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Range DescriptionThe species is distributed in the pantropics and subtropics including Yemen, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Korea, Taiwan, New Caledonia, Guyana and South Africa. It has not been recorded from Saudi Arabia, but is considered likely to occur (Chaudhary 2001). The species has been widely introduced and is considered a serious weed in agricultural crops.
In India, it is found at an altitude of up to 1,400 m in the Western Ghats. Widely distributed in Kerala (Thekkady, Periyar Tiger Reserve, Palghat), Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bihar, Gujarat, Goa, Karnataka (Udupi); Mizoram, Punjab, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Maharashtra (Ahmednagar, Akola, Amaravadi, Bombay, Chandrapur, Kolhapur, Nagpur, Nasik, Osmanabad, Pune, Raigad, Ratnagiri, Satara, Sholapur, Sindhudurg, Thane), Madhya Pradesh (Balaghat, Damoh, Dhar, Hoshangabad, Katni, Mandla, Panna, Rajnandgaon, Surguja) and Chattisgarh (Bastar, Bilaspur, Raipur) (Cook 1996, Lakshminarasimhan 1996, Khanna and Ram Saran 2001).
In the Arabian Peninsula, this species occurs on the escarpment from Wadi Hidran north to Rujum, but mostly in the high rainfall areas of Ibba and the central escarpment in Yemen (Wood 1997, Al Khulaidi in prep.).