Overview

Distribution

Range Description

P. gramineus occurs throughout most of Europe, from Spain north to Ireland and Iceland, east throughout European Russia, to Turkey and the northern Mediterranean. Outside Europe, it occurs throughout northern Asia east to the Korean Peninsula and Japan and throughout most of North America (The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2010).

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Circumboreal. Que., N.S., Nfld., Lab. AK, AZ, CA, CO, CT, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, MA, ME, MI, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH. OR, PA, RI, SD, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY.

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Greenland; St. Pierre and Miquelon; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.W.T., N.S., Nunavut, Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon; Alaska, Ariz., Calif., Colo., Conn., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.Dak., Ohio, Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.Dak., Utah, Vt., Wash., Wis., Wyo.; Eurasia.
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Distribution: Temperate and arctic regions of Europe, Asia and N. America.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Similar to the previous species but submerged leaves acute or acuminate with minutely or obscurely denticulate margins. Emerged or floating leaves elliptic or ovate-elliptic, petiolate, with cuneate to rounded bases, many veined; submerged leaves sessile, narrowly elliptic or elliptic-oblong to oblanceolate-oblong, translucent, margin minutely denticulate, acute or acuminate, 7-many nerved; stipules conspicuous. Fruitlets 2-3 mm long.
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Description

Rhizomes present. Cauline stems terete to flattened, without spots, to 150 cm; nodal glands absent. Turions absent. Leaves both submersed and floating or submersed only, ± spirally arranged. Submersed leaves sessile or rarely petiolate, lax; stipules persistent, inconspicuous, convolute, free from blade, pale green to brown, not ligulate, 1.3--1.6 cm, not fibrous, not shredding at tip, apex acute to obtuse; petioles to 3 cm; blade light green to brownish green, elliptic, not arcuate, 3.1--9.1 cm ´ 3--27 mm, base attenuate, without basal lobes, not clasping, margins entire, rarely crispate, apex not hoodlike, acuminate, lacunae in 1--2 rows each side of midvein; veins 3--9. Floating leaves: petioles continuous in color to apex, 3--4.5 cm; blade yellow-green to dark green, elliptic to ovate, 3.5--4 cm ´ 16--20 mm, base rounded, apex acuminate; veins 11--13. Inflorescences emersed, unbranched; peduncles not dimorphic, both axillary and terminal, erect to ascending, cylindric, 3.2--7.7 cm; spikes not dimorphic, cylindric, 15--35 mm. Fruits sessile, greenish brown, ovoid, laterally compressed, abaxially and laterally keeled, 1.9--2.3 ´ 1.8--2 mm, lateral keels without points; beak erect, 0.3--0.5 mm; sides without basal tubercles; embryo with less than 1 full spiral. 2n = 52.
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Diagnostic Description

Stem terete or slightly flattened, not black spotted. Many submersed leaves more than 4 mm wide, 3-8 cm long, with 3-9 veins, sessile, not cordate or auriculate at the base. Stipular sheath 1-3 cm long. Beak of the achene less than 1.5 mm long and lacking a basal appendage. Plants not red tinged.

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Synonym

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology

P. gramineus will occur in most oligotrophic to mesotrophic water body types, from large lakes through ponds to temporary pools in fens and marshes as well as streams and even fairly large, fast-flowing rivers.



Systems
  • Freshwater
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Ponds, lakes, streams, and rivers; 0--3500m.
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General Ecology

Extremely variable in size and shape fluctuation may be due to differences in depth and velocity of the waters in which it grows.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering summer--fall.
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Reproduction

N=26, frequently hybridizes.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Potamogeton gramineus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Potamogeton gramineus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 8
Specimens with Barcodes: 12
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Lansdown, R.V.

Reviewer/s
Smith, K.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is classed as Least Concern as it is widespread with stable populations and does not face any major threats.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Population

Population
Whilst there have been some local declines, these appear to be linked to the general loss and degradation of aquatic habitats and there is no evidence to suggest that P. gramineus is suffering a widespread population decline. For example, it is in serious decline in the Czech Republic where it has been confirmed only in several localities in recent years (Kaplan 2010).

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats

There are no known past, ongoing, or future threats to the survival of this species.

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

It is classed as Critically Endangered in the Czech Republic (Procházka 2001). There are no conservation measures in place or needed.

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Wikipedia

Potamogeton gramineus

Description[edit]

Potamogeton gramineus is a species of aquatic plant known by the common name various-leaved pondweed,variableleaf pondweed, or grassy pondweed. This is a perennial herb growing from a creeping rhizome that anchors in wet substrate. It produces thin, cylindrical, heavily branching stems usually less than a metre in length. The submerged leaves are sessile, relatively narrow, typically 40–90 mm long and 5–12 mm wide along the main stem but smaller on the side branches.[1] They are translucent and pale green with a white midrib, and finely toothed. Floating leaves are more oval in shape, 20–70 mm long by 7–34 mm wide,[1] and borne on long petioles. The inflorescence is a short spike of many flowers arising from the water on a stout peduncle.

This species readily hybridizes with many other species of Potamogeton. Hybrids have been recorded with P. perfoliatus, P. lucens, P. natans, P. coloratus, P. alpinus and P. polygonifolius.[1] In Britain, the hybrids with P. perfoliatus (P. x nitens) and P. lucens (P. x angustifolius) are quite common. Recent molecular analysis has shown that Swedish collections of the putative hybrid P. gramineus x P. polygonifolius are in fact P. gramineus x P. nodosus[2]

As well as hybridising frequently, various-leaved pondweed is an extremely variable plant and care should be taken with its identification.[1]

Distribution, Ecology and Conservation[edit]

Potamogeton gramineus is native to much of the Northern Hemisphere, where it grows in water bodies such as ponds, lakes, bogs, and streams. It is usually restricted to shallower water <1 m deep,[1] though it has been recorded growing at more than 5 m depth in Llynnau Cregennen, Wales.[3] It is intolerant of nutrient pollution and is not usually found in base-poor water of alkalinity less than about 200 ueq l−1.

In Britain, it has shown the same pattern of decline as other broad-leaved pondweeds such as P. praelongus and P. alpinus, with most losses occurring in southern Britain.[4] This likely reelects increasing eutrophication, canalization of rivers leading to loss of backwater habitats and other floodplain standing waters, and degradation or loss of pond and lake habitats. P. gramineus may also grow in open reedbeds, and the loss of traditional reed cutting practices may have caused the loss of populations from this habitat. It is also scarce and of conservation importance in Spain.[5] Local extinction has also been recorded in Lower Saxony between 1948 and 1986[6]

Indices of environmental tolerance using trophic ranking schemes in Europe tend to show P. gramineus to be one of the more nutrient-sensitive aquatic plants,[7][8][9] Studies in Holland show P. gramineus to be associated with Littorelletea lakes, and to be one of a suite of species sensitive to acidification.[10]

Various-leaved pondweed is one of the so-called Magnopotamion group of pondweeds. These are a characteristic floristic component of the protected Habitats Directive habitat Type 'Natural eutrophic lakes with Magnopotamion'.[11] However, in Britain P. gramineus also occurs in more oligotrophic waters.

Cultivation[edit]

P. gramineus is not in general cultivation, though it is an attractive plant and grows well in a garden pond.[12] Its slower growth than most submerged species, attractive leaves and habit of producing a limited number of floating leaves make it very ornamental and suitable for garden ponds, and its smaller size than many other pondweeds is also a benefit. In common with other pondweeds of this group it roots poorly from stem cuttings and is best propagated by division of the rhizomes.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Preston C.D. (1995). Pondweeds of Great Britain and Ireland. BSBI Handbook No. 8. Botanical Society of the British Isles, London.
  2. ^ Kaplan, Z. & Fehrer, J. (2011) Erroneous identities of Potamogeton hybrids corrected by molecular analysis of plants from type clones. Taxon, 60, 758-766.
  3. ^ Goldsmith B, Salgado, J, Shilland, J, Yang, H & Turner, SD. 2014. Biodiversity Action Plan Lakes Survey 2012-14. NRW Evidence Report No: 27, 168pp, Natural Resources Wales, Bangor
  4. ^ Preston C.D., Pearman D.A., Dines T.D. (2002) New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora: An Atlas of the Vascular Plants of Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  5. ^ Fernández Aláez M., Fernández Aláez C., Rodríguez S. & Bécares C. (1992) Evaluation of the state of conservation of shallow lakes in the province of Leon (Northwest Spain) using botanical criteria. Limnetica, 17, 107-117
  6. ^ Wiegleb G., Brux H. & Herr W. 1991. Human impact on the ecological performance of Potamogeton species in northwestern Germany. Vegetatio , 97, 161-172.
  7. ^ UK Water Framework Directive Techical Advisory Group (UKTAG). 2014. UKTAG Lake Assessment Method: Macrophytes and Phytobenthos: Macrophytes (Lake LEAFPACS2). ISBN 978-1-906934-45-3. Available online at Lakes Leafpacs
  8. ^ UK Water Framework Directive Techical Advisory Group (UKTAG). 2014. UKTAG River Assessment Method: Macrophytes and Phytobenthos: Macrophytes (River LEAFPACS2). ISBN 978-1-906934-44-6. Available online at River Leafpacs
  9. ^ UK Water Framework Directive Techical Advisory Group (UKTAG). 2008. UKTAG River Assessment Method: Macrophytes and Phytobenthos: Macrophytes (Free Index). ISBN 978-1-906934-02-6. Available online at Lake Macrophytes Free Index
  10. ^ Roelofs J.G.M. 1983. Impact of acidification and eutrophication on macrophyte communities in soft waters in the Netherlands. I. Field Observations. Aquatic Botany, 17, 139-155
  11. ^ "Joint Nature Conservation Committee: 3150 Natural Eutrophic Lakes". Retrieved 2014-10-19. 
  12. ^ Pondolive
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Notes

Comments

Seven hybrids, Potamogeton gramineus ´ P. nodosus (= P. ´ argutulus Hagström), P. gramineus ´ P. richardsonii (= P. hagstroemii A. Bennett [as hagstromii]), P. alpinus ´ P. gramineus (= P. ´ nericius Hagström), P. gramineus ´ P. perfoliatus (= P. ´ nitens Weber [P. ´ subnitens Hagström]), P. gramineus ´ P. natans (= P. ´ sparganiifolius Laestadius ex Fries), P. gramineus ´ P. illinoensis [= P. ´ spathuliformis (J. W. Robbins) Morong)], and P. gramineus ´ P. praelongus (= P. ´ vilnensis Galinis), have been described. 

 Three varieties were recognized (E. C. Ogden 19435) and treated (M. L. Fernald 1950). These varieties, Potamogeton gramineus var. gramineus, deletion}P. gramineus var. myriophyllus, and P. gramineus var. maximus, were said to be separated by the shape and size of the submersed leaves. We have studied many populations of this species in the field and have observed on several occasions that a single population has leaf morphology variable enough to include all three varieties. We have, , therefore , chosen not to recognize any infraspecific categories for this species.

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