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Comprehensive Description

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Chrosiothes Simon, 1894

(Figs. 8A-C)

Simon, 1894. Historie Naturelle des Araignées , vol. 1, p. 521. Type species by original designation and monotypy: C. silvaticus Simon , 1894, ibid.

Diagnosis. Opisthosoma with a leaf-like and spotted color pattern on dorsum (Fig. 6 A , C ). In other genera, there exists a pattern made by silver spots that form longitudinal bands (e.g., Thwaitesia ) (Figs. 9 D , 10 A ), or spotting and points without a defined pattern (e.g., Episinus ) (Fig. 8D-F). The patella I-IV presents each an outer lateral tubercle conspicuous, while in all remaining spintharinae genera tubercles are inconspicuous (e.g., Stemmops ) (Figs. 9B-C). The cymbium of pedipalp is triangular in shape, while oval (other Spintharinae ) or sickle-shaped ( Latrodectinae ). A sheet-like web shape is present in Chrosiothes (Eberhard et al. 2008, figs. 8A-E; 9A-E), while the remaining genera have an irregular or “H” -like web (Eberhard et al. 2008, fig. 10A-C). Levi (1954b; 1964b) and Levi and Levi (1962) report the presence of humps in the opisthosoma as a diagnostic character, however, we recognize that some species lack humps (Fig. 8A-B), therefore this character would not be useful to diagnose all Chrosiothes species.

Distribution. Mainly in tropical areas. Occurs almost exclusively in the New World but the distribution includes countries like China, Korea, Japan and Taiwan (Platnick 2013).

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