Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants densely cespitose. Culms pale brown to ivory at base, sometimes with a few brown fibrillose remains of previous year’s leaves, but not densely covered with fibrils; flowering stems 25–110(–200) cm, longer than leaves at maturity, 1–1.3 mm thick, glabrous. Leaves: sheaths glabrous, proximal ones ivory grading distally to light green, all bearing blades, pale hyaline on front; blades flat, (3–)5.5–8.5(–15) mm wide, glabrous on both surfaces, finely scabrous on margins. Inflorescences: peduncles of lateral spikes 5–20 mm, scabrous; peduncle of terminal spike less than 20 mm, scabrous; proximal bracts usually shorter than entire inflorescence; sheaths 20–100 mm; blades 2–3 mm wide. Lateral spikes: 3–5, 1 per node, the proximal well separated, erect to somewhat nodding, distal ones crowded near apex; proximal spikes pistillate with 15–40 spreading perigynia attached 1–1.5 mm apart, cylindric to elongate, 15–60 × 3–5 mm; distal spikes staminate or androgynous. Terminal spike staminate or androgynous with a few pistillate flowers at base, 15–40 × 2.5–3 mm. Pistillate scales white-hyaline with broad green midrib, oblong-lanceolate, shorter than mature perigynia, apex acute, cuspidate, or awned, glabrous. Perigynia green maturing to light brown, conspicuously 2-ribbed but otherwise veinless except for short inconpicuous veins at base, substipitate, tightly enveloping achene, obovoid, 4.5–6 × 1.4–1.8 mm, membranous, apex abruptly narrowed to tubular beak, glabrous; beak bidentate, slender, 2–3 mm, teeth 1 mm. Achenes sessile, 2.2–2.6 × 1.2–1.5 mm. 2n = 58 (Czechoslovakia, Germany, Great Britain, Iberian Peninsula, Poland, Sweden)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat & Distribution

Fruiting summer. Disturbed areas in deciduous forests; introduced; Ont.; N.Y., N.C.; Europe; introduced New Zealand.
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Associations

Foodplant / saprobe
sporodochium of Arthrinium dematiaceous anamorph of Arthrinium puccinioides is saprobic on often dry, bleached, dead leaf of Carex sylvatica
Remarks: season: (1-)3-5(-12)

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / miner
larva of Cerodontha staryi mines leaf of Carex sylvatica
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, opening by slit apothecium of Lophodermium caricinum is saprobic on dead leaf (mostly near base) of Carex sylvatica
Remarks: season: 5-6

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered, immersed pseudothecium of Phaeosphaeria eustoma is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex sylvatica
Remarks: season: 10-11

Foodplant / saprobe
subsessile apothecium of Rodwayella citrinula is saprobic on dead stem of Carex sylvatica
Remarks: season: 2-5

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Carex sylvatica

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Carex sylvatica

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 11
Specimens with Barcodes: 13
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Carex sylvatica

Carex sylvatica is a species of sedge found in deciduous woodlands across Europe. It typically reaches 60 cm (24 in) tall, and has an inflorescence made up of 3–5 pendent female spikes and a single male spike. It is also used as a garden plant, and has been introduced to North America and New Zealand.

Contents

Description [edit]

Carex sylvatica "resembles a small C. pendula",[2] growing to around 15–60 centimetres (6–24 in) tall, or up to 150 cm (5 ft) in exceptional cases.[1] Its rhizomes are very short, giving the plant a densely cespitose (tufted) form.[1][3] The leaves are 5–60 cm (2.0–24 in) long, 3–7 mm (0.12–0.28 in) wide[1] and 1.0–1.3 mm (0.04–0.05 in) thick,[3] with 17–31 parallel veins. The leaves have a slight keel, or are folded gently into an M-shape in cross-section.[1]

The top half or third of the stem bears the inflorescence, typically comprising 3–5 female spikes and a single apical male spike,[1] which may include a few female flowers at its base.[3] The female spikes are each 2.0–6.5 cm (0.8–2.6 in) long, and are held dangling on long, rough peduncles, arising from within a long leaf-sheath.[1] The male spike is much thinner, and is 1–4 cm (0.4–1.6 in) long.[1]

Distribution and ecology [edit]

Carex sylvatica is found across Europe, and into parts of Asia, as far east as Iran.[4] It has also been introduced to North America, where it occurs in Ontario, New York and North Carolina, and to New Zealand,[3] where it was first recorded in 1969.[5]

In its native range, C. sylvatica lives in deciduous woodlands on heavy soils; it is sometimes found in unwooded areas, but usually only as a relic of ancient woodland.[1] In North America, it is generally found in disturbed areas within deciduous woodland.[3]

Taxonomy [edit]

Carex sylvatica was first described by the English botanist William Hudson in his 1762 work Flora Anglica.[6] Hybrids have been reported between C. sylvatica and C. strigosa (in France) and between C. sylvatica and C. hirta (in Austria).[3] Its English common name is "wood-sedge",[1] or, in North America, "European woodland sedge".[3]

Uses [edit]

Carex sylvatica can be used in gardens as ground cover under trees or shrubs.[2] Carl Linnaeus recorded that the Sami people used the plant as an insulating wadding.[7]

References [edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j A. C. Jermy, D. A. Simpson, M. J. Y. Foley & M. S. Porter (2007). "Carex sylvatica Huds.". Sedges of the British Isles. BSBI Handbook No. 1 (3rd ed.). Botanical Society of the British Isles. pp. 334–336. ISBN 978-0-901158-35-2. 
  2. ^ a b Michael King & Piet Oudolf (1998). Gardening with Grasses. Frances Lincoln. p. 124. ISBN 9780711212022. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Joy Mastrogiuseppe, Paul E. Rothrock, A. C. Dibble & A. A. Reznicek (2002). "Carex sylvatica Hudson, Fl. Angl. 353. 1762". Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Cyperaceae. Flora of North America North of Mexico 23. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-515207-4. 
  4. ^ "Carex sylvatica". eMonocot. Retrieved May 11, 2013. 
  5. ^ "Carex sylvatica". Flora. New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. Retrieved May 11, 2013. 
  6. ^ William Hudson (1762). "Carex". Flora Anglica (in Latin). pp. 346–354. 
  7. ^ James Sowerby (1802). English botany 14. London: J. Davis. 
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Notes

Comments

No hybrids are reported in the flora, although in Europe Carex sylvatica hybridizes with C. strigosa and C. hirta.
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