Overview

Comprehensive Description

Brief

"Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1 Year Assessed: 2010 Assessor/s: Gupta, A.K. Reviewer/s: Juffe Bignoli, D., Zhuang, X. & Homsombath, K. Justification: This is a widespread species which faces no major threat. It is listed as Least Concern. Conservation Actions: No conservation measures are in place."
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Description

Herb 50-150 cm high, from a rhizome; stems 4-angled. Stipular sheaths 10-20 mm, convolute, early deciduous. Leaves 30-90 × 8-15 mm, linear-lanceolate, sessile, all submerged, shining, translucent; apex obtuse, apiculate; margin finely serrate, markedly undulate when mature. Spikes 5-10-flowered, somewhat lax. Drupe 2-4 mm, ovoid-acuminate, laterally flattened; beak nearly as long as fruit, falcate, tapered.
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Derivation of specific name

crispus: with a wavy or curled margin
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Description

General: Pondweed family (Potamogetonaceae). Curly pondweed is an introduced, fast growing perennial. The stems are flattened and somewhat branching, forty to eighty centimeters long and mostly one to two millimeters wide (Guard 1995). The leaves are simple, long, narrow and attached directly to the stem. The flowers are brownish and inconspicuous and usually occur from May to October.

Distribution: Curly pondweed has been introduced from Massachusetts to Minnesota, south to Virginia and Missouri (Tiner 1987). For current distribution, please consult the Plant profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site.

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Distribution

Range Description

This species is native throughout most of the old world, from Europe to Japan and the Korean Peninsula, the Middle East, Indian subcontinent, China and northern southeast Asia with discontinuous populations in Sumatra (Indonesia) and Australia. It also occurs throughout the Mediterranean including North Africa and through the Black Sea region to the Caucasus. Found throughout most of sub-Saharan Africa.

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"Range Description: This species is native throughout most of the old world, from Europe to Japan and the Korean Peninsula, the Middle East, Indian subcontinent, China and northern southeast Asia with discontinuous populations in Sumatra (Indonesia) and Australia. It also occurs throughout the Mediterranean including North Africa and through the Black Sea region to the Caucasus. Found throughout most of sub-Saharan Africa. Countries - Native: Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Austria; Belgium; Bhutan; Botswana; Bulgaria; China; Czech Republic; Denmark; Egypt; Estonia; Ethiopia; Finland; France; Germany; Hungary; India; Indonesia (Sumatera); Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku); Jordan; Kazakhstan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Latvia; Lebanon; Lithuania; Malawi; Mozambique; Myanmar (Myanmar (mainland)); Nepal; Netherlands; Norway; Pakistan; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation (Altay, Dagestan, Primorye, West Siberia); South Africa (Eastern Cape Province, Free State, Northern Cape Province, North-West Province, Western Cape Province); Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Swaziland; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Thailand; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan; Viet Nam; Zambia; Zimbabwe"
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Distribution in Egypt

Nile region, Oases, Mediterranean region, Egyptian desert and Sinai.

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Global Distribution

Temperate Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia, North America.

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Potamogeton crispus L.:
North Korea (Asia)
Nepal (Asia)
New Zealand (Oceania)
Pakistan (Asia)
Russian Federation (Asia)
South Korea (Asia)
Thailand (Asia)
Tajikistan (Asia)
Turkmenistan (Asia)
United States (North America)
Uzbekistan (Asia)
Vietnam (Asia)
Argentina (South America)
Canada (North America)
Mongolia (Asia)
Laos (Asia)
China (Asia)
Kazakhstan (Asia)
Kyrgyzstan (Asia)
Japan (Asia)
India (Asia)
Costa Rica (Mesoamerica)
Bhutan (Asia)
Bangladesh (Asia)
Burma (Asia)
Australia (Oceania)
Afghanistan (Asia)
Colombia (South America)
Indonesia (Asia)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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introduced; Alta., B.C., Ont., Que., Sask.; Ala., Ariz., Ark., Calif., Conn., Del., D.C., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.; Central America (Costa Rica); South America (Colombia, and Argentina); Eurasia; Australia.
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Worldwide distribution

North Africa, Sudan, Ethiopia, Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe and South Africa. Also in Europe, Asia and Australia. Introduced from Canada to Argentina and in New Zealand.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution: Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia.
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Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia.
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Adaptation

This species has invasive qualities. Curly pondweed is commonly found in ponds, lakes, canals, pools and slow moving water of rivers and streams. This plant grows well in sandy, loamy and clay soils. It prefers acid, neutral and basic soil and can grow in very alkaline and saline soils. This species is not shade tolerant.

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Perennial, rhizomatous aquatic. Leaves submerged, sessile, broadly linear to oblong, undulate, translucent, serrate, 3-5-veined, usually obtuse, rarely acute 4-8 mm broad. Stipules free, 2-10 mm long, Spikes 5-8 cm long, ovoid-oblong, lax. Fruitlets 4-5 mm long, 2.5-3 mm broad, ovoid, beaked; beak long, decurrent.
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Elevation Range

600-2000 m
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Description

Rhizomes absent. Cauline stems flattened, without spots, to 100 cm; nodal glands absent. Turions common, axillary or terminal, 1.5--3 ´ ca. 2 cm, hard; leaves ± 2-ranked; outer leaves 1--4 per side, base not corrugate, apex rounded; inner leaves rolled into linear, terete structure, oriented parallel to outer leaves. Leaves submersed, ± spirally arranged, sessile, lax; stipules persistent to deliquescent, inconspicuous, convolute, free from blade, brownish, not ligulate, to 0.5 cm, not fibrous, not shredding at tip, apex obtuse; blade light to dark green, linear, not arcuate, 1.2--9 cm ´ 4--10 mm, base obtuse to rounded, without basal lobes, not clasping to nearly clasping, margins conspicuously serrate, not crispate, apex not hoodlike, round to round-acute, lacunae in 2--5 rows each side of midrib; veins 3--5. Inflorescences unbranched, emersed; peduncles not dimorphic, terminal or rarely axillary, erect to ascending, cylindric, 2.5--4 cm; spikes not dimorphic, cylindric, 10--15 mm. Fruits sessile, red to reddish brown, obovoid, turgid to slightly concave, not abaxially or laterally keeled, 6 ´ 2.5 mm; beak apically recurved, 2--3 mm; sides without basal tubercles; embryo with 1 full spiral. 2n = 52 (Europe).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This aquatic plant grows in fresh and slightly brackish waters. It occurs in ponds, lakes, rivers and paddy fields.


Systems
  • Freshwater
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General Habitat

"Habitat and Ecology: This aquatic plant grows in fresh and slightly brackish waters. It occurs in ponds, lakes, rivers and paddy fields. Systems: Freshwater List of Habitats: 5, 5.1, 5.4, 5.5, 5.7"
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Quiet waters, especially brackish, alkaline, or eutrophic waters of ponds, lakes, and streams; 0--2000m.
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Dispersal

Establishment

Propagation by Seed: Curly pondweed seeds should be sown as soon as they are ripe, in summer or early autumn (Heuser 1997). The seeds lose viability quickly if they are allowed to dry out (Ibid). Prick out the seedlings when they are large enough to handle and increase the depth of water around the pot until the plants are covered by a few centimeters of water. Grow the plants in a sunny position in the greenhouse for their first winter, increasing the depth of water, as the plants grow larger. Plant them out into their permanent positions in early summer.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering spring--summer.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Potamogeton crispus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Potamogeton crispus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 8
Specimens with Barcodes: 25
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Gupta, A.K.

Reviewer/s
Juffe Bignoli, D., Zhuang, X. & Homsombath, K.

Contributor/s

Justification

This is a widespread species which faces no major threat. It is listed as Least Concern.

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"Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1 Year Assessed: 2010 Assessor/s: Gupta, A.K. Reviewer/s: Juffe Bignoli, D., Zhuang, X. & Homsombath, K. Justification: This is a widespread species which faces no major threat. It is listed as Least Concern. Conservation Actions: No conservation measures are in place."
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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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Status

Introduced into the U.S. Considered a pest by several sources. Please consult the PLANTS Plant Profile for this species and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status, such as, state noxious status and wetland indicator values.

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Population

Population
Although it is a common and widespread species there is no specific data on population numbers.

Population Trend
Stable
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Population: Although it is a common and widespread species there is no specific data on population numbers. Population Trend: Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
No threats have been identified.
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Major Threat (s): No threats have been identified.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
No conservation measures are in place.
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Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

Materials are available from wetland plant vendors. Contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service) office for more information. Look in the phone book under ”United States Government.” The Natural Resources Conservation Service will be listed under the subheading “Department of Agriculture.”

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Curly pondweed is an aquatic plant that can be used as an oxygenator of ponds. This species sometimes becomes a pest in waterways, lakes and reservoirs (Guard 1995). It is a fast growing plant in need of constant checking to make sure it does not overrun ponds, pools or canals.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Wildlife: Curly pondweed tends to increase oxygen levels and produce substantial organic material in aquatic environments (Guard 1995). This pondweed shelters small fish and aquatic insects that provide food for larger fish and amphibians (Ibid.).

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Notes

Comments

No specimens have been seen from New Brunswick, but the species is to be expected there. 

 Potamogeton crispus, an introduced species, has spread throughout much of North America. The expansion of this species’s range from its original collection in North America, apparently about 1840, has been discussed (R. L. Stuckey 1979). This is the only species of pondweeds in North America with serrate leaves and consequently it is easily recognized.

Life history of Potamogeton crispus is unusual as it flowers and fruits in late spring and early summer, at which time it also produces turions. The plants decay shortly after those structures develop, leaving only fruits and turions, which survive the summer. No one has observed any seed germination, but the turions (referred to as dormant apices) germinate in late summer or fall, and the plants overwinter as small plants only a few cm centimeters in size, even under the ice in northern climates (R. L. Stuckey et al. 1978). Growth then continues as the water begins warming in the spring. 

 One hybrid, Potamogeton crispus ´ P. praelongus (= P. ´ undulatus Wolfgang ex Schultes & Schultes f.), has been described.

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