Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Ross's sedge occurs from Alaska east to Nunavut and south through the western United States to California, Arizona, and New Mexico [23,30,39,41,43,45,47,49,51,52,53,74,84,93,110,111]. It is also common in the Dakotas and Minnesota [29,36,48,52] and occurs rarely in Ontario, Michigan, and Nebraska [36,40,41,52,109].

Flora of North America provides a distributional map of Ross's sedge.

  • 36. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 45. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 49. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403]
  • 29. Dorn, Robert D. 1977. Flora of the Black Hills. Cheyenne, WY: Robert D. Dorn and Jane L. Dorn. 377 p. [820]
  • 30. Dorn, Robert D. 1984. Vascular plants of Montana. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 276 p. [819]
  • 23. Cronquist, Arthur; Holmgren, Arthur H.; Holmgren, Noel H.; Reveal, James L.; Holmgren, Patricia K. 1977. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 6: The Monocotyledons. New York: Columbia University Press. 584 p. [719]
  • 39. Hardy BBT Limited. 1989. Manual of plant species suitability for reclamation in Alberta. 2d ed. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council. Report No. RRTAC 89-4. 436 p. [15460]
  • 40. Hermann, Frederick J. 1941. The genus Carex in Michigan. The American Midland Naturalist. 25(1): 1-72. [68325]
  • 41. Hermann, Frederick J. 1970. Manual of the Carices of the Rocky Mountains and Colorado Basin. Agric. Handb. 374. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 397 p. [1139]
  • 43. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 47. Houston, Kent E.; Hartung, Walter J.; Hartung, Carol J. 2001. A field guide for forest indicator plants, sensitive plants, and noxious weeds of the Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-84. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 184 p. [40585]
  • 48. Houtcooper, Wayne C.; Ode, David J.; Pearson, John A.; Vandel, George M., III. 1985. Rare animals and plants of South Dakota. Prairie Naturalist. 17(3): 143-165. [1198]
  • 51. Johnson, W. M. 1964. Field key to the sedges of Wyoming. Bulletin 419. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Agricultural Experiment Station. 239 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. [7651]
  • 53. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2nd ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563]
  • 74. Patterson, Patricia A.; Neiman, Kenneth E.; Tonn, Jonalea. 1985. Field guide to forest plants of northern Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-180. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 246 p. [1839]
  • 84. Rydberg, Per Axel. 1906. Flora of Colorado. Bulletin 100. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado Agricultural College, Agricultural Experiment Station. 448 p. [63874]
  • 93. Standley, Paul C. 1921. Flora of Glacier National Park, Montana. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium. Vol. 22, Part 5. Washington, DC: United States National Museum, Smithsonian Institution: 235-438. [12318]
  • 109. Voss, Edward G. 1972. Michigan flora. Part I: Gymnosperms and monocots. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 488 p. [11471]
  • 110. Weber, William A. 1987. Colorado flora: western slope. Boulder, CO: Colorado Associated University Press. 530 p. [7706]
  • 111. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 52. Kartesz, John T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 1st ed. In: Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Chapel Hill, NC: North Carolina Botanical Garden (Producer). In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service; U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. [36715]

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Alta., B.C., Man., N.W.T., Ont., Sask., Yukon; Alaska, Ariz., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Mich., Minn., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.Mex., Oreg., S.Dak., Utah, Wash., Wyo.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the terms: achene, hemicryptophyte

This description provides characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology, and is not meant for identification. Keys for identification are available (e.g., [29,30,43,45,49,51]).

Ross'ss sedge is a long-lived, cespitose perennial with dense, medium-sized clumps [20,23,36,39,43,45,47,49,51,62,74]. Where dominant in grassland associations, Ross's sedge can form mats 0.3 to 3 feet (0.1-1 m) across [79]. Culms grow 2 to 15 inches (5-40 cm) tall [36,39,43,45,47,51,62,74,93] with high, slender, erect stems [51,62]. Ross's sedge has several basal leaves, 1 to 4 mm wide and as long as or longer than stems [23,47,49,62,74].

Ross's sedge bears a terminal inflorescence of 1 to 4 apical staminate spikes [47,49,74] 3 to 15 mm long [23,36,93]. Borne near the staminate spikes are 1 to 5 shorter, lateral, few-flowered pistillate spikes 3 to 4.5 mm long [23,36,43,47,49,74,111]. Some plants have shorter culms (0.4-2 inches (1-5 cm)) bearing mostly pistillate spikes, while others have taller culms (2-12 inches (5-30 cm)) bearing both staminate and pistillate spikes [29,30]. Fruit is a 3-sided achene 2 to 5 mm long [47,74].

Ross's sedge is a shallow-rooted (top 2 inches (5 cm) of soil) [35] hemicryptophyte [20]. Most authors agree that Ross's sedge has short, horizontal or ascending stolons or rhizomes [36,39,47,51,74,93]. Others describe Ross's sedge as occurring with and without rhizomes [23,111] or as non-rhizomatous [57,95].

  • 36. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 45. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 49. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403]
  • 29. Dorn, Robert D. 1977. Flora of the Black Hills. Cheyenne, WY: Robert D. Dorn and Jane L. Dorn. 377 p. [820]
  • 30. Dorn, Robert D. 1984. Vascular plants of Montana. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 276 p. [819]
  • 20. Cole, David N. 1995. Experimental trampling of vegetation. II. Predictors of resistance and resilience. The Journal of Applied Ecology. 32(1): 215-224. [63279]
  • 23. Cronquist, Arthur; Holmgren, Arthur H.; Holmgren, Noel H.; Reveal, James L.; Holmgren, Patricia K. 1977. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 6: The Monocotyledons. New York: Columbia University Press. 584 p. [719]
  • 35. Garrison, George A.; Rummell, Robert S. 1951. First-year effects of logging on ponderosa pine forest range lands of Oregon and Washington. Journal of Forestry. 49(10): 708-713. [16711]
  • 39. Hardy BBT Limited. 1989. Manual of plant species suitability for reclamation in Alberta. 2d ed. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council. Report No. RRTAC 89-4. 436 p. [15460]
  • 43. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 47. Houston, Kent E.; Hartung, Walter J.; Hartung, Carol J. 2001. A field guide for forest indicator plants, sensitive plants, and noxious weeds of the Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-84. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 184 p. [40585]
  • 51. Johnson, W. M. 1964. Field key to the sedges of Wyoming. Bulletin 419. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Agricultural Experiment Station. 239 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. [7651]
  • 57. Kramer, Neal B. 1984. Mature forest seed banks on three habitat types in central Idaho. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 106 p. Thesis. [1375]
  • 62. Lewis, Monte E. 1958. Carex -- its distribution and importance in Utah. In: Brigham Young University Science Bulletin: Biological Series. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 1(2): 1-4. [18788]
  • 74. Patterson, Patricia A.; Neiman, Kenneth E.; Tonn, Jonalea. 1985. Field guide to forest plants of northern Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-180. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 246 p. [1839]
  • 79. Ramaley, Francis. 1919. The role of sedges in some Colorado plant communities. American Journal of Botany. 6: 120-130. [18409]
  • 93. Standley, Paul C. 1921. Flora of Glacier National Park, Montana. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium. Vol. 22, Part 5. Washington, DC: United States National Museum, Smithsonian Institution: 235-438. [12318]
  • 95. Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1987. The grand fir/blue huckleberry habitat type in central Idaho: succession and management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-228. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 66 p. [8133]
  • 111. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]

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Description

Plants densely cespitose; rhizomes usually ascending, occasionally horizontally spreading, dark reddish brown to purplish brown, 0–10 mm, stout. Culms ascending, 7–30(–40) cm, weakly to strongly scabrous distally; bases (remnants of old leaves) slightly fibrous. Leaf blades pale to dark green, usually equaling or exceeding stems, occasionally shorter, 0.8–2.5(–4) mm wide, herbaceous, glabrous abaxially, strongly scabrous to papillose adaxially. Inflorescences with both staminate and pistillate spikes; peduncles of basal pistillate spikes erect, elongate, slender; peduncles of staminate spikes 1.1–10 mm; proximal nonbasal bracts leaflike, exceeding inflorescences. Spikes: proximal pistillate spikes 2–4 (basal spikes 1–2); cauline spikes overlapping or somewhat separated, with 3–10(–15) perigynia; staminate spikes (4.8–)6–12.8 × (0.7–) 0.9–1.3(–2.5) mm. Scales: pistillate scales pale to dark reddish brown, with narrow white margins, ovate, 2.9–5.7 × 1.4–2.3 mm, shorter than perigynia, apex acute or acuminate to long-acuminate; staminate scales lanceolate, 3.2–5.8 × 1.2–1.8 mm, apex acuminate. Anthers 1.2–2 mm. Perigynia green to pale brown, veinless, ellipsoid to obovoid, 3.1–4.5 × 1.4–1.7 mm; beak straight or slightly bent, pale green, occasionally with reddish brown tinge, 0.9–1.7 mm, ciliate-serrulate, apical teeth 0.2–0.4 mm. Stigmas 3. Achenes brown, globose to obovoid or ellipsoid, obtusely trigonous in cross section, 1.9–2.4 × 1.3–1.7 mm. 2n = 36.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Carex deflexa Hornemann var. farwellii Britton; C. deflexa var. media L. H. Bailey; C. deflexa var. rossii (Boott) L. H. Bailey; C. farwellii (Britton) Mackenzie; C. novae-angliae Schweinitz var. rossii (Boott) L. H. Bailey
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Ecology

Habitat

Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the terms: association, cover, phase, xeric

Ross's sedge forms dry grassland associations [79] and is a common
aspen parkland [39] and forest understory sedge [47].
Where Ross's sedge dominates the understory, total understory cover may be sparse [3,42].
In north-central Colorado, cover of Ross's sedge is 7% to 16% in ponderosa pine
(Pinus ponderosa)/Ross's sedge habitat types and 4% to 5% in Douglas-fir
(Pseudotsuga menziesii)/Ross's sedge habitat types [42]. Peet [75]
also described limber pine (Pinus flexilis) forests and Rocky Mountain
lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests where
Ross's
sedge is common in the understory, but understory vegetation has little cover.
Vegetation classifications describing plant communities where Ross's sedge is
a dominant species follow:
Colorado:

  • xeric ponderosa pine forests [75]

  • ponderosa pine/true mountain-mahogany (Cercocarpus montanus)/Ross's
    sedge plant association

  • Ross's sedge subalpine turf plant association [11]

  • ponderosa pine/Ross's sedge habitat type [2,4,42]

  • Douglas-fir/Ross's sedge habitat type [4,42]
Idaho:

  • grand fir (Abies grandis)/big huckleberry (Vaccinium membranaceum)
    habitat type; Ross's sedge layer group [95]

  • subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa)/Ross's sedge habitat type [4,4,94]

  • whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis)/Ross's sedge habitat type

  • lodgepole pine/Ross's sedge community type [94]
Nevada:

  • quaking aspen/Ross's sedge forest

  • quaking aspen/mountain snowberry (Symphoricarpos oreophilus)/Ross's sedge
    forest [71]

  • quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides)-subalpine fir/Ross's sedge community type

  • quaking aspen/Ross's sedge community type [4,70]
Oregon:

  • ponderosa pine/antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata)/Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis)
    ecosystem: Ross's sedge phase [26]

  • big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)/bunchgrass plant association [46]

  • ponderosa pine/antelope bitterbrush/Ross's sedge community type [34,37,78]

  • ponderosa pine-white fir (Abies concolor)/Ross's sedge community type

  • Ross's sedge community type [34]
Utah:

  • subalpine fir/Ross's sedge habitat type [2,4,113]

  • lodgepole pine/Ross's sedge habitat type [2,67]

  • quaking aspen-subalpine fir/Ross's sedge community type

  • quaking aspen/Ross's sedge community type [4,70]
Wyoming:

  • Ross's avens (Geum rossii)/Ross's sedge plant association

  • subalpine fir-Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii)/Ross's sedge
    plant association [82]

  • ponderosa pine/Ross's sedge habitat type [3,4,5,86]

  • lodgepole pine/Ross's sedge habitat type [2,3,5]

  • subalpine fir/Ross's sedge habitat type [2,3,4,94]

  • whitebark pine/Ross's sedge habitat type [3,4,94]

  • quaking aspen/mountain snowberry-Ross's sedge habitat type [4]

  • lodgepole pine/Ross's sedge community type [3,22,94]

  • subalpine fir-lodgepole pine/Ross's sedge community type [86]

  • whitebark pine-lodgepole pine/Ross's sedge community type [22]
Intermountain region:

  • quaking aspen/mountain snowberry-Ross's sedge habitat type [4]
Rocky Mountain region:

  • quaking aspen/mountain snowberry-Ross's sedge habitat type [4]
  • 3. Alexander, Robert R. 1986. Classification of the forest vegetation of Wyoming. Res. Note RM-466. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 10 p. [304]
  • 5. Alexander, Robert R.; Hoffman, George R.; Wirsing, John M. 1986. Forest vegetation of the Medicine Bow National Forest in southeastern Wyoming: a habitat type classification. Res. Pap. RM-271. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 39 p. [307]
  • 2. Alexander, Robert R. 1985. Major habitat types, community types and plant communities in the Rocky Mountains. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-123. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 105 p. [303]
  • 4. Alexander, Robert R. 1988. Forest vegetation on national forests in the Rocky Mountain and Intermountain regions: habitat and community types. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-162. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 47 p. [5903]
  • 11. Baker, William L. 1984. A preliminary classification of the natural vegetation of Colorado. The Great Basin Naturalist. 44(4): 647-676. [380]
  • 22. Collins, Ellen I. 1984. Preliminary classification of Wyoming plant communities. Cheyenne, WY: Wyoming Natural Heritage Program/The Nature Conservancy. 42 p. [661]
  • 26. Dealy, J. Edward. 1971. Habitat characteristics of the Silver Lake mule deer range. Res. Pap. PNW-125. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 99 p. [782]
  • 34. Franklin, Jerry F.; Dyrness, C. T. 1973. Natural vegetation of Oregon and Washington. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-8. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 417 p. [961]
  • 37. Hall, Frederick C. 1973. Plant communities of the Blue Mountains in eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. R6 Area Guide 3-1. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 82 p. [1059]
  • 39. Hardy BBT Limited. 1989. Manual of plant species suitability for reclamation in Alberta. 2d ed. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council. Report No. RRTAC 89-4. 436 p. [15460]
  • 42. Hess, Karl; Alexander, Robert R. 1986. Forest vegetation of the Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests in central Colorado: a habitat type classification. Res. Pap. RM-266. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 48 p. [1141]
  • 46. Hopkins, William E. 1979. Plant associations of the Fremont National Forest. R6-ECOL-79-004. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 106 p. [7340]
  • 47. Houston, Kent E.; Hartung, Walter J.; Hartung, Carol J. 2001. A field guide for forest indicator plants, sensitive plants, and noxious weeds of the Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-84. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 184 p. [40585]
  • 67. Mauk, Ronald L.; Henderson, Jan A. 1984. Coniferous forest habitat types of northern Utah. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-170. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 89 p. [1553]
  • 70. Mueggler, Walter F. 1988. Aspen community types of the Intermountain Region. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-250. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 135 p. [5902]
  • 75. Peet, Robert K. 1981. Forest vegetation of the Colorado Front Range: composition and dynamics. Vegetatio. 45: 3-75; 1981. [1867]
  • 78. Powell, David C.; Johnson, Charles G., Jr.; Crowe, Elizabeth A.; Wells, Aaron; Swanson, David K. 2007. Potential vegetation hierarchy for the Blue Mountains section of northeastern Oregon, southeastern Washington, and west-central Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-709. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 87 p. [69013]
  • 79. Ramaley, Francis. 1919. The role of sedges in some Colorado plant communities. American Journal of Botany. 6: 120-130. [18409]
  • 82. Regan, Claudia M.; Musselman, Robert C.; Haines, June D. 1997. Vegetation of the Glacier Lakes Ecosystem Experiments Site. Res. Pap. RMRS-RP-1. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 36 p. [28660]
  • 94. Steele, Robert; Cooper, Stephen V.; Ondov, David M.; Roberts, David W.; Pfister, Robert D. 1983. Forest habitat types of eastern Idaho-western Wyoming. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-144. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 122 p. [2230]
  • 95. Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1987. The grand fir/blue huckleberry habitat type in central Idaho: succession and management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-228. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 66 p. [8133]
  • 113. Youngblood, Andrew P.; Mauk, Ronald L. 1985. Coniferous forest habitat types of central and southern Utah. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-187. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 89 p. [2684]
  • 71. Nevada Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Nevada Natural Heritage Program. 2003. National vegetation classification for Nevada, [Online]. Carson City, NV: Nevada Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Nevada Natural Heritage Program (Producer). 15 p. Available: http://heritage.nv.gov/ecology/nv_nvc.htm [2005, November 3]. [55021]
  • 86. Schneider, Rick E.; Faber-Langendoen, Don; Crawford, Rex C.; Weakley, Alan S. 1997. The status of biodiversity in the Great Plains: Great Plains vegetation classification. Supplemental Document 1, [Online]. In: Ostlie, Wayne R.; Schneider, Rick E.; Aldrich, Janette Marie; Faust, Thomas M.; McKim, Robert L. B.; Chaplin, Stephen J., comps. The status of biodiversity in the Great Plains. Arlington, VA: The Nature Conservancy, Great Plains Program (Producer). 75 p. [Cooperative Agreement # X 007803-01-3]. Available: http://conserveonline.org/docs/2005/02/greatplains_vegclass_97.pdf [2006, May 16]. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [62020]

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Habitat characteristics

Ross's sedge has high winter hardiness [39] and is found in boreal, temperate, cool semi-arid, and cool mesothermal climates. The occurrence of Ross's sedge increases with increasing continentality and decreases with increasing precipitation [54]. With "very high" drought tolerance [39], Ross's sedge prefers dry sites [39,54,116] and may be considered characteristic of moisture deficient sites [54]. In the Pacific Northwest, Ross's sedge also grows on moist slopes [45,92].

Ross's sedge is common in moist to dry forests [5,43,45,82,110,111], open woods [29,30,41], grasslands [62,79,80], and meadows [14,27,29,30,41,43,45,82,111] in the western portion of its range. It is often found on rocky slopes, unstable screes, and steep banks [39,49,82]. Ross's sedge is common in open woodlands of the northern plains [36], while in Michigan, it grows on sandy or rocky bluffs and windswept crests [40,109].

Ross's sedge prefers well-drained [39,82], moderately dry to very dry, nitrogen-medium soils [54]. Soil textures range from sandy loam to clay loam. Ross's sedge can tolerate excessive soil compaction as well as unstable slopes. Ross's sedge will tolerate mildly saline soils and mildly alkaline to moderately acidic soils [39].

Ross's sedge grows on gentle to steep slopes [22]. The elevational occurrence of Ross's sedge ranges from near sea level to near timberline in the Pacific Northwest [45], and from submontane to subalpine and alpine sites in the Rocky Mountains [54,62,79,80,82,110,111].

Examples of elevation ranges for Ross's sedge by state
State Elevation
California up to 12,500 feet
(3,800 m) [43,83]
Colorado 5,800 to 11,500 feet
(1,770-3,500 m) [4,84]
Idaho 7,400 to 10,500 feet
(2,250-3,200 m) [4,94]
Nevada 7,000 to 10,500 feet
(2,130-3,200 m) [4,70]
Utah 4,400 to 11,300 feet
(1,340-3,445 m) [4,67,70,111,113]
Wyoming 6,500 to 10,500 feet
(1,980-3,200 m) [4,5,22,94]
Washington
(Mt. Rainier National Park)
3,500 to 6,500 feet
(1,070-1,980 m) [92]

The occurrence of Ross's sedge may decrease at higher elevations where snow persists longer into the growing season. A study in a Wyoming subalpine forest (elevation 10,000 feet (3,050 m)) found little or no Ross's sedge on sites where snow persisted past June 27 [55].

  • 36. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 45. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 49. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403]
  • 29. Dorn, Robert D. 1977. Flora of the Black Hills. Cheyenne, WY: Robert D. Dorn and Jane L. Dorn. 377 p. [820]
  • 30. Dorn, Robert D. 1984. Vascular plants of Montana. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 276 p. [819]
  • 5. Alexander, Robert R.; Hoffman, George R.; Wirsing, John M. 1986. Forest vegetation of the Medicine Bow National Forest in southeastern Wyoming: a habitat type classification. Res. Pap. RM-271. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 39 p. [307]
  • 4. Alexander, Robert R. 1988. Forest vegetation on national forests in the Rocky Mountain and Intermountain regions: habitat and community types. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-162. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 47 p. [5903]
  • 14. Boltz, Michael John. 1979. Impacts of prescribed burns and clearcuts upon summer elk food habits, diet quality, and distribution in central Washington. Pullman, WA: Washington State University. 129 p. Thesis. [60992]
  • 22. Collins, Ellen I. 1984. Preliminary classification of Wyoming plant communities. Cheyenne, WY: Wyoming Natural Heritage Program/The Nature Conservancy. 42 p. [661]
  • 27. del Moral, Roger. 1984. The impact of the Olympic marmot on subalpine vegetation structure. American Journal of Botany. 71(9): 1228-1236. [62892]
  • 39. Hardy BBT Limited. 1989. Manual of plant species suitability for reclamation in Alberta. 2d ed. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council. Report No. RRTAC 89-4. 436 p. [15460]
  • 40. Hermann, Frederick J. 1941. The genus Carex in Michigan. The American Midland Naturalist. 25(1): 1-72. [68325]
  • 41. Hermann, Frederick J. 1970. Manual of the Carices of the Rocky Mountains and Colorado Basin. Agric. Handb. 374. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 397 p. [1139]
  • 43. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 54. Klinka, K.; Krajina, V. J.; Ceska, A.; Scagel, A. M. 1989. Indicator plants of coastal British Columbia. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press. 288 p. [10703]
  • 55. Knight, Dennis H.; Rogers, Brant S.; Kyte, Clayton R. 1977. Understory plant growth in relation to snow duration in Wyoming subalpine forest. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 104(4): 314-319. [63270]
  • 62. Lewis, Monte E. 1958. Carex -- its distribution and importance in Utah. In: Brigham Young University Science Bulletin: Biological Series. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 1(2): 1-4. [18788]
  • 67. Mauk, Ronald L.; Henderson, Jan A. 1984. Coniferous forest habitat types of northern Utah. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-170. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 89 p. [1553]
  • 70. Mueggler, Walter F. 1988. Aspen community types of the Intermountain Region. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-250. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 135 p. [5902]
  • 79. Ramaley, Francis. 1919. The role of sedges in some Colorado plant communities. American Journal of Botany. 6: 120-130. [18409]
  • 80. Ramaley, Francis. 1919. Xerophytic grasslands at different altitudes in Colorado. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 46(2): 37-52. [63275]
  • 82. Regan, Claudia M.; Musselman, Robert C.; Haines, June D. 1997. Vegetation of the Glacier Lakes Ecosystem Experiments Site. Res. Pap. RMRS-RP-1. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 36 p. [28660]
  • 83. Riegel, Gregg M.; Miller, Richard F.; Skinner, Carl N.; Smith, Sydney E. 2006. Northeastern Plateaus bioregion. In: Sugihara, Neil G.; van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Shaffer, Kevin E.; Fites-Kaufman, Joann; Thode, Andrea E., eds. Fire in California's ecosystems. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press: 225-263. [65541]
  • 84. Rydberg, Per Axel. 1906. Flora of Colorado. Bulletin 100. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado Agricultural College, Agricultural Experiment Station. 448 p. [63874]
  • 92. St. John, Harold; Warren, Fred A. 1937. The plants of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington. The American Midland Naturalist. 18(6): 952-985. [62707]
  • 94. Steele, Robert; Cooper, Stephen V.; Ondov, David M.; Roberts, David W.; Pfister, Robert D. 1983. Forest habitat types of eastern Idaho-western Wyoming. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-144. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 122 p. [2230]
  • 109. Voss, Edward G. 1972. Michigan flora. Part I: Gymnosperms and monocots. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 488 p. [11471]
  • 110. Weber, William A. 1987. Colorado flora: western slope. Boulder, CO: Colorado Associated University Press. 530 p. [7706]
  • 111. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 113. Youngblood, Andrew P.; Mauk, Ronald L. 1985. Coniferous forest habitat types of central and southern Utah. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-187. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 89 p. [2684]
  • 116. Zamora, Benjamin Abel. 1975. Secondary succession on broadcast-burned clearcuts of the Abies grandis-Pachistima myrsinites habitat type in northcentral Idaho. Pullman, WA: Washington State University. 127 p. Dissertation. [5154]

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Moist or dry, sandy or rocky, open montane pine, fir, and spruce woodlands, sagebrush slopes, deciduous wooded slopes, prairies, alpine meadows; 210–3700m.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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General Ecology

Fire Management Considerations

More info for the terms: cover, severity, succession

In areas where Ross's sedge occurs or has occurred in the past, it typically persists or establishes on burned sites after both prescribed burns and wildfires. Ross's sedge sprouts and may also establish from the soil seed bank after fire. It is likely to remain unchanged or increase in biomass and cover in early postfire succession after fires of any severity. Ross's sedge is likely to remain unchanged or increase after timber harvest with or without fire. However, prescribed burning after harvest is more likely to increase percent cover of Ross's sedge.

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Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: cover, density, duff, fire use, forbs, frequency, fuel, fuel moisture, prescribed fire, rhizome, shrubs, stand-replacing fire, succession, wildfire

Ross's sedge is commonly found in both prefire and postfire forest vegetation [101,102,103].
It may also occur on recently burned sites when it is not present in
adjacent, unburned areas [72,73,76], suggesting postfire establishment from the
soil seed bank. Establishment or re-establishment of Ross's sedge occurs quickly,
and it is estimated to take 2 to 10 postfire years for Ross's sedge to return to
prefire abundance (review by [108]). Following the Yellowstone
fires of 1988, Ross's sedge was found in the first 2 postfire years [105],
and Metzger and others [69] described it as "common" or
"abundant" 2 years after a stand-replacing fire in a Wyoming lodgepole pine
forest. Ross's sedge was also common on recent burns (postfire years 1-10) in a
northern boreal forest in Saskatchewan [87]. Following an August wildfire in 1970 in
ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir forests in north-central Washington, where Ross's sedge was
"prominent" in the prefire vegetation, several study areas were fertilized and
seeded with nonnative grasses and forbs [103,104]. Native species,
including Ross's sedge, retained dominance during the first 4 postfire years
(duration of the study period). Ross'ss sedge cover averaged across 4 watersheds
(3 seeded, 1 unseeded) indicated a steady increase from 0.1% in postfire year 1, to
0.7% in postfire year 4 [104].

Studies of the Yellowstone fires of 1988 examined vegetation on burned areas
in the first 3 postfire years. Ross's sedge sprouted from rhizomes following the
fires, and sprout density did not change significantly during the
study period. Ross's sedge sprouts were most abundant in large (500-3600 ha) burned
patches, but were also found in small (1 ha) and moderate-sized (70-200 ha)
patches. Ross's sedge was present in unburned stands and sprouted on sites where
light-surface (soil organic matter largely intact), severe-surface (soil organic
matter completely consumed), and crown fires (canopy needles consumed) had
burned [106].
While Steele and Geier-Hayes [95] suggest that
Ross's sedge may
respond poorly to burning, several studies indicate that it is unchanged or
increases in early postfire succession after prescribed burning. Biomass of
Ross's sedge was significantly (P=0.015) greater on burned (11.4 kg/ha)
vs. unburned (7.2 kg/ha) plots 5 to 6 years after low-severity prescribed spring
underburning in central Oregon ponderosa pine stands. Cover was slightly, but
not significantly, higher on burned sites [17]:
Percent cover of Ross's sedge following
understory burning in ponderosa pine stands, central Oregon [17]
Sample dateBurnControl
Preburn1.00.8
Year 21.30.8
Years 5-62.51.6

Arno [7,8] found percent cover of
Ross's sedge increased following prescribed
fire treatments on both "wet" and "dry" burns (based on moisture content of duff
and large woody fuels).
Average percent cover by burn treatment for
Ross's sedge in the shelterwood
cutting unit at Lick Creek, Montana [8]
Burn treatmentPretreatmentPostfire year 1Postfire year 2Postfire year 3Postfire year 4
No burn0.50.80.81.11.1
Low consumption burn ("wet burn")0.71.31.91.92.1
High consumption burn ("dry burn")0.51.32.02.92.7

Effects of timber harvest and prescribed fire: Ross's sedge tends to increase after
timber harvest, particularly after burning of postharvest residue [85,89,96,115,116].
Prescribed burning of shelterwood-harvested units in northern and central
Idaho mixed conifer stands compared "moist" and "dry" burns, based primarily on
fuel moisture content (duff moisture ~90% and ~40%, respectively) and on season
of burning (spring and fall, respectively). Ross's sedge increased on these sites through
a combination of seedling establishment and rhizome stimulation
following shelterwood cutting with and without prescribed burning [89].
Percent cover of Ross's sedge following understory
burning in northern and central Idaho shelterwood-harvest units [89]
SiteSample dateNo burnSpring "moist" burn
(duff moisture
~90%; 15%-30% duff consumed)
Fall "dry" burn
(duff moisture ~40%; 43%-90% duff consumed)
Northern ID mixed coniferPreburn0.70.50.7
Postfire year 11.32.53.9
Central ID ponderosa pine
Preburn0.00.1 0.3
Postfire year 11.3--*1.3
Postfire year 2------
Postfire year 33.68.4 6.6
Postfire year 5------
Postfire year 66.8--11.2
*-- indicates data were not collected on that site on those dates

Clearcutting in a grand fir-Oregon boxwood (Abies grandis-Paxistima myrsinites)
habitat type of north-central Idaho followed by broadcast burning of harvest residue found
Ross's sedge was prevalent on all sites in the 1-year age class, though it was dominant
in the understory of only 2 of the 10 stands. After 3 years, percent cover of
Ross's sedge
in stands increased 2 to 10 times that of first year coverage. Frequency changed little,
however, indicating the increase in cover was not the result of new recruitment.
The vegetation trend over the first 3 years was toward Ross's sedge dominance. By
year 8, dominance of Ross's sedge was decreasing, with shrubs becoming dominant
on most sites, though Ross's sedge may continue to dominate on drier, low elevation sites.
Ross's sedge was rare on sites 23 years after clearcutting and burning [115,116].
A study by Metlen and others [68] in ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir stands in Montana found that
Ross's sedge showed no response to either thinning treatments or burn treatments;
however, it increased following a combination of thinning and burning. For more
information on this study, see the Research Project Summary.
Lyon's Research Paper also provides information on prescribed fire use and postfire response of plant
species including Ross's sedge.
  • 7. Arno, Stephen F. 1996. Percent coverage for selected plant species at Lick Creek under different prescribed fire treatments. Unpublished data on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Lab, Missoula, MT. 1 p. [37323]
  • 17. Busse, Matt D.; Simon, Steve A.; Riegel, Gregg M. 2000. Tree-growth and understory responses to low-severity prescribed burning in thinned Pinus ponderosa forests of central Oregon. Forest Science. 46(2): 258-268. [42058]
  • 69. Metzger, Kristine L.; Romme, William H.; Turner, Monica G. 2006. Foliar nitrogen patterns following stand-replacing fire in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests of the Rocky Mountains, USA. Forest Ecology and Management. 227(1-2): 22-30. [62289]
  • 72. Olson, Craig M.; Johnson, Arlen H.; Martin, Robert E. 1982. Effects of prescribed fires on vegetation in Lava Beds National Monument. In: Starkey, E.; Franklin, J. F.; Matthews, J. W., eds. Ecological research in national parks of the Pacific Northwest. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State Univeristy, Forest Research Laboratory: 92-100. [67113]
  • 73. Ossinger, Mary C. 1983. The Pseudotsuga-Tsuga/Rhododendron community in the northeast Olympic Mountains. Bellingham, WA: Western Washington University. 50 p. Thesis. [11435]
  • 76. Phillips, T. A. 1973. The effects of fire on vegetation and wildlife on a lodgepole pine burn in Chamberlain Basin, Idaho. Range Improvement Notes. 18(1): 1-9. [16548]
  • 85. Scherer, G.; Zabowski, D.; Java, B.; Everett, R. 2000. Timber harvesting residue treatment. Part II. Understory vegetation response. Forest Ecology and Management. 126(1): 35-50. [37010]
  • 87. Scotter, George Wilby. 1964. Effects of forest fires on the winter range of barren-ground caribou in northern Saskatchewan. Wildlife Management Bulletin. Series 1. No. 18. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Wildlife Service, National Parks Branch, Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources. 111 p. [28989]
  • 89. Simmerman, Dennis G.; Arno, Stephen F.; Harrington, Michael G.; Graham, Russell T. 1991. A comparison of dry and moist fuel underburns in ponderosa pine shelterwood units in Idaho. In: Andrews, Patricia L.; Potts, Donald F., eds. Proceedings, 11th annual conference on fire and forest meteorology; 1991 April 16-19; Missoula, MT. SAF Publication 91-04. Bethesda, MD: Society of American Foresters: 387-397. [16186]
  • 95. Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1987. The grand fir/blue huckleberry habitat type in central Idaho: succession and management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-228. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 66 p. [8133]
  • 96. Stickney, Peter F. 1982. Vegetation response to clearcutting and broadcast burning on north and south slopes at Newman Ridge. In: Baumgartner, David M., compiler. Site preparation and fuels management on steep terrain: Proceedings of a symposium; 1982 February 15-17; Spokane, WA. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Cooperative Extension: 119-124. [18538]
  • 101. Thies, Walter G.; Westlind, Douglas J.; Loewen, Mark. 2005. Season of prescribed burn in ponderosa pine forests in eastern Oregon: impact on pine mortality. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 14: 223-231. [60220]
  • 102. Tiedemann, Arthur R. 1973. Stream chemistry following a forest fire and urea fertilization in north-central Washington. PNW-203. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 20 p. [8567]
  • 103. Tiedemann, Arthur R.; Klock, Glen O. 1973. First-year vegetation after fire, reseeding, and fertilization on the Entiat Experimental Forest. Research Note PNW-195. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 23 p. [40770]
  • 104. Tiedemann, Arthur R.; Klock, Glen O. 1976. Development of vegetation after fire, seeding, and fertilization on the Entiat Experimental Forest. In: Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1974 October 16-17; Portland, OR. No. 15. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 171-191. [2328]
  • 105. Turner, Monica G.; Romme, William H.; Gardner, Robert H. 1999. Prefire heterogeneity, fire severity, and early postfire plant reestablishment in subalpine forests of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 9(1): 21-36. [39450]
  • 106. Turner, Monica G.; Romme, William H.; Gardner, Robert H.; Hargrove, William W. 1997. Effects of fire size and pattern on early succession in Yellowstone National Park. Ecological Monographs. 67(4): 411-433. [27851]
  • 108. Volland, Leonard A.; Dell, John D. 1981. Fire effects on Pacific Northwest forest and range vegetation. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Range Management and Aviation and Fire Management. 23 p. [2434]
  • 115. Zamora, Benjamin A. 1982. Understory development in forest succession: an example from the Inland Northwest. In: Means, J., ed. Forest succession and stand development research in the Inland Northwest; 1981 March 26; Corvallis, OR. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University, Forest Research Laboratory: 63-69. [8766]
  • 116. Zamora, Benjamin Abel. 1975. Secondary succession on broadcast-burned clearcuts of the Abies grandis-Pachistima myrsinites habitat type in northcentral Idaho. Pullman, WA: Washington State University. 127 p. Dissertation. [5154]
  • 8. Arno, Stephen F. 1999. Undergrowth response, shelterwood cutting unit. In: Smith, Helen Y.; Arno, Stephen F., eds. Eighty-eight years of change in a managed ponderosa pine forest. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-23. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 36-37. [+ Appendix C: summary of vegetation changes in shelterwood cutting unit]. [38264]
  • 68. Metlen, Kerry L.; Dodson, Erich K.; Fiedler, Carl E. 2006. Research Project Summary--Vegetation response to restoration treatments in ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forests. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis. [64679]

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Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: duff, frequency

Ross's sedge sprouts from surviving rhizomes following fire [15,16,108] and is capable of responding rapidly to disturbance [17,69]: Regeneration to preburn levels can occur within 1 to 2 years [47]. Increased coverage of Ross's sedge occurs after most fires severe enough to heat but not completely consume the duff layer [9,13,15,16,32,50,50]. Ross's sedge frequency may also increase after fire [61].
  • 9. Arno, Stephen F.; Simmerman, Dennis G.; Keane, Robert E. 1985. Forest succession on four habitat types in western Montana. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-177. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 74 p. [349]
  • 13. Bentz, Jerry A. 1981. Effects of fire on the subalpine range of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep in Alberta. Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta. 192 p. Thesis. [54956]
  • 15. Bradley, Anne F.; Fischer, William C.; Noste, Nonan V. 1992. Fire ecology of the forest habitat types of eastern Idaho and western Wyoming. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-290. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 92 p. [19557]
  • 16. Bradley, Anne F.; Noste, Nonan V.; Fischer, William C. 1992. Fire ecology of forests and woodlands in Utah. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-287. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 128 p. [18211]
  • 17. Busse, Matt D.; Simon, Steve A.; Riegel, Gregg M. 2000. Tree-growth and understory responses to low-severity prescribed burning in thinned Pinus ponderosa forests of central Oregon. Forest Science. 46(2): 258-268. [42058]
  • 32. Fischer, William C.; Bradley, Anne F. 1987. Fire ecology of western Montana forest habitat types. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-223. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 95 p. [633]
  • 47. Houston, Kent E.; Hartung, Walter J.; Hartung, Carol J. 2001. A field guide for forest indicator plants, sensitive plants, and noxious weeds of the Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-84. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 184 p. [40585]
  • 50. Johnson, Charles Grier, Jr. 1998. Vegetation response after wildfires in national forests of northeastern Oregon. R6-NR-ECOL-TP-06-98. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 128 p. plus appendices. [30061]
  • 61. Leege, Thomas A.; Godbolt, Grant. 1985. Herbaceous response following prescribed burning and seeding of elk range in Idaho. Northwest Science. 59(2): 134-143. [1436]
  • 69. Metzger, Kristine L.; Romme, William H.; Turner, Monica G. 2006. Foliar nitrogen patterns following stand-replacing fire in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests of the Rocky Mountains, USA. Forest Ecology and Management. 227(1-2): 22-30. [62289]
  • 108. Volland, Leonard A.; Dell, John D. 1981. Fire effects on Pacific Northwest forest and range vegetation. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Range Management and Aviation and Fire Management. 23 p. [2434]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

Ross's sedge is top-killed by fire [15,16,47,83].
  • 15. Bradley, Anne F.; Fischer, William C.; Noste, Nonan V. 1992. Fire ecology of the forest habitat types of eastern Idaho and western Wyoming. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-290. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 92 p. [19557]
  • 16. Bradley, Anne F.; Noste, Nonan V.; Fischer, William C. 1992. Fire ecology of forests and woodlands in Utah. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-287. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 128 p. [18211]
  • 47. Houston, Kent E.; Hartung, Walter J.; Hartung, Carol J. 2001. A field guide for forest indicator plants, sensitive plants, and noxious weeds of the Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-84. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 184 p. [40585]
  • 83. Riegel, Gregg M.; Miller, Richard F.; Skinner, Carl N.; Smith, Sydney E. 2006. Northeastern Plateaus bioregion. In: Sugihara, Neil G.; van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Shaffer, Kevin E.; Fites-Kaufman, Joann; Thode, Andrea E., eds. Fire in California's ecosystems. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press: 225-263. [65541]

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Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the terms: graminoid, ground residual colonizer, rhizome, secondary colonizer, tussock

POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY [98]:
Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil
Tussock graminoid
Ground residual colonizer (on site, initial community)
Secondary colonizer (on-site or off-site seed sources)
  • 98. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species comprising secondary plant succession in Northern Rocky Mountain forests. FEIS workshop: Postfire regeneration. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 10 p. [20090]

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Fire Ecology

More info for the terms: cover, duff, fire regime, frequency, litter, low-severity fire, mesic, natural, rhizome, shrub, shrubs

Fire adaptations: Ross's sedge is a residual colonizer after fire [99] and has been described as fire-resistant [47,74,77,108], defined as having a greater than 65% chance that at least half of the population will survive or reestablish after fire [108]. It often increases after fires that do not consume the litter and duff layer or cause excessive soil heating [77,91,96]. Ross's sedge regenerates after fire from surviving rhizomes [15,16,32,77,91,96], approaching preburn coverage within 1 to 2 years [47,74]. Ross's sedge also reestablishes from seed stored in the duff and soil [77,91,96] that is stimulated by soil heating [15,16,32,50,63,91]. Even when Ross's sedge is not present in prefire vegetation, viable seed can remain stored in the soil until fire creates conditions favorable for germination [10].

FIRE REGIMES: Ross's sedge is present in many different plant communities across a large portion of the United States. As a widespread understory species, it is subject to a wide range of FIRE REGIMES, and it is neither eliminated by fire nor dependent on fire. Frequent fires may increase frequency and cover of Ross's sedge due to increased vigor, rhizome extension, and seedling establishment following fire [10,61,108], and by creating openings and reducing shade.

The following table provides fire regime information that may be relevant to Ross's sedge:

Fire regime information on vegetation communities in which Ross's sedge may occur. For each community, fire regime characteristics are taken from the LANDFIRE Rapid Assessment Vegetation Models [59]. These vegetation models were developed by local experts using available literature, local data, and/or expert opinion as documented in the PDF file linked from each Potential Natural Vegetation Group listed below. Cells are blank where information is not available in the Rapid Assessment Vegetation Model.
Pacific Northwest California Southwest Great Basin Northern Rockies
Northern Great Plains Great Lakes
Pacific Northwest
Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group) Fire severity* Fire regime characteristics
Percent of fires Mean interval
(years)
Minimum interval
(years)
Maximum interval
(years)
Northwest Grassland
Bluebunch wheatgrass Replacement 47% 18 5 20
Mixed 53% 16 5 20
Idaho fescue grasslands Replacement 76% 40    
Mixed 24% 125    
Alpine and subalpine meadows and grasslands Replacement 68% 350 200 500
Mixed 32% 750 500 >1,000
Northwest Shrubland
Mountain big sagebrush (cool sagebrush) Replacement 100% 20 10 40
Northwest Woodland
Western juniper (pumice) Replacement 33% >1,000    
Mixed 67% 500    
Pine savannah (ultramafic) Replacement 7% 200 100 300
Surface or low 93% 15 10 20
Ponderosa pine Replacement 5% 200    
Mixed 17% 60    
Surface or low 78% 13    
Subalpine woodland Replacement 21% 300 200 400
Mixed 79% 80 35 120
Northwest Forested
Ponderosa pine (xeric) Replacement 37% 130    
Mixed 48% 100    
Surface or low 16% 300    
Dry ponderosa pine (mesic) Replacement 5% 125    
Mixed 13% 50    
Surface or low 82% 8    
Mixed conifer (southwestern Oregon) Replacement 4% 400    
Mixed 29% 50    
Surface or low 67% 22    
California mixed evergreen (northern California) Replacement 6% 150 100 200
Mixed 29% 33 15 50
Surface or low 64% 15 5 30
Lodgepole pine (pumice soils) Replacement 78% 125 65 200
Mixed 22% 450 45 85
Subalpine fir Replacement 81% 185 150 300
Mixed 19% 800 500 >1,000
Mixed conifer (eastside dry) Replacement 14% 115 70 200
Mixed 21% 75 70 175
Surface or low 64% 25 20 25
Mixed conifer (eastside mesic) Replacement 35% 200    
Mixed 47% 150    
Surface or low 18% 400    
Red fir Replacement 20% 400 150 400
Mixed 80% 100 80 130
Spruce-fir Replacement 84% 135 80 270
Mixed 16% 700 285 >1,000
California
Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group) Fire severity* Fire regime characteristics
Percent of fires Mean interval
(years)
Minimum interval
(years)
Maximum interval
(years)
California Grassland
Alpine meadows and barrens Replacement 100% 200 200 400
California Shrubland
Montane chaparral Replacement 34% 95    
Mixed 66% 50    
California Woodland
Ponderosa pine Replacement 5% 200    
Mixed 17% 60    
Surface or low 78% 13    
California Forested
Mixed conifer (North Slopes) Replacement 5% 250    
Mixed 7% 200    
Surface or low 88% 15 10 40
Mixed conifer (South Slopes) Replacement 4% 200    
Mixed 16% 50    
Surface or low 80% 10    
Aspen with conifer Replacement 24% 155 50 300
Mixed 15% 240    
Surface or low 61% 60    
Jeffrey pine Replacement 9% 250    
Mixed 17% 130    
Surface or low 74% 30    
Interior white fir (northeastern California) Replacement 47% 145    
Mixed 32% 210    
Surface or low 21% 325    
Red fir-white fir Replacement 13% 200 125 500
Mixed 36% 70    
Surface or low 51% 50 15 50
Red fir-western white pine Replacement 16% 250    
Mixed 65% 60 25 80
Surface or low 19% 200    
Sierra Nevada lodgepole pine (cold wet upper montane) Replacement 23% 150 37 764
Mixed 70% 50    
Surface or low 7% 500    
Sierra Nevada lodgepole pine (dry subalpine) Replacement 11% 250 31 500
Mixed 45% 60 31 350
Surface or low 45% 60 9 350
Southwest
Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group) Fire severity* Fire regime characteristics
Percent of fires Mean interval
(years)
Minimum interval
(years)
Maximum interval
(years)
Southwest Grassland
Montane and subalpine grasslands Replacement 55% 18 10 100
Surface or low 45% 22    
Montane and subalpine grasslands with shrubs or trees Replacement 30% 70 10 100
Surface or low 70% 30    
Southwest Shrubland
Mountain sagebrush (cool sage) Replacement 75% 100    
Mixed 25% 300    
Gambel oak Replacement 75% 50    
Mixed 25% 150    
Mountain-mahogany shrubland Replacement 73% 75    
Mixed 27% 200    
Southwest Woodland
Pinyon-juniper (mixed fire regime) Replacement 29% 430    
Mixed 65% 192    
Surface or low 6% >1,000    
Pinyon-juniper (rare replacement fire regime) Replacement 76% 526    
Mixed 20% >1,000    
Surface or low 4% >1,000    
Ponderosa pine/grassland (Southwest) Replacement 3% 300    
Surface or low 97% 10    
Bristlecone-limber pine (Southwest) Replacement 67% 500    
Surface or low 33% >1,000    
Southwest Forested
Ponderosa pine-Gambel oak (southern Rockies and Southwest) Replacement 8% 300    
Surface or low 92% 25 10 30
Ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir (southern Rockies) Replacement 15% 460    
Mixed 43% 160    
Surface or low 43% 160    
Southwest mixed conifer (warm, dry with aspen) Replacement 7% 300    
Mixed 13% 150 80 200
Surface or low 80% 25 2 70
Southwest mixed conifer (cool, moist with aspen) Replacement 29% 200 80 200
Mixed 35% 165 35  
Surface or low 36% 160 10  
Aspen with spruce-fir Replacement 38% 75 40 90
Mixed 38% 75 40  
Surface or low 23% 125 30 250
Stable aspen without conifers Replacement 81% 150 50 300
Surface or low 19% 650 600 >1,000
Lodgepole pine (Central Rocky Mountains, infrequent fire) Replacement 82% 300 250 500
Surface or low 18% >1,000 >1,000 >1,000
Spruce-fir Replacement 96% 210 150  
Mixed 4% >1,000 35 >1,000
Great Basin
Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group) Fire severity* Fire regime characteristics
Percent of fires Mean interval
(years)
Minimum interval
(years)
Maximum interval
(years)
Great Basin Grassland
Mountain meadow (mesic to dry) Replacement 66% 31 15 45
Mixed 34% 59 30 90
Great Basin Shrubland
Mountain big sagebrush Replacement 100% 48 15 100
Mountain big sagebrush with conifers Replacement 100% 49 15 100
Mountain sagebrush (cool sage) Replacement 75% 100    
Mixed 25% 300    
Montane chaparral Replacement 37% 93    
Mixed 63% 54    
Gambel oak Replacement 75% 50    
Mixed 25% 150    
Mountain shrubland with trees Replacement 22% 105 100 200
Mixed 78% 29 25 100
Curlleaf mountain-mahogany Replacement 31% 250 100 500
Mixed 37% 212 50  
Surface or low 31% 250 50  
Great Basin Woodland
Juniper and pinyon-juniper steppe woodland Replacement 20% 333 100 >1,000
Mixed 31% 217 100 >1,000
Surface or low 49% 135 100  
Ponderosa pine Replacement 5% 200    
Mixed 17% 60    
Surface or low 78% 13    
Great Basin Forested
Interior ponderosa pine Replacement 5% 161   800
Mixed 10% 80 50 80
Surface or low 86% 9 8 10
Ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir Replacement 10% 250   >1,000
Mixed 51% 50 50 130
Surface or low 39% 65 15  
Great Basin Douglas-fir (dry) Replacement 12% 90   600
Mixed 14% 76 45  
Surface or low 75% 14 10 50
Aspen with conifer (low to midelevation) Replacement 53% 61 20  
Mixed 24% 137 10  
Surface or low 23% 143 10  
Douglas-fir (warm mesic interior) Replacement 28% 170 80 400
Mixed 72% 65 50 250
Aspen with conifer (high elevation) Replacement 47% 76 40  
Mixed 18% 196 10  
Surface or low 35% 100 10  
Stable aspen-cottonwood, no conifers Replacement 31% 96 50 300
Surface or low 69% 44 20 60
Spruce-fir-pine (subalpine) Replacement 98% 217 75 300
Mixed 2% >1,000    
Aspen with spruce-fir Replacement 38% 75 40 90
Mixed 38% 75 40  
Surface or low 23% 125 30 250
Stable aspen without conifers Replacement 81% 150 50 300
Surface or low 19% 650 600 >1,000
Northern Rockies
Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group) Fire severity* Fire regime characteristics
Percent of fires Mean interval
(years)
Minimum interval
(years)
Maximum interval
(years)
Northern Rockies Grassland
Mountain grassland Replacement 60% 20 10  
Mixed 40% 30    
Northern Rockies Shrubland
Mountain shrub, nonsagebrush Replacement 80% 100 20 150
Mixed 20% 400    
Mountain big sagebrush steppe and shrubland Replacement 100% 70 30 200
Northern Rockies Woodland
Ancient juniper Replacement 100% 750 200 >1,000
Northern Rockies Forested
Ponderosa pine (Northern Great Plains) Replacement 5% 300    
Mixed 20% 75    
Surface or low 75% 20 10 40
Ponderosa pine (Northern and Central Rockies) Replacement 4% 300 100 >1,000
Mixed 19% 60 50 200
Surface or low 77% 15 3 30
Ponderosa pine (Black Hills, low elevation) Replacement 7% 300 200 400
Mixed 21% 100 50 400
Surface or low 71% 30 5 50
Ponderosa pine (Black Hills, high elevation) Replacement 12% 300    
Mixed 18% 200    
Surface or low 71% 50    
Ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir Replacement 10% 250   >1,000
Mixed 51% 50 50 130
Surface or low 39% 65 15  
Douglas-fir (xeric interior) Replacement 12% 165 100 300
Mixed 19% 100 30 100
Surface or low 69% 28 15 40
Douglas-fir (warm mesic interior) Replacement 28% 170 80 400
Mixed 72% 65 50 250
Douglas-fir (cold) Replacement 31% 145 75 250
Mixed 69% 65 35 150
Grand fir-Douglas-fir-western larch mix Replacement 29% 150 100 200
Mixed 71% 60 3 75
Western larch-lodgepole pine-Douglas-fir Replacement 33% 200 50 250
Mixed 67% 100 20 140
Grand fir-lodgepole pine-larch-Douglas-fir Replacement 31% 220 50 250
Mixed 69% 100 35 150
Persistent lodgepole pine Replacement 89% 450 300 600
Mixed 11% >1,000    
Whitebark pine-lodgepole pine (upper subalpine, Northern and Central Rockies) Replacement 38% 360    
Mixed 62% 225    
Lower subalpine lodgepole pine Replacement 73% 170 50 200
Mixed 27% 450 40 500
Lower subalpine (Wyoming and Central Rockies) Replacement 100% 175 30 300
Upper subalpine spruce-fir (Central Rockies) Replacement 100% 300 100 600
Northern Great Plains
Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group) Fire severity* Fire regime characteristics
Percent of fires Mean interval
(years)
Minimum interval
(years)
Maximum interval
(years)
Northern Plains Woodland
Oak woodland Replacement 2% 450    
Surface or low 98% 7.5
Northern Great Plains wooded draws and ravines Replacement 38% 45 30 100
Mixed 18% 94    
Surface or low 43% 40 10  
Great Lakes
Vegetation Community (Potential Natural Vegetation Group) Fire severity* Fire regime characteristics
Percent of fires Mean interval
(years)
Minimum interval
(years)
Maximum interval
(years)
Great Lakes Woodland
Great Lakes pine barrens Replacement 8% 41 10 80
Mixed 9% 36 10 80
Surface or low 83% 4 1 20
Jack pine-open lands (frequent fire-return interval) Replacement 83% 26 10 100
Mixed 17% 125 10  
Great Lakes Forested
Great Lakes pine forest, jack pine Replacement 67% 50    
Mixed 23% 143    
Surface or low 10% 333
Pine-oak Replacement 19% 357    
Surface or low 81% 85    
Red pine-white pine (frequent fire) Replacement 38% 56    
Mixed 36% 60    
Surface or low 26% 84    
Red pine-white pine (less frequent fire) Replacement 30% 166    
Mixed 47% 105    
Surface or low 23% 220    
*Fire Severities:
Replacement=Any fire that causes greater than 75% top removal of a vegetation-fuel type, resulting in general replacement of existing vegetation; may or may not cause a lethal effect on the plants.
Mixed=Any fire burning more than 5% of an area that does not qualify as a replacement, surface, or low-severity fire; includes mosaic and other fires that are intermediate in effects.
Surface or low=Any fire that causes less than 25% upper layer replacement and/or removal in a vegetation-fuel class but burns 5% or more of the area [38,58].
  • 91. Smith, Jane Kapler; Fischer, William C. 1997. Fire ecology of the forest habitat types of northern Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-363. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 142 p. [27992]
  • 10. Ash, Maria; Lasko, Richard J. 1990. Postfire vegetative response in a whitebark pine community, Bob Marshall Wilderness, Montana. In: Schmidt, Wyman C.; McDonald, Kathy J., comps. Proceedings--symposium on whitebark pine ecosystems: ecology and management of a high-mountain resource; 1989 March 29-31; Bozeman, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-270. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 360-361. [11705]
  • 15. Bradley, Anne F.; Fischer, William C.; Noste, Nonan V. 1992. Fire ecology of the forest habitat types of eastern Idaho and western Wyoming. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-290. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 92 p. [19557]
  • 16. Bradley, Anne F.; Noste, Nonan V.; Fischer, William C. 1992. Fire ecology of forests and woodlands in Utah. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-287. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 128 p. [18211]
  • 32. Fischer, William C.; Bradley, Anne F. 1987. Fire ecology of western Montana forest habitat types. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-223. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 95 p. [633]
  • 47. Houston, Kent E.; Hartung, Walter J.; Hartung, Carol J. 2001. A field guide for forest indicator plants, sensitive plants, and noxious weeds of the Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-84. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 184 p. [40585]
  • 50. Johnson, Charles Grier, Jr. 1998. Vegetation response after wildfires in national forests of northeastern Oregon. R6-NR-ECOL-TP-06-98. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 128 p. plus appendices. [30061]
  • 61. Leege, Thomas A.; Godbolt, Grant. 1985. Herbaceous response following prescribed burning and seeding of elk range in Idaho. Northwest Science. 59(2): 134-143. [1436]
  • 63. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496]
  • 74. Patterson, Patricia A.; Neiman, Kenneth E.; Tonn, Jonalea. 1985. Field guide to forest plants of northern Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-180. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 246 p. [1839]
  • 77. Powell, David C. 1994. Effects of the 1980's western spruce budworm outbreak on the Malheur National Forest in northeastern Oregon. Tech. Pub. R6-FI&D-TP-12-94. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Natural Resources Staff, Forest Insects and Diseases Group. 176 p. [29717]
  • 96. Stickney, Peter F. 1982. Vegetation response to clearcutting and broadcast burning on north and south slopes at Newman Ridge. In: Baumgartner, David M., compiler. Site preparation and fuels management on steep terrain: Proceedings of a symposium; 1982 February 15-17; Spokane, WA. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Cooperative Extension: 119-124. [18538]
  • 108. Volland, Leonard A.; Dell, John D. 1981. Fire effects on Pacific Northwest forest and range vegetation. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Range Management and Aviation and Fire Management. 23 p. [2434]
  • 58. LANDFIRE Rapid Assessment. 2005. Reference condition modeling manual (Version 2.1), [Online]. In: LANDFIRE. Cooperative Agreement 04-CA-11132543-189. Boulder, CO: The Nature Conservancy; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service; U.S. Department of the Interior (Producers). 72 p. Available: http://www.landfire.gov/downloadfile.php?file=RA_Modeling_Manual_v2_1.pdf [2007, May 24]. [66741]
  • 59. LANDFIRE Rapid Assessment. 2007. Rapid assessment reference condition models, [Online]. In: LANDFIRE. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Lab; U.S. Geological Survey; The Nature Conservancy (Producers). Available: http://www.landfire.gov/models_EW.php [2008, April 18] [66533]
  • 38. Hann, Wendel; Havlina, Doug; Shlisky, Ayn; [and others]. 2005. Interagency fire regime condition class guidebook. Version 1.2, [Online]. In: Interagency fire regime condition class website. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service; U.S. Department of the Interior; The Nature Conservancy; Systems for Environmental Management (Producer). Variously paginated [+ appendices]. Available: http://www.frcc.gov/docs/1.2.2.2/Complete_Guidebook_V1.2.pdf [2007, May 23]. [66734]
  • 99. Stickney, Peter F.; Campbell, Robert B., Jr. 2000. Data base for early postfire succession in Northern Rocky Mountain forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-61-CD, [CD-ROM]. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [43743]

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Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: association, climax, cover, forb, presence, stand-replacing fire, wildfire

Ross's sedge is generally considered an early-seral species on disturbed sites [6,31,57,66,69,79,90,96,114] and has been described as an "aggressive pioneer" [39]. However, Ross's sedge is also found in developed or climax forest communities [2,4,19]. For example, Turner and others [106] described Ross's sedge in a 130 year-old lodgepole pine stand in Yellowstone National Park. A recent study of understory plant species composition in Wyoming found higher cover of Ross's sedge in 30- to 50-year-old clearcut stands than in adjacent mature (>100 years) coniferous forest established after wildfire, supporting descriptions that it is an early to mid-seral species [88].

Ross's sedge is present on sites during the first 10 years following severe fire [97]. It has been described as common following stand-replacing fire in Wyoming lodgepole pine [69] and was found on Douglas-fir and subalpine fir habitat types in Yellowstone in the first 5 years after fire [6]. Its presence in early successional vegetation after fire is due to regeneration from surviving rhizomes and soil-stored seed [15,16,32,77,91,96]. For more information, see Fire Adaptations. Ross's sedge often dominates the forb layer of early-successional forest vegetation [57] and is found in open forest stands [39,62]. Though Ross's sedge may occasionally occur on forest sites with moderate to heavy shade, it is generally shade intolerant [54,57], becoming less important and eventually eliminated as it is overtopped by taller plants [57]. Ross's sedge forms a dry grassland association in clearcuts or burned areas of montane and subalpine coniferous forests in Colorado. These early-seral communities eventually give way to reestablished canopy species (e.g., limber pine, lodgepole pine). Shade from the closing canopy reduces Ross's sedge abundance. If the forest is slow to develop, however, Ross's sedge grasslands may persist for decades or centuries [79].

  • 91. Smith, Jane Kapler; Fischer, William C. 1997. Fire ecology of the forest habitat types of northern Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-363. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 142 p. [27992]
  • 66. Marcum, Les. 1971. Vegetal development on montane fir clearcuts in western Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 122 p. Thesis. [36494]
  • 2. Alexander, Robert R. 1985. Major habitat types, community types and plant communities in the Rocky Mountains. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-123. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 105 p. [303]
  • 4. Alexander, Robert R. 1988. Forest vegetation on national forests in the Rocky Mountain and Intermountain regions: habitat and community types. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-162. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 47 p. [5903]
  • 6. Ament, Robert J. 1995. Pioneer plant communities five years after the 1988 Yellowstone fires. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 216 p. Thesis. [46923]
  • 15. Bradley, Anne F.; Fischer, William C.; Noste, Nonan V. 1992. Fire ecology of the forest habitat types of eastern Idaho and western Wyoming. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-290. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 92 p. [19557]
  • 16. Bradley, Anne F.; Noste, Nonan V.; Fischer, William C. 1992. Fire ecology of forests and woodlands in Utah. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-287. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 128 p. [18211]
  • 19. Clements, F. E. 1910. The life history of lodgepole burn forests. Bulletin 79. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 56 p. [7074]
  • 31. Edgerton, Paul J. 1987. Influence of ungulates on the development of the shrub understory of an upper slope mixed conifer forest. In: Provenza, Frederick D.; Flinders, Jerran T.; McArthur, E. Durant, compilers. Proceedings--symposium on plant-herbivore interactions; 1985 August 7-9; Snowbird, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-222. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 162-167. [7411]
  • 32. Fischer, William C.; Bradley, Anne F. 1987. Fire ecology of western Montana forest habitat types. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-223. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 95 p. [633]
  • 39. Hardy BBT Limited. 1989. Manual of plant species suitability for reclamation in Alberta. 2d ed. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council. Report No. RRTAC 89-4. 436 p. [15460]
  • 54. Klinka, K.; Krajina, V. J.; Ceska, A.; Scagel, A. M. 1989. Indicator plants of coastal British Columbia. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press. 288 p. [10703]
  • 57. Kramer, Neal B. 1984. Mature forest seed banks on three habitat types in central Idaho. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 106 p. Thesis. [1375]
  • 62. Lewis, Monte E. 1958. Carex -- its distribution and importance in Utah. In: Brigham Young University Science Bulletin: Biological Series. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 1(2): 1-4. [18788]
  • 69. Metzger, Kristine L.; Romme, William H.; Turner, Monica G. 2006. Foliar nitrogen patterns following stand-replacing fire in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests of the Rocky Mountains, USA. Forest Ecology and Management. 227(1-2): 22-30. [62289]
  • 77. Powell, David C. 1994. Effects of the 1980's western spruce budworm outbreak on the Malheur National Forest in northeastern Oregon. Tech. Pub. R6-FI&D-TP-12-94. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Natural Resources Staff, Forest Insects and Diseases Group. 176 p. [29717]
  • 79. Ramaley, Francis. 1919. The role of sedges in some Colorado plant communities. American Journal of Botany. 6: 120-130. [18409]
  • 88. Selmants, Paul C.; Knight, Dennis H. 2003. Understory plant species composition 30-50 years after clearcutting in southeastern Wyoming coniferous forests. Forest Ecology and Management. 185: 275-289. [46096]
  • 90. Simpson, Michael L. 1990. The subalpine fir/beargrass habitat type: Succession and management. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 134 p. Thesis. [13464]
  • 96. Stickney, Peter F. 1982. Vegetation response to clearcutting and broadcast burning on north and south slopes at Newman Ridge. In: Baumgartner, David M., compiler. Site preparation and fuels management on steep terrain: Proceedings of a symposium; 1982 February 15-17; Spokane, WA. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Cooperative Extension: 119-124. [18538]
  • 97. Stickney, Peter F. 1986. First decade plant succession following the Sundance Forest Fire, northern Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-197. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 26 p. [2255]
  • 106. Turner, Monica G.; Romme, William H.; Gardner, Robert H.; Hargrove, William W. 1997. Effects of fire size and pattern on early succession in Yellowstone National Park. Ecological Monographs. 67(4): 411-433. [27851]
  • 114. Zack, Arthur C.; Morgan, Penelope. 1994. Early succession on two hemlock habitat types in northern Idaho. In: Baumgartner, David M.; Lotan, James E.; Tonn, Jonalea R., compilers. Interior cedar-hemlock-white pine forests: ecology and management: Symposium proceedings; 1993 March 2-4; Spokane, WA. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Department of Natural Resources: 71-84. [25792]

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Regeneration Processes

More info for the term: monoecious

Ross's sedge regenerates from seed and rhizomes [39,108].

Pollination: No information is available on this topic.

Breeding system: Ross's sedge is monoecious [23,36,43,47,49,74,111].

Seed production: No information is available on this topic.

Seed dispersal: Ross's sedge has heavy seed [108] with no long-distance seed dispersal [57].

Seed banking: Ross's sedge has soil-stored seed with long-term viability [63,64,95,97,98]. A study of seed banks in Yellowstone National Park found Ross's sedge present in densities greater than 100 seeds/m² [18]. Seed banks studied in central Idaho found Ross's sedge seed stored in soil of 38 out of 48 forested plots. Seeds were found at depths of 0 to 25 inches (0-10 cm) with overall seed viability of 51% [57].

Germination: No information is available on this topic.

Seedling establishment/growth: No information is available on this topic.

Vegetative regeneration: Ross's sedge regenerates from short horizontal or ascending rhizomes following disturbance [39,108]. According to Garrison and Rummell [35], however, the rhizomes are regenerative only when attached to a living plant; once severed they die. According to Steele and Geier-Hayes [95], Ross's sedge is nonrhizomatous, and "sprouts readily following scarification but responds poorly to burning" [95].

  • 36. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 49. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403]
  • 18. Clark, David Lee. 1991. The effect of fire on Yellowstone ecosystem seed banks. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 115 p. Thesis. [36504]
  • 23. Cronquist, Arthur; Holmgren, Arthur H.; Holmgren, Noel H.; Reveal, James L.; Holmgren, Patricia K. 1977. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 6: The Monocotyledons. New York: Columbia University Press. 584 p. [719]
  • 35. Garrison, George A.; Rummell, Robert S. 1951. First-year effects of logging on ponderosa pine forest range lands of Oregon and Washington. Journal of Forestry. 49(10): 708-713. [16711]
  • 39. Hardy BBT Limited. 1989. Manual of plant species suitability for reclamation in Alberta. 2d ed. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council. Report No. RRTAC 89-4. 436 p. [15460]
  • 43. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 47. Houston, Kent E.; Hartung, Walter J.; Hartung, Carol J. 2001. A field guide for forest indicator plants, sensitive plants, and noxious weeds of the Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-84. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 184 p. [40585]
  • 57. Kramer, Neal B. 1984. Mature forest seed banks on three habitat types in central Idaho. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho. 106 p. Thesis. [1375]
  • 63. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496]
  • 64. Majerus, Mark E. 1991. Yellowstone National Park-Bridger Plant Materials Center native plant program. In: Rangeland Technology Equipment Council: 1991 annual report. 9222-2808-MTDC. Missoula, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Missoula Technology and Development Center, Technology and Development Program: 17-22. [17082]
  • 74. Patterson, Patricia A.; Neiman, Kenneth E.; Tonn, Jonalea. 1985. Field guide to forest plants of northern Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-180. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 246 p. [1839]
  • 95. Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1987. The grand fir/blue huckleberry habitat type in central Idaho: succession and management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-228. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 66 p. [8133]
  • 97. Stickney, Peter F. 1986. First decade plant succession following the Sundance Forest Fire, northern Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-197. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 26 p. [2255]
  • 98. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species comprising secondary plant succession in Northern Rocky Mountain forests. FEIS workshop: Postfire regeneration. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 10 p. [20090]
  • 108. Volland, Leonard A.; Dell, John D. 1981. Fire effects on Pacific Northwest forest and range vegetation. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Range Management and Aviation and Fire Management. 23 p. [2434]
  • 111. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: geophyte, hemicryptophyte

RAUNKIAER [81] LIFE FORM:
Hemicryptophyte
Geophyte
  • 81. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]

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Life Form

More info for the term: graminoid

Graminoid

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

Growth of Ross's sedge begins in spring. Flowering occurs during May and June [28].

  • 28. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The Plant Information Network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]

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Flowering/Fruiting

Fruiting mid Apr–early Sep.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Carex rossii

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Carex rossii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Information on state-level protected status of plants in the United States is available at Plants Database.

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Management

Management considerations

More info for the term: cover

Ross's sedge productivity increases when ponderosa pine stands are thinned [12].
A study of clearcutting in a Colorado subalpine forest found Ross's sedge present
on sites both before and after logging operations. Data were presented
for sedges in general, and on some sites sedge cover significantly (P=0.05)
increased in the 5 years after logging [24].
Ross's sedge often invades
sites or increases in coverage following mechanical scarification [9,66,77].
However, Ross's sedge may also be susceptible to damage during logging operations
because rhizomes can be displaced by log skidding [35].

Cole's [20] study of trampling and vegetation response
found that Ross's sedge was resistant to trampling, primarily
due to its cespitose growth form. The low matting habit and extensive
root system may allow Ross's sedge to withstand
moderate to severe grazing pressure [39].
  • 66. Marcum, Les. 1971. Vegetal development on montane fir clearcuts in western Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 122 p. Thesis. [36494]
  • 9. Arno, Stephen F.; Simmerman, Dennis G.; Keane, Robert E. 1985. Forest succession on four habitat types in western Montana. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-177. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 74 p. [349]
  • 20. Cole, David N. 1995. Experimental trampling of vegetation. II. Predictors of resistance and resilience. The Journal of Applied Ecology. 32(1): 215-224. [63279]
  • 35. Garrison, George A.; Rummell, Robert S. 1951. First-year effects of logging on ponderosa pine forest range lands of Oregon and Washington. Journal of Forestry. 49(10): 708-713. [16711]
  • 39. Hardy BBT Limited. 1989. Manual of plant species suitability for reclamation in Alberta. 2d ed. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council. Report No. RRTAC 89-4. 436 p. [15460]
  • 77. Powell, David C. 1994. Effects of the 1980's western spruce budworm outbreak on the Malheur National Forest in northeastern Oregon. Tech. Pub. R6-FI&D-TP-12-94. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Natural Resources Staff, Forest Insects and Diseases Group. 176 p. [29717]
  • 12. Barrett, James W. 1970. Ponderosa pine saplings respond to control of spacing and understory vegetation. Res. Pap. PNW-106. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 16 p. [15815]
  • 24. Crouch, Glenn L. 1985. Effects of clearcutting a subalpine forest in central Colorado on wildlife habitat. Res. Pap. RM-258. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 12 p. [8225]

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

More info for the term: reclamation

Ross's sedge has been rated as "highly persistent" when used for reclamation. The extensive root system and ability to establish and persist on unstable as well as compacted soils make Ross's sedge an excellent soil builder with good erosion control capability [39]. Ross's sedge may establish from either transplants or seed. An Oregon study of campsite rehabilitation found that Ross's sedge had 100% transplant survival over 7 years, and transplants increased substantially in both height and area [21]. Following a road-building project, Ross's sedge dominated unseeded disturbed areas [64].

A greenhouse study found a greater number of Ross's sedge seedlings emerged from heated soil samples than from unheated soil samples [100].

  • 39. Hardy BBT Limited. 1989. Manual of plant species suitability for reclamation in Alberta. 2d ed. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council. Report No. RRTAC 89-4. 436 p. [15460]
  • 64. Majerus, Mark E. 1991. Yellowstone National Park-Bridger Plant Materials Center native plant program. In: Rangeland Technology Equipment Council: 1991 annual report. 9222-2808-MTDC. Missoula, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Missoula Technology and Development Center, Technology and Development Program: 17-22. [17082]
  • 21. Cole, David N.; Spildie, David R. 2006. Restoration of plant cover in subalpine forests disturbed by camping: success of transplanting. Natural Areas Journal. 26(2): 168-178. [68315]
  • 100. Strickler, Gerald S.; Edgerton, Paul J. 1976. Emergent seedlings from coniferous litter and soil in eastern Oregon. Ecology. 57: 801-807. [2039]

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Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

More info for the term: cover

Ross's sedge is important summer elk forage, particularly in the first half of the growing season [14,56,65]. Grizzly bears also eat Ross's sedge [25] , and sedges (Carex spp.) are often important winter forage for mountain goats [1].

Palatability/nutritional value: Ross's sedge may be a poor to good forage plant depending on the site [39,62]. Palatability of Ross's sedge has been rated "fair" for domestic sheep, horses, cattle, and small mammals. It has been rated "good" for elk and "poor" for mule deer, white-tailed deer, and pronghorn [28].

In a study of seasonal nutrition trends in Oregon, grasses such as Thurber needlegrass (Achnatherum thurberianum), bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides), Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda), Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis), and prairie Junegrass (Koeleria macrantha) exceed Ross's sedge in protein, phosphorus, calcium, crude fat, and apparent digestibility in early spring. Crude fiber is high in March for Ross's sedge. As the growing season progresses through summer and into fall, Ross's sedge nutritional value increases to surpass the grasses in protein, calcium, crude fat, and apparent digestibility [44]. A Wenatchee National Forest, Washington study found oven-dry crude protein production of Ross's sedge ranged from 0 to 3.9 pounds per acre (4.4 kg/ha). This study also found that crude protein production of Ross's sedge on burned sites was more than double the production on unburned sites [14].

Cover value: Dittberner and Olson [28] rate Ross's sedge cover as poor for large game and fair for nongame birds and small mammals.

  • 1. Adams, Layne G.; Bailey, James A. 1983. Winter forages of mountain goats in central Colorado. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 47(4): 1237-1243. [68332]
  • 14. Boltz, Michael John. 1979. Impacts of prescribed burns and clearcuts upon summer elk food habits, diet quality, and distribution in central Washington. Pullman, WA: Washington State University. 129 p. Thesis. [60992]
  • 28. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The Plant Information Network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]
  • 39. Hardy BBT Limited. 1989. Manual of plant species suitability for reclamation in Alberta. 2d ed. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council. Report No. RRTAC 89-4. 436 p. [15460]
  • 62. Lewis, Monte E. 1958. Carex -- its distribution and importance in Utah. In: Brigham Young University Science Bulletin: Biological Series. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 1(2): 1-4. [18788]
  • 25. Davis, Dan; Butterfield, Bart. 1991. The Bitterroot Grizzly Bear Evaluation Area: A report to the Bitterroot Technical Review Team. Unpublished report on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 56 p. [30041]
  • 44. Hickman, O. Eugene. 1975. Seasonal trends in the nutritive content of important range forage species near Silver Lake, Oregon. Research Paper PNW-187. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 32 p. [1145]
  • 56. Korfhage, Robert C.; Nelson, Jack R.; Skovlin, Jon M. 1980. Summer diets of Rocky Mountain elk in northeastern Oregon. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 44(3): 746-750. [68334]
  • 65. Marcum, C. Les. 1979. Summer-fall food habits and forage preferences of a western Montana elk herd. In: Boyce, Mark S.; Hayden-Wing, Larry D., eds. North American elk: ecology, behavior and management. Laramie, WY: The University of Wyoming: 54-62. [39437]

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Wikipedia

Carex rossii

Carex rossii, commonly known as Ross's sedge, is a hardy, monoecious species of sedge that is often a pioneer species in areas with little or no established vegetation, or in places where disturbance has occurred. It flowers in May and June.[11][12]

Contents

Description

Carex rossii produces a dense clump, or solid mat of slender stems up to about 40 centimetres (16 in) from a shallow network of rhizomes. The pale to dark green leaves are usually longer than the stems. The inflorescences contain one or more staminate flower spikes above more rounded pistillate spikes. The fruit is three-sided, and covered in a greenish or brownish perigynium.[11][12]

Distribution

Carex rossii is native to, and sometimes abundant in, Alaska and subarctic Canada (Nunavut, Northwest Territories, and Yukon Territory); western Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan); and the contiguous U.S. (Arizona, California, Colorado, the Dakotas, Idaho, Minnesota, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.) It is found only sporadically in Ontario, Michigan, and Nebraska.[10][11][13]

Habitat

Carex rossii grows in many habitat types, including wet and dry areas in forest, sagebrush, prairie, and alpine meadows.[11][12]

Notes

  1. ^ C. rossii was first described in Flora Boreali-Americana; or, the botany of the northern parts of British America ... (Hooker), 2(11): 222 (-223). 1839.[1]
  2. ^ C. brevipes was published in Index Kewensis Plantarum Phanerogamarum ... , 1(1): 428. 1893. Oxford.[2]
  3. ^ C. deflexa var. farwellii was published in An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States (Britton & Brown), 1: 334. 1896.[3]
  4. ^ a b C. deflexa var. media, and C. d. var. rossii were both published in Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club, 1: 43. 1889.[4][5]
  5. ^ C. diversistylis was published in Madroño; Journal of the California Botanical Society, 11: 277. 1952. Berkeley, California.[6]
  6. ^ C. farwellii was published in Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 37: 244. 1910. New York.[7]
  7. ^ C. novae-angliae var. rossii was published in Botanical Gazette; Paper of Botanical Notes, 10: 207. 1885 Crawfordsville, Indiana, Chicago, Illinois.[8]

References

  1. ^ "Plant Name Details for Carex rossii". IPNI. http://www.ipni.org:80/ipni/idPlantNameSearch.do?id=47015-2. Retrieved August 23, 2010. "Type Information: Locality: "Hab. N. W. Coast. Douglas. Rocky Mountains. Drummond" (sic)"
  2. ^ "Plant Name Details for Carex brevipes". IPNI. http://www.ipni.org:80/ipni/idPlantNameSearch.do?id=45893-2. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  3. ^ "Plant Name Details for Carex deflexa var. farwellii". IPNI. http://www.ipni.org:80/ipni/idPlantNameSearch.do?id=46068-2. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  4. ^ "Plant Name Details for Carex deflexa var. media". IPNI. http://www.ipni.org:80/ipni/idPlantNameSearch.do?id=46069-2. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  5. ^ "Plant Name Details for Carex deflexa var. rossii". IPNI. http://www.ipni.org:80/ipni/idPlantNameSearch.do?id=1204453-2. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  6. ^ "Plant Name Details for Carex diversistylis". IPNI. http://www.ipni.org:80/ipni/idPlantNameSearch.do?id=299513-1. Retrieved August 23, 2010. "Notes: U.S.A. (Oregon)"
  7. ^ "Plant Name Details for Carex farwellii". IPNI. http://www.ipni.org:80/ipni/idPlantNameSearch.do?id=46164-2. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  8. ^ "Plant Name Details for Carex novae-angliae var. rossii". IPNI. http://www.ipni.org:80/ipni/idPlantNameSearch.do?id=46752-2. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  9. ^ "Name - Carex rossii Boott synonyms". Tropicos. Saint Louis, Missouri: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/NameSynonyms.aspx?nameid=9900282. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  10. ^ a b "Profile for Carex rossii (Ross' sedge)". PLANTS Database. USDA, NRCS. http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CARO5. Retrieved August 2, 2010.
  11. ^ a b c d Anderson, Michelle D. (2008). "Carex rossii". Fire Effects Information System (online). Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer): U.S.D.A; Forest Service. http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/graminoid/carros/all.html. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  12. ^ a b c Raymond Cranfill (1993). "Jepson Manual treatment for CAREX rossii". Jepson Manual Online. University & Jepson Herbaria; Regents of the University of California. http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?7928,7931,8048. Retrieved August 24, 2010.
  13. ^ GRIN (July 18, 2008). "Carex rossii information from NPGS/GRIN". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?9113. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

The scientific name of Ross's sedge is Carex rossii Boott (Cyperaceae) [23,29,30,33,36,40,41,43,45,47,49,51,52,53,74,84,93,109,110,111].
  • 36. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 45. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 49. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403]
  • 29. Dorn, Robert D. 1977. Flora of the Black Hills. Cheyenne, WY: Robert D. Dorn and Jane L. Dorn. 377 p. [820]
  • 30. Dorn, Robert D. 1984. Vascular plants of Montana. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 276 p. [819]
  • 23. Cronquist, Arthur; Holmgren, Arthur H.; Holmgren, Noel H.; Reveal, James L.; Holmgren, Patricia K. 1977. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 6: The Monocotyledons. New York: Columbia University Press. 584 p. [719]
  • 40. Hermann, Frederick J. 1941. The genus Carex in Michigan. The American Midland Naturalist. 25(1): 1-72. [68325]
  • 41. Hermann, Frederick J. 1970. Manual of the Carices of the Rocky Mountains and Colorado Basin. Agric. Handb. 374. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 397 p. [1139]
  • 43. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 47. Houston, Kent E.; Hartung, Walter J.; Hartung, Carol J. 2001. A field guide for forest indicator plants, sensitive plants, and noxious weeds of the Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-84. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 184 p. [40585]
  • 51. Johnson, W. M. 1964. Field key to the sedges of Wyoming. Bulletin 419. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Agricultural Experiment Station. 239 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. [7651]
  • 53. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2nd ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563]
  • 74. Patterson, Patricia A.; Neiman, Kenneth E.; Tonn, Jonalea. 1985. Field guide to forest plants of northern Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-180. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 246 p. [1839]
  • 84. Rydberg, Per Axel. 1906. Flora of Colorado. Bulletin 100. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado Agricultural College, Agricultural Experiment Station. 448 p. [63874]
  • 93. Standley, Paul C. 1921. Flora of Glacier National Park, Montana. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium. Vol. 22, Part 5. Washington, DC: United States National Museum, Smithsonian Institution: 235-438. [12318]
  • 109. Voss, Edward G. 1972. Michigan flora. Part I: Gymnosperms and monocots. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 488 p. [11471]
  • 110. Weber, William A. 1987. Colorado flora: western slope. Boulder, CO: Colorado Associated University Press. 530 p. [7706]
  • 111. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 33. Flora of North America Association. 2008. Flora of North America: The flora, [Online]. Flora of North America Association (Producer). Available: http://www.fna.org/FNA. [36990]
  • 52. Kartesz, John T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 1st ed. In: Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Chapel Hill, NC: North Carolina Botanical Garden (Producer). In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service; U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. [36715]

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Common Names

Ross's sedge

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