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BiologyBrown galingale is an annual species, and germinates in early summer (3) when the seed-bank is exposed by retreating water levels (6). In Britain, flowers, which are wind-pollinated, are produced from July to September, and fruit is set soon after flowering (6). Whilst most seeds probably do not disperse far, dispersal by floodwater along river valleys is likely, and seeds have been found in mud attached to birds (6). The life-cycle can be completed within just 4 months (6), and it seems that the seeds are able to lie dormant in the soil for some time, as germination has been reported after disturbance of the ground several years after the species has disappeared from a site (3).