Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

Both the flowers and foliage are ornamental. The "true blue" color of the upper petals is very rare among wildflowers. The flowers of Slender Dayflower are very similar to those of the introduced Commelina communis (Asiatic Dayflower). It differs from the latter species by its more erect stems, more slender leaves, and the joined upper margins at the base of its spathes. The Asiatic Dayflower can form rootlets at its nodes, thereby establishing vegetative colonies, and its seeds are irregular and wrinkled. Slender Dayflower, in contrast, does not form rootlets at its nodes and its seeds are smooth. Slender Dayflower is a highly variable species, and three different varieties have been described for Illinois
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Description

This native perennial wildflower is ½–2' tall and either unbranched or sparingly branched. The central stem is green, glabrous to pubescent (usually the latter), terete, erect, and rather succulent. A few alternate leaves occur along the length of the central stem (and any lateral stems); they are widely spreading and slightly recurved. The leaf blades are 2-6" long and ¼–1" across; they are medium green, glabrous (or nearly so), slightly fleshy, linear to lanceolate in shape, parallel-veined, and smooth along their margins. The base of each leaf blade is sessile, or it has short petiole. Each leaf has a closed sheath about ½" long. The upper margin of each sheath is rolled outward, above which there is a tuft of long hairs. There are both axillary and terminal flowers. The flowers usually occur individually, less often in cymes of 2-3. Each flower spans ¾–1¼" across, consisting of 2 large blue petals (above), 1 small white petal (below), 3 light green sepals, a pistil with a single slender style, and 6 stamens. The petals are well-rounded, but become very narrow at the base. There are 3 kinds of stamens
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Brief

"Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1 Year Assessed: 2010 Assessor/s: Kumar, B. Reviewer/s: Lakshminarasimhan, P., Gunaga, S., Rasingam, L. & Raghavan, R. Contributors: Molur, S. Justification: Commelina erecta is distributed worldwide. The usage of the plant has increased, but populations remain stable. No threats for the species and also no conservation actions needed. It is locally abundant so considered as a Least concern. Conservation Actions: No conservation action reported for the species."
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Brief

Flowering class: Monocot Habit: Herb
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Derivation of specific name

erecta: erect
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Description

General: Erect dayflower (Commelina erecta) is a native, perennial, warm-season forb. A member of the spiderwort (Commelinaceae) family, erect dayflower is said to be named for the three Commelin brothers who were all Dutch botanists, although only two were productive in their field. Erect dayflower’s two larger petals are said to represent the two Commelins who were published, while the third inconspicuous petal represents the unpublished brother (Ajilvsgi 1991).

Erect dayflower has a showy blue flower that is attractive, but ephemeral. Erect dayflower starts out erect, becoming decumbent as it matures (Correll & Johnston 1996). There are three varieties: erecta, deamiana, and angustifolia. Plants are highly variable and the individual varieties are difficult to distinguish (Gleason & Cronquist 1991). Erect dayflower is often considered a weed (Correll & Johnston 1996), especially in rice fields.

Distribution: For current distribution, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site.

Habitat: Erect dayflower can grow in both sandy and clayey soils in almost all habitats (Ajilvsgi 1991). It is found along streambanks, in gardens, on prairies, along roadsides, and in waste places (Jones 1982).

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Alternative names

whitemouth dayflower

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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Slender Dayflower is occasional in the western half of Illinois, NE Illinois, and southern Illinois, otherwise it is absent (see Distribution Map). Habitats include dry sand prairies, sand dunes, upland sandy woodlands, upland rocky woodlands, sandy savannas, thinly wooded bluffs and cliffs, rocky glades, sandy areas along railroads, and areas along sandy paths. Slender Dayflower benefits from occasional wildfires as this reduces the encroachment of woody vegetation. Generally, plants with more slender leaves (var. angustifolia and var. deamii) are more common in prairies than the typical variety.
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Range Description

Commelinea erecta is distributed world wide. In Americas, tropical Africa, West Indies, Australia and Asia. In India it is reported from Andhra Pradesh (Rao and Kumari 2008) Gujarat, Kerala, Maharasthra (Lakshminarasimhan 1996), Madhya Pradesh (Khanna and Ram Saran 2001), Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu (Bhargavan 1989).
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"Found along water courses, moist places from plains to 1000m. Common. Africa, India and Australia."
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"
Global Distribution

India, Africa and Australia

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Palakkad, Idukki, Pathanamthitta, Kozhikkode, Thrissur

"
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"Range Description: Commelinea erecta is distributed world wide. In Americas, tropical Africa, West Indies, Australia and Asia. In India it is reported from Andhra Pradesh (Rao and Kumari 2008) Gujarat, Kerala, Maharasthra (Lakshminarasimhan 1996), Madhya Pradesh (Khanna and Ram Saran 2001), Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu (Bhargavan 1989). Countries - Native: Angola; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Bahamas; Barbados; Benin; Botswana; Burundi; Cameroon; Canada; Central African Republic; Colombia; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Ecuador; Ethiopia; Gabon; Ghana; Grenada; Guinea; India (Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu); Jamaica; Kenya; Liberia; Malawi; Mozambique; Namibia; Nigeria; Panama; Rwanda; Sierra Leone; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Trinidad and Tobago; Uganda; United States (Arizona, Florida, Georgia, Iowa, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas, West Virginia); Zimbabwe; Vagrant: Peru"
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Adaptation

Erect dayflower can be found from New York and Wisconsin south to Arizona and Florida, west to Wyoming, and throughout most of the eastern United States. Variety erecta extends throughout most of the range of the species, while angustifolia is primarily found in Texas, and deamiana grows on sand dunes from Indiana and southern Michigan to Nebraska and is sometimes found as far south and west as Texas and Arizona (Gleason & Cronquist 1991).

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Physical Description

Morphology

"
Flower

In terminal clusters; blue. Flowering throughout the year.

Fruit

A 3-celled capsule, 2-valved; seeds 3, ashy, adnate to the capsule wall. Fruiting throughout the year.

Field tips

Leaves and spathes ciliate along margin. Flowers relatively large for the genus.

Leaf Arrangement

Alternate-spiral

Leaf Type

Simple

Leaf Shape

Oblong-lanceolate

Leaf Apex

Acuminate

Leaf Base

Obliquely obtuse

Leaf Margin

Entire-ciliate

"
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Description

Herbs, perennial. Roots fleshy, stout, tufted. Stems cespitose, usually erect to ascending (rarely decumbent, rooting at nodes). Leaves: leaf sheath auriculate at apex; blade sessile or petiolate, linear to lanceolate (rarely lanceolate-ovate), 5--15 ´ 0.3--4 cm, apex acuminate (rarely acute). Inflorescences: distal cyme vestigial, included; spathes solitary or clustered, green, pedunculate, not at all to strongly falcate, 1--2.5(--4) ´ 0.7--1.5(--2.5) cm, margins longly connate, glabrous except along connate edge, apex acute to acuminate, sometimes purple, usually variously pubescent; peduncles 0.5--1(--2) cm. Flowers bisexual and staminate, 1.5--4 cm wide; proximal petal minute, white, distal petals blue (rarely lavender or white); staminodes 3, staminodes and medial stamen entirely yellow; antherodes cruciform. Capsules 3-locular, 2-valved (very rarely 3-valved), 3.5--4.5 ´ 3--5 mm; abaxial locule warty, indehiscent (very rarely smooth and dehiscent); adaxial locules smooth, dehiscent. Seeds 3, brown, with soft, whitish tissue at both ends or in a band, 2.4--3.5 ´ 2.3--2.8 mm, nearly smooth. 2n = 60.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Habit: A medium-sized spreading herb, upto 80cm."
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Diagnostic

"Decumbent herbs; stem 20-40 cm high, pubescent on one side. Leaves 8-12 x 2.5 cm, narrowly elliptic-lanceolate, acute at base, scabrid. Spathe 1 x 2 cm, acute on one side, shortly peduncled. Cymes few in a spathe, 2-4-flowered. Flowers 13 cm across; sepals 5 x 3 mm, obovate, acute; petals clawed, blue; stamens 3, one anther shorter than others; ovary 3-celled, 3-ovuled, glabrous. Capsule 3-celled, glabrous; seeds 4 x 3 mm, oblong, powdery."
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Synonym

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Type Information

Isotype for Commelina elegans var. hirsuta Standl.
Catalog Number: US 1408024
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): P. C. Standley
Year Collected: 1927
Locality: Quebrada Seca., Yoro, Honduras, Central America
  • Isotype: Standley, P. C. 1930. Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 8: 136.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Slender Dayflower is occasional in the western half of Illinois, NE Illinois, and southern Illinois, otherwise it is absent (see Distribution Map). Habitats include dry sand prairies, sand dunes, upland sandy woodlands, upland rocky woodlands, sandy savannas, thinly wooded bluffs and cliffs, rocky glades, sandy areas along railroads, and areas along sandy paths. Slender Dayflower benefits from occasional wildfires as this reduces the encroachment of woody vegetation. Generally, plants with more slender leaves (var. angustifolia and var. deamii) are more common in prairies than the typical variety.
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology

Commonly grows in muddy soil, marshes and in between rocks (Khanna and Ram Saran 2001). However, Cook (1996) has excluded this species stating that it is not a wetland species.


Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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General Habitat

"Habitat and Ecology: Commonly grows in muddy soil, marshes and in between rocks (Khanna and Ram Saran 2001). However, Cook (1996) has excluded this species stating that it is not a wetland species. Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater List of Habitats: 5, 5.7, 5.8, 6"
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General Habitat

Grasslands and moist deciduous forests
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Habitat & Distribution

Flowering spring--fall. Rocky woods and hillsides, scrub oak woods, pine woods and barrens, sand dunes, hummocks, shale barrens, roadsides, railroad rights-of-way, fields, and occasionally a weed in cultivated ground; Ala., Ark., Ariz., Colo., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Md., Miss., Mo., Nebr., N.C., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., Okla., Pa., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va., W.Va., Wis.; Central America.
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Dispersal

Establishment

Erect dayflower can be grown from cuttings or seed. An informal germination test conducted in the greenhouse at the Kika de la Garza PMC yielded a germination average of 87% with approximately twelve hours of daylight at 75 to 85ºF and twelve hours of darkness at 50 to 60ºF. Cuttings of dayflower had about an 80% survival rate with one node and three node stem cuttings. It is recommended that a rooting hormone be used to encourage rapid rooting. Cuttings and seedlings can be transplanted in 6 to 8 weeks. Irrigation is recommended, although not critical, at drier sites to help the young plants get established. It is recommended that young plants be at least 6 inches in height before transplanting.

The use of plastic plant shelters is beneficial to protect young plants from heavy grazing, reduce plant competition, and create a more beneficial microclimate until young plants can get established.

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Associations

Faunal Associations

The flowers are pollinated by various long-tongued bees, which collect pollen from the food stamen. No nectar is provided as a floral reward. A group of several leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae) are known to feed on Slender Dayflower; the larvae typically bore through the stems, while the adults occasionally feed on the leaves. These leaf beetle species include
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: July-October
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Commelina erecta

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Kumar, B.

Reviewer/s
Lakshminarasimhan, P., Gunaga, S., Rasingam, L. & Raghavan, R.

Contributor/s
Molur, S.

Justification
Commelina erecta is distributed worldwide. The usage of the plant has increased, but populations remain stable. No threats for the species and also no conservation actions needed. It is locally abundant so considered as a Least concern.
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"Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1 Year Assessed: 2010 Assessor/s: Kumar, B. Reviewer/s: Lakshminarasimhan, P., Gunaga, S., Rasingam, L. & Raghavan, R. Contributors: Molur, S. Justification: Commelina erecta is distributed worldwide. The usage of the plant has increased, but populations remain stable. No threats for the species and also no conservation actions needed. It is locally abundant so considered as a Least concern. Conservation Actions: No conservation action reported for the species."
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Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status (e.g. threatened or endangered species, state noxious status, and wetland indicator values).

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Population

Population
It is a wide spread species.

Population Trend
Stable
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Population: It is a wide spread species. Population Trend: Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
Their is no threat information for the species.
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Major Threat (s): Their is no threat information for the species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
No conservation action reported for the species.
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Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

Contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service) office for more information. Look in the phone book under ”United States Government.” The Natural Resources Conservation Service will be listed under the subheading “Department of Agriculture.”

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Seed production

The seed of erect dayflower is easy to process once harvested. However, the prostrate and indeterminate growth form of erect dayflower results in harvests of very small quantities of seed. This makes commercial production of large quantities of seed uneconomical, and limits its use for large-scale seedings and plantings.

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Weed control is a problem in a dayflower plot as the leggy plants make it difficult to remove the weeds without removing the plants. A weed mat is recommended for situations, such as seed or plant production plantings, where weed control is a necessity. In other situations, such as deer food plots, weed control may not be an issue. Irrigation is recommended during drier periods for seed and plant production plantings.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is partial to full sun, mesic to dry conditions, and sandy or rocky soil.
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Folklore

Indigenous Information: Cattle graze on the plant.
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Uses

Good fodder for cattle.
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Uses

Erect dayflower is said to be a preferred food source for white-tailed deer (Chamrad & Box 1968; Drawe 1968), so it is a good plant to consider when establishing deer food plots. Erect dayflower is also grazed by cattle (Everitt, Drawe, & Lonard 1999). In addition, its seeds are eaten by bobwhite quail, white-winged doves, and mourning doves (Everitt, Drawe, & Lonard 1999). Erect dayflower can also be a good plant for native area restoration projects.

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Wikipedia

Commelina erecta

Commelina erecta, commonly known as the white mouth dayflower or slender dayflower, is a perennial herb native throughout the Americas, Africa and western Asia. It is considered to be the most variable species of Commelina in North America. Fernald recognized three varieties, but Robert B. Faden has questioned their significance.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Commelina erecta is native to much of the world, including the Americas, Africa and western Asia. In the Americas it is present in the United States, the West Indies, every country of Central America and south through the tropics into Argentina. In the United States it can be found from New York and Nebraska in the north, south to Florida and Texas.[3] In the West Indies it is present throughout Puerto Rico and on several of the Virgin Islands such as Saint Croix, Saint Thomas, Saint John, George Dog Island, Anegada, Great Camanoe, Guana Island, Tortola and Water Island.[4]

In tropical Africa the plant is also widespread. In west Africa it is present in Senegal, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Liberia, the Ivory Coast, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Benin, Nigeria, and Bioko.[5]

In the West Indies it is common in disturbed sites as well as in dry to moist woods from sea level up to 1300 meters.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Commelina erecta". NatureServe Explorer. NatureServe. Retrieved 2007-12-12. 
  2. ^ De Egea, J.; Pena-Chocarro, M.; Espada, C.; Knapp, S. (2012). "Checklist of vascular plants of the Department of Ñeembucú, Paraguay". PhytoKeys 9 (9): 15–179. doi:10.3897/phytokeys.9.2279. PMC 3281576. PMID 22371688.  edit
  3. ^ Faden, Robert (2006), "Commelina erecta", in Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+, Flora of North America online 22, New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press, retrieved 2007-12-12 
  4. ^ a b Acevedo-Rodriguez, Pedro; Strong, Mark T. (2005), "Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands", Contributions of the United States National Herbarium 52: 158 
  5. ^ Brenan, J.P.M. (1968), "Commelinaceae", in Hutchinson, J.; Dalziel, J.M., Flora of West Tropical Africa 3, pp. 49–50 
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Notes

Comments

Commelina erecta grows in temperate regions of North and Central America, as well as in tropical regions. 

 This is by far the most variable species of Commelina in the flora. Three freely intergrading varieties may be recognized, although they are of questionable significance: C. erecta var. erecta, with larger leaves lanceolate to lanceolate-ovate, (1.5--)2--4 cm wide, and spathes (2.2--)2.5--3.6 cm, occurs throughout our region; C. erecta var. angustifolia (Michaux) Fernald, with leaves linear to narrowly lanceolate, 0.3--1.5 cm wide, and spathes 1--2 cm, is mainly southern but extends as far north as Virginia; and C. erecta var. deamiana Fernald, with leaves linear to narrowly lanceolate, 0.5--1.7 cm wide, and spathes 2--3.5 cm, occurs in midwestern United States south to Texas.

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Three wide-ranging varieties recognized by Kartesz (5/98 review draft) but not by Faden (5/98 FNA review draft).

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