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Chrosiothes Simon, 1894

(Figs. 8A-C)

Simon, 1894. Historie Naturelle des Araignées , vol. 1, p. 521. Type species by original designation and monotypy: C. silvaticus Simon , 1894, ibid.

Diagnosis. Opisthosoma with a leaf-like and spotted color pattern on dorsum (Fig. 6 A , C ). In other genera, there exists a pattern made by silver spots that form longitudinal bands (e.g., Thwaitesia ) (Figs. 9 D , 10 A ), or spotting and points without a defined pattern (e.g., Episinus ) (Fig. 8D-F). The patella I-IV presents each an outer lateral tubercle conspicuous, while in all remaining spintharinae genera tubercles are inconspicuous (e.g., Stemmops ) (Figs. 9B-C). The cymbium of pedipalp is triangular in shape, while oval (other Spintharinae ) or sickle-shaped ( Latrodectinae ). A sheet-like web shape is present in Chrosiothes (Eberhard et al. 2008, figs. 8A-E; 9A-E), while the remaining genera have an irregular or “H” -like web (Eberhard et al. 2008, fig. 10A-C). Levi (1954b; 1964b) and Levi and Levi (1962) report the presence of humps in the opisthosoma as a diagnostic character, however, we recognize that some species lack humps (Fig. 8A-B), therefore this character would not be useful to diagnose all Chrosiothes species.

Distribution. Mainly in tropical areas. Occurs almost exclusively in the New World but the distribution includes countries like China, Korea, Japan and Taiwan (Platnick 2013).

Material examined. Chrosiothes chirica : MEXICO , [Parque Nacional] Desierto de los Leones , [ 19° 15' 12" N , 99° 19' 51" W ], Distrito Federal , 23 April 1946 , J. C. & D. L. Pallister , 1 ♀ ( AMNH ) . U. S. A. , Utah , Hughes Canyon , 20 May 1934 , H. W. Levi , 4 ♂ and 12 immature ( AMNH ) ; same data but 20 May 1934 , Wilton Ivie , 8 ♂ , 4 ♀ and 4 immature ( AMNH ) ; Utah , Hughes Canyon , 29 June 1935 , H. W. Levi , 4 ♂ , 2 ♀ ( AMNH ) ; same data but 29 June 1935 , H. W. Levi , 1 ♂ y 6 immature ( AMNH ) ; Arizona , White Mountains, 17 mi . NE Whiteriver , 8-10 July 1940 , J. M. Gertsch , 1 ♀ ( AMNH ) ; Arizona , Santa Rita Mountains, Madera Canyon , 16 July 1940 , Getrsch & Hook , 1 ♀ ( AMNH ) ; Utah , Mill Creek Canyon 1 to 2 min up , 40° 40' N111° 43' W , 21 August 1941 , J. C. Chamberlin , 1 ♀ ( AMNH ) ; Arizona , Rustlers Cam, Chiricahua Mountains , 1 June 1952 , M. Cazier , W. Gertsch & R. Schrammel , 1 ♂ ( holotype ) ( AMNH ) ; same data but 1 June 1952 , M. Cazier , W. Gertsch & R. Schrammel , 2 immature ( AMNH ) ; Colorado , Piedra, County of Archuleta , 21 July 1952 , L. R. & H. W. Levi , 1 ♂ ( AMNH ) . Chrosiothes portalensis : MEXICO , Nayarit , a 15 min. al N de Tepic , 25 July 1954 , W. J. Gertsch , 1 ♂ ( paratype ) ( MCZ ) ; Jalisco , [Mpio. La Huerta, San Patricio], Estacion de Biologia Chamela, [Km 59 Carretera federal 200, Barra de Navidad-Puerto Vallarta] , 12 July 1989 , S. Guzman , 1 ♀ ( CNAN ) ; same data but 20 August 1989 , S. Guzman , 1 ♀ ( CNAN ) . U. S. A. , Arizona , County of Cochise, Chiricahua Mountains, S WRS, Cave Creck Canyon , August 1856 , A. F. Archer , 1 ♀ ( AMNH ) ; Arizona , Chiricahua Mountains, Rustler Camp , 09 October 1950 , W. J. Gertsch , 14 immature ( AMNH ) ; Arizona , County of Cochise, Southwestern Research Sta, 5 mi . of West of Portal , 5-15 August 1955 , M. J. Gertsch , ♂ ( holotype ), 1 ♀ ( paratype ) ( AMNH ) ; same data but 1 ♀ ( paratype ) ( MCZ ) . Chrosiothes silvaticus : ECUADOR , Machala, Buenavista 20 km S.E. , 11 November 1942 , Moore, E. , 1 ♂ ( MCZ-83505 ) . COSTA RICA , San Jose , San Antonio de Escazu , 1300 m . , W. Eberhard , 1 ♀ ( MCZ-83502 ) ; Provincia de Cartago , [Town of] Turrialba , 23 July-15 August 1965 , A. M. Chickering , 1 ♀ ( MCZ-83503 ) . GUATEMALA , [ Department Alta Verapaz ], [Municipality] Coban , July 1947 , C. & P. Vaurie , 1 ♂ ( AMNH ) . PANAMA , Canal Zone , [Lago Gatun ], Barro Colorado Island , 23-30 June 1934 , A. M. Chickering , 1 ♀ ( MCZ-83880 ) ; Canal Zone , Isla Barro Colorado , 16 June-15 July 1934 , A. M. Chickering , 3 ♀ ( MCZ-83881 ) ; Canal Zone , [ Lago Gatun ], Barro Colorado Island , 25-28 June 1936 , A. M. Chickering , 3 ♀ , 1 immature ( MCZ-83890 ) ; same data but 7-9 July 1936 , A. M. Chickering , 1 ♀ ( MCZ-83889 ) ; Canal Zone , 28 July 1936 , A. M. Chickering , 2 ♀ ( MCZ-83891 ); El Valle , July 1936 , A. M. Chickering , 1 ♂ ( MCZ-83509 ) ; Barro Colorado Island, [Lago Gatun ], Canal Zone , 6-9 August 1936 , A. M. Chickering , 1 ♂ ( MCZ-83884 ) ; Barro Colorado Island, [Lago Gatun ], Canal Zone , 23-30 June 1939 , A. M. Chickering , 1 ♂ ( MCZ-83894 ) ; Canal Zone , [ Lago Gatun ], Barro Colorado Island , 28-31 July 1939 , A. M. Chickering , 1 ♀ ( MCZ-83883 ) ; Canal Zone , [ Lago Gatun ], Barro Colorado Island , June 1950 , A. M. Chickering , 2 ♀ ( MCZ-83886 ) ; same data but June 1950 , A. M. Chickering , 1 ♀ ( MCZ-83888 ) ; [ Barro Colorado Island, Lago Gatun ], Canal Zone , Summit , 7-10 July 1950 , A. M. Chickering , 1 ♀ ( MCZ-83882 ) ; Canal Zone , Sumit , 16-17 August 1950 , A. M. Chickering , 1 ♂ ( MCZ-83885 ) ; Canal Zone , [ Lago Gatun ], Barro Colorado Island , August 1950 , A. M. Chickering , 1 ♀ , ( MCZ-83893 ) ; Canal Zone , [Lago Gatun ], Barro Colorado Island , 22 July 1954 , A. M. Chickering , 1 ♀ ( MCZ-83892 ) ; [ Prov. Chiriqui ], [Town] Boquete , 4-11 August 1954 , A. M. Chickering , 1 ♀ , ( MCZ-83508 ) ; Canal Zone , [ Lago Gatun ], Barro Colorado Island , 21 August 1954 , A. M. Chickering , 1 ♀ ( MCZ-83887 ) . Canal Zone , [ Lago Gatun ], Barro Colorado Island , May 1964 , A. M. Chickering , 3 ♀ ( MCZ-83895 ) ; Barro Colorado Island, [Lago Gatun ], Canal Zone , 17-19 March 1967 , A. M. Chickering , 1 ♀ ( MCZ-83507 ) ; [ Canal Zone , Lago Gatun ], Barro Colorado Island , 21 June 1973 , Y. Lubin , ( MCZ-83504 ) ; [ Barro Colorado Island, Lago Gatun , Canal Zone ], A. M. Chickering , 1 ♂ , 1 ♀ ( MCZ-83896 ) . U. S. A. , Florida , County of Hernando, Brooksville , 25 February 1935 , Barrows , 1 ♂ ( holotype ) ( AMNH ) . Chrosiothes tonala : MEXICO , Jalisco , [ Mpio. La Huerta, San Patricio], Estacion de Biologia Chamela, [Km. 59 Carretera federal 200, Barra de Navidad-Puerto Vallarta ], September 1990 , W. Eberhard , 2 ♀ ( MCZ ) ; Chiapas , Tonala , August 1909 , 1 ♂ ( holotype ), 1 ♀ ( allotype ) ( AMNH ) .

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