Overview

Distribution

introduced; Va., Wash.; Europe; introduced New Zealand.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Culms trigonous in cross section, smooth distally. Leaves: ligules much longer than wide; blades 8–18 mm wide, glaucous, glabrous. Inflorescences 20–100 cm; proximal bract 15–60 cm; lateral spikes pendent, long-cylindric, (30–)60–160 × 5–8 mm; terminal spike arching. Pistillate scales narrowly ovate to narrowly obovate, 3.3–4.2 × 1–1.6 mm, ± equaling to slightly exceeding perigynia, glabrous. Perigynia yellowish green to brownish green, dotted brown, somewhat inflated, narrowly ellipsoid, 2.6–4 × 1.1–1.5 mm, herbaceous; beak smooth. Achenes brown, smooth.
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Ecology

Habitat

Roadsides, stream banks; 0–20m.
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Associations

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial pseudothecium of Acanthophiobolus helicosporus is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex pendula
Remarks: season: 5-10

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, clypeate perithecium of Anthostomella caricis is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex pendula
Remarks: season: 3-10

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, clypeate perithecium of Anthostomella punctulata is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex pendula
Remarks: season: 2-10

Foodplant / saprobe
clypeate perithecium of Anthostomella tumulosa is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex pendula
Remarks: season: 1-7

Foodplant / saprobe
sporodochium of Arthrinium dematiaceous anamorph of Arthrinium sporophleum is saprobic on newly dead leaf of Carex pendula
Remarks: season: 3-4

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed perithecium of Ceriophora palustris is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex pendula
Remarks: season: 3-8

Plant / resting place / on
puparium of Cerodontha angulata may be found on leaf of Carex pendula
Other: major host/prey

Plant / resting place / within
puparium of Cerodontha caricicola may be found in leaf-mine of Carex pendula
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Clavidisculum caricis is saprobic on dead leaf base of Carex pendula
Remarks: season: 5-8

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Coprinopsis pseudofriesii is saprobic on decayed debris of Carex pendula

Foodplant / pathogen
immersed, mycelial matted perithecium of Gaeumannomyces graminis infects and damages dead leaf sheath (lower part) of Carex pendula
Remarks: season: 3-10

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Hebeloma pallidoluctuosum is associated with Carex pendula

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, then revealed apothecium of Hysteropezizella pusilla is saprobic on dead stem of Carex pendula
Remarks: season: 5-9

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Lindtneria leucobryophila is saprobic on dead, decayed stem of Carex pendula

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Lindtneria panphyliensis is saprobic on dead stem (base) of Carex pendula

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Mollisia chionea is saprobic on dead stem base of Carex pendula
Remarks: season: 10-1

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked, occasionally sessile sporodochium of Myrothecium dematiaceous anamorph of Myrothecium cinctum is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex pendula
Remarks: season: 3-5

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / saprobe
scattered, immersed, amphigenous pycnidium of Neottiospora coelomycetous anamorph of Neottiospora caricina is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex pendula
Remarks: season: 3-8

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial perithecium of Niesslia exosporioides is saprobic on dry, dead leaf of Carex pendula
Remarks: season: 4-8

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Niptera pilosa is saprobic on dead leaf (base) of Carex pendula
Remarks: season: 2-9

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Periconia dematiaceous anamorph of Periconia atra is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex pendula
Remarks: season: 4-9

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Pezizella nigrocorticata is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex pendula

Foodplant / saprobe
Chaetochalara anamorph of Phaeoscypha cladii is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex pendula
Remarks: season: 12

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered, initially immersed pseudothecium of Phaeosphaeria nigrans is saprobic on dead stem of Carex pendula
Remarks: season: spring, summer

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Psilachnum granulosellum is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex pendula
Remarks: season: 3-5

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pterula caricis-pendulae is saprobic on wet, dead, decayed debris of Carex pendula

Foodplant / parasite
uredium of Puccinia caricina var. ribesii-pendulae parasitises live Carex pendula

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent apothecium of Pyrenopeziza fuscescens is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex pendula
Remarks: season: 7

Foodplant / spot causer
very numerous, crowded, black pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Septoria caricis causes spots on dead leaf tip of Carex pendula
Remarks: season: 7-8

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Trechispora farinacea is saprobic on base of Carex pendula

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Typhula capitata is saprobic on dead, decayed leaf of Carex pendula

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Veronaea dematiaceous anamorph of Veronaea caricis is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex pendula
Remarks: season: 9

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Fruiting spring–early summer.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Carex pendula

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Carex pendula

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 13
Specimens with Barcodes: 16
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Carex pendula

Carex pendula (pendulous sedge, also known as hanging, drooping or weeping sedge) is a large sedge of the genus Carex. It occurs in woodland, scrubland, hedges and beside streams, preferring damp, heavy clay soils. It is sometimes grown as a garden plant because of its distinctive appearance.

Spikes

It is native to western, central and southern parts of Europe occurring north to Sweden, Denmark and parts of Scotland where it reaches 58°N. It is also found in north-west Africa, the Azores, Madeira and parts of the Middle East.

Description

Carex pendula is a tall, perennial plant which forms large, dense tufts. It can grow to 1.8 metres, occasionally reaching 2.4 metres. The smooth stems are triangular in cross-section with rounded angles. The long, hairless leaves are yellowish-green above and glaucous below. They are 8-20 mm wide. The simple flowers are borne on long, drooping, catkin-like spikes. There are 1-2 male spikes at the top of the stem with usually 4-5 female spikes below them. The male spikes are 55-160 mm long while the females spikes are 50-260 mm long and 5-7 mm wide. The fruits are green-brown and 3-5 mm long with a 1-2.5 mm beak. The plant typically flowers from May to June and fruits from June to July.

It has been introduced to New Zealand and has begun to spread into the wild in the USA where it has been recorded from Washington and Virginia.

References

  • Flora of North America. Carex pendula. Accessed 23 July 2008.
  • Stace, Clive A. (1997) New Flora of the British Isles, Cambridge University Press.
  • Tutin, T. G. et al. (1980) Flora Europaea, Volume 5. Cambridge University Press.
  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program (2004) Carex pendula Huds.. Accessed 23 July 2008.
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Notes

Comments

Carex pendula is a handsome, robust clump-forming species with glaucous foliage; it is sometimes cultivated, especially in water gardens. It has a propensity to self-sow and is beginning to appear outside of cultivation on roadsides and stream banks. Its potential as an invasive species is unknown.
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