Lepidoptera Table. Vertebrate animals also rely on Lake Sedge and other sedges as sources of food. Many waterfowl, rails, and songbirds eat the seeds or spikelets of wetland sedges (see Bird Table). Among mammals, muskrats occasionally eat the roots and young sprouts, while deer browse sparingly on the foliage. Such turtles as Chelydra serpentina (Snapping Turtle) and Kinosternum subrubrum (Eastern Mud Turtle) also eat the seeds or young foliage to a limited extent. Because this large sedge often forms sizable colonies, it provides excellent cover for many kinds of insects, birds, snakes, and other kinds of wetland wildlife. During the drier parts of the year, deer use colonies of this sedge as 'bedding' for the night, leaving behind flattened culms and leaves.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Fruiting May–Jul.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Carex lacustris

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Carex lacustris

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full or partial sun, wet conditions, and soil containing mud, silt, or calcareous sand. This large sedge can spread aggressively by means of its rhizomes. While it can tolerate light shade, this sedge may not produce any spikelets. Seasonal flooding is readily tolerated.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Carex lacustris

Carex lacustris, known as lake sedge (lucastris is from the Latin lacus, or lake), is a tufted grass-like perennial of the sedge family (Cyperaceae), native to southern Canada and the northern United States.[4] C. lacustris us an herbaceous surface-piercing plant that grows in water up to 50 cm (1.6 ft) deep, and grows 50–150 cm (1.6–4.9 ft) tall.[5] It grows well in marshes and swampy woods of the boreal forest, along river and lake shores, in ditches, marshes, swamps, and other wetland habitat.[5][4] It grows on muck, sedge peat, wet sand or silt, in filtered or full sunlight.[6][7]

It's a common sedge that dominates many native wetlands, or intermixes with other sedges and grasses, and its ability to spread by rhizomes makes it a good colonizer for a large area.[8][6]

Common names[edit]

In addition to lake sedge, other non-scientific names include common lake sedge,[9] lakebank or lake-bank sedge,[10][1] hairy sedge,[10] and rip-gut sedge.[9] Its common name in French is carex lacustre.[11]

The common name should not be confused with lakeshore sedge (Carex lenticularis).

Description[edit]

Stems are typically 50–150 cm (20–59 in) tall.[4] Stems are rough to the touch, and have a triangular cross section, most distinctly near the base.[12] They are green with a conspuicuously reddish to purplish tinge at the base.[13][4][8]

Leaf blades are grayish blue to dark green, grow as long or longer than the stems, and are 8–20 mm wide.[4][12] They are coarse, and their cross-section is distinctly M-shaped.[12] The sheaths around the stem are smooth, and basal (near the base) sheaths are reddened and have open, feather-like (pinnate) fibers.[8]

Flowers on C. lacustris occur along spikes or spikelets, an elongated, tightly–packed type of inflorescence (flower cluster) that contain many small florets. Plants typically ahve 4–8 green spikes, 2–4 upper spikes that are male (staminate spikes), and 2–4 lower spikes that are female (pistillate spikes). The male spikes are narrow, 3–4 mm wide, 1–8 cm long, and are short–lived.[4] The female spikes are thick, 10–15 mm wide, and 2–10 cm long, either sessile (stalkless) or on short stalks, with 50–100 well-separated florets. Spikes are generally erect, with lower spikes sometimes nodding, and they are sometimes compound.[4][13] The olive-green perigynium is 5.5–7.3 mm long, hairless, distinctly ribbed, and gradually tapers into a beak.[14] Thin female scales are ovate (tapered at tip) and awned, translucent to purplish or brown in color, and half the length of the perigynia.[12][13][8][4]

The fruit or nutlet is a three-sided achene with three stigmas.[13][14]

Carex lacustris has a similar habitat and appearance to Carex atherodes, known as slough sedge or awned sedge, but C. atherodes typically have hairy leaf sheaths rather than smooth, and it has longer teeth (1.5–3 mm) on its parigynia.[4]

Habitat[edit]

C. lacustris is found in shallow marshes, marsh edges, shrub-carrs, alder thickets, wet and open thickets, open swamps, wooded swamps, sedge meadows, ditches, and borders of lakes, ponds, bogs, fens, and streams.[15][8][16] It forms scattered clones or beds, and sometimes extensive stands are seen without fertile culms[15][8] It is abundant and often a dominant plant of calcareous, north-temperate wetlands.[15]

The species typically fruits from May to July.[15]

Planting[edit]

C. lacrustris can reproduce from seeds, from rhyzome runners, or from shoots. It does not naturally reestablish well in isolated wetlands restoration, likely due to limited water-borne seed dispersal. It benefits from well-planned restorations with an aim of dense stands to preempt undesired aggressive species.[17]

Seeds should be stored in wet, dark, cold (4° C) conditions for optimal germination rates. Recommended conditions for germination in a controlled environment are a cyclic diurnal temperature variation between 20° C and 25° C.[18][17]

Range[edit]

Native to the US and Canada,[10] almost always occurring in wetlands.[2] The full list of US states is CT, DC, DE, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SD, TN, VA, VT, WI, and WV, and the full list of Canadian provinces is AB, MB, NB, NF, NS, ON, QC, and SK.

Variants[edit]

The proposed variant Carex lacustris var. laxiflora (Dewey) is not accepted by ITIS,[10] and is considered a synonym of Carex hyalinolepis Steud. (shoreline sedge).[19] The proposed variant Carex lacustra var. gigantea is also not accepted, considered is a synonym of Carex gigantea (giant sedge).[20]

Hybrids[edit]

Rare natural hybrids of C. lacustris are known to occur with C. trichocarpa,[21] C. hyalinolepis, C. pellita, and C. utriculata.[15] The hybrids show morphological traits of both parents, and while infertile, can form extensive clones.[15] The chromosome number of the hybrid parents do not need to be the same.[21]

Conservation status[edit]

The species has not been assessed for the IUCN Red List.[22] NatureServe ranks the species global conservation status as G5 (secure - very low risk of extinction or elimination). Its national rank in Canada is N5 (secure), and NNR (not ranked) in the United States, though some individual states are ranked, ranging from imperiled on the fringes of the species' range to secure nearer the center.[1] The species is listed as "Threatened" by the states of Maryland and Tennessee, both near the southern edge of its known range.[2]

Wildlife Use[edit]

C. lacustris attracts waterfowl and songbirds, which eat its seeds, and butterflies,[13][7] including the endangered Dukes' skipper, whose larvae feed exclusively on C. lacustris in the northern part of its Michigan range.[23] Rodents and other small animals use stems as shelter and food in the winter.[13]

Pike and muskies use the plants as spawning habitat in the spring.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Comprehensive Report Species – Carex lacustris". NatureServe Explorer: An Online Encyclopedia of Life. NatureServe, Inc. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c "Name Search Results – Plants Profile for Carex lacustris (hairy sedge)". Plants Database. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Catalogue of Life – 10th December 2013 :: Species Detail". Catalogue of Life. ITIS Species 2000. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Linda Kershaw (2001). Rare Vascular Plants of Alberta. University of Alberta. pp. 304–. ISBN 978-0-88864-319-3. 
  5. ^ a b Lahring, Heinjo (2003). Water and Wetland Plants of the Prairie Provinces. University of Regina Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-88977-162-8. 
  6. ^ a b "Plant Detail". Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 23 December 2013. 
  7. ^ a b "Lake sedge (carex lacustris)" (PDF). Great Lakes Ecological Protection and Restoration. US Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 25 December 2013. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f Eggers, Steve D; Reed, Donald M. "Lake Sedge (Carex lacustris Willd.)". Wetland Plants and Plant Communities of Minnesota and Wisconsin. Jamestown, ND: US Army Corps of Engineers, St Paul District. Retrieved 3 January 2014. 
  9. ^ a b "Carex lacustris: UW-Stevens Point Freckmann Herbarium: Plant Details Page". Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium. University of Wisconsin – Stevens Point. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  10. ^ a b c d "ITIS Other Source search results for Cyperaceae of North America Update". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  11. ^ "Carex lacustre". Database of Vascular Plants of Canada (VASCAN). CanadenSys. Retrieved 21 December 2013. 
  12. ^ a b c d Tyma, Karli; Strojny, Carol; Carlton, Zack; Kersten, Caitlin; Pynn, Bryan; Shaw, Dan. "Lake sedge (Carex lacustris)". Minnesota Wetland Restoration Plant ID Guide (Minnesota Board of Water & Soil Resources). Retrieved 3 January 2014. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Lahring, Heinjo (2003). Water and Wetland Plants of the Prairie Provinces. University of Regina Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-88977-162-8. 
  14. ^ a b "NPWRC: Wetland Plants". Wetland Plants and Plant Communities of Minnesota and Wisconsin. USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f "Carex lacustris". Flora of North America, eFloras.org 23. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 3 January 2014. 
  16. ^ "Carex lacustrist – Michigan flora". Michigan Flora. University of Michigan Herbarium. Retrieved 3 January 2014. 
  17. ^ a b Galatowitsch, Susan M (1999). Establishment of native sedge vegetation in created wetlands (PDF). Minnesota Department of Transportation. 
  18. ^ Budelsky, Rachel A.; Galatowitsch, Susan M. (1999). "Effects of Moisture, Temperature, and Time on Seed Germination of Five Wetland Carices: Implications for Restoration". Restoration Ecology 7 (1): 86–97. doi:10.1046/j.1526-100X.1999.07110.x. ISSN 1061-2971. 
  19. ^ "Name Search Results – USDA PLANTS". Plants Database. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  20. ^ "Search Results for Carex lacustris – GBIF Portal". GBIF Portal. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  21. ^ a b Catling, P. M.; Reznicek, A. A.; Denford, K. (1989). "Carex lacustris×C.trichocarpa(Cyperaceae), a new natural hybrid". Canadian Journal of Botany 67 (3): 790–795. doi:10.1139/b89-106. ISSN 0008-4026. 
  22. ^ "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Retrieved 18 December 2013.  (Search for carex lacustris to verify non-assessment).
  23. ^ "Euphyes dukesi" (PDF). =Michigan Natural Features Inventory (Michigan State University). Retrieved 25 December 2013. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Notes

Comments

Carex lacustris is abundant and often a dominant of calcareous, north-temperate wetlands. Sometimes extensive stands are seen without fertile culms. 

 Rare hybrids between Carex lacustris and C. hyalinolepis, C. pellita, C. trichocarpa (P. M. Catling et al. 1989), and C. utriculata are known; the hybrids are sterile and intermediate in morphology and can form extensive clones.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!