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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This introduced grass is a summer annual about 1-3' long that usually branches at the base, sending up multiple culms with alternate leaves. These culms are ascending to erect, light green, hairless, and terete. The leaf blades are up to 8" long and ½" across; they are green to greyish blue and flat, indented, or slightly twisted. Each leaf blade is widest at the base, where there may be a few long white hairs, otherwise it is hairless. The leaf sheaths are green to greyish blue, somewhat flattened, and hairless. The culm terminates in a spike-like raceme of florets up to 5" long. This inflorescence is densely covered with bristly spikelets throughout its length. Each spikelet is ovoid and about 3 mm. long, consisting of 2 glumes, 2 lemmas, and a floret; the glumes are shorter than the lemmas. At the base of each spikelet, there is a very short pedicel and 5-15 bristles up to 9 mm. long. Immature spikelets are shiny green, while their bristles are yellow. During the blooming period, which occurs from mid-summer to early fall, the spikelets are still green, but their bristles become tawny-colored. With the maturity, the entire inflorescence become light tan. The medium-large grains are ovoid and somewhat flattened. The root system is fibrous. This grass spreads by reseeding itself.
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Brief

Flowering class: Monocot Habit: Herb Distribution notes: Exotic
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Description

A robust annual plant with ligules in the form of lines of hairs, and flat leaf-blades. Inflorescence is a dense panicle on a tomentose rachis and has persistent involucres with basal stipes that enclose 1–9 obovate spikelets with glabrous or plumose bristles shorter than the obovate spikelets.

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Derivation of specific name

glaucum: glaucous, bluish-green
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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Yellow Foxtail is a common grass that occurs in every county of Illinois (see Distribution Map). It was introduced accidentally from Europe. Habitats include limestone glades, gravelly areas along rivers, vacant lots, lawns, grassy areas along railroads and roadsides, fields, pastures, mined land, and miscellaneous waste areas. This grass prefers highly disturbed areas and rarely invades natural areas to any significant degree.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Eastern Hemisphere; cultivated to a limited extent in the Southern States for forage.

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"
Global Distribution

India, Africa and South Europe

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Thrissur

"
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Distribution in Egypt

Nile region, Oases, Eastern desert, Gebel Elba and Sinai (St.Katherine).

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Global Distribution

Widely cultivated in the tropics for fodder and grain, particularly important in the Sahel zone of west Africa.

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Temperate regions of the Old World, introduced into America, Australia and other countries. Taiwan, in hillside orchard.
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Warm temperate regions of Old World, introduced in America & Australia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Annuals; clum prostrate, mostly 20-50 cm tall, compressed. Blade to 25 cm long, 1 cm wide, hairy; sheath keeled, glabrous; ligule a ring of hairs, ca. 1 mm long. Panicle contracted, cylindrical, not interrupted, mostly 5-10 cm long; axis pubescent and scabrous; bristles 5-20, 2-3 times as long as spikelet. Spikelets broadly ovate, ca.3 mm long, obtuse, pale; lower glume 1/2 as long as spikelet, 3-veined; upper glume 2/3-3/5 as long as spikelet, broadly ovate, 5-veined; lower lemma 5-veined, membranaceous; upper floret broadly ovate, as long as lower lemma, strongly and transversely rugose, coriaceous.
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Physical Description

Annuals, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems trailing, spreading or prostrate, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem nodes bearded or hairy, Stem internodes solid or spongy, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence 1-2 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 2-6 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath hairy, hispid or prickly, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades 1-2 cm wide, Leaf blades 2 or more cm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades more or less hairy, Leaf blades scabrous, roughened, or wrinkled, Ligule present, Ligule a fringe of hairs, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence a dense slender spike-like panicle or raceme, branches contracted, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence spike linear or cylindric, several times longer than wide, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets dorsally compressed or terete, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 1 fertile floret, Spikelets with 2 florets, Spikelet with 1 fertile floret and 1-2 sterile florets, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating below the glumes, S pikelets all subtended by bristles, Spikelet bristles 4-many, Spikelet bracts bristles not disarticulating with spikelets, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 1 clearly present, the other greatly reduced or absent, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes distinctly unequal, Glumes shorter than adjacent lemma, Glume equal to or longer than spikelet, Glumes 3 nerved, Glumes 4-7 nerved, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, or membranous, Lemma similar in texture to glumes, Lemma becoming indurate, enclosing palea and caryopsis, Lemma 5-7 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma apex truncate, rounded, or obtuse, Lemma awnless, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea shorter than lemma, Palea 2 nerved or 2 keeled, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Physical Description

Annuals, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem nodes bearded or hairy, Stem internodes solid or spongy, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 1-2 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 2-6 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf shea th mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath hairy, hispid or prickly, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades 1-2 cm wide, Leaf blades 2 or more cm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades more or less hairy, Ligule present, Ligule a fringe of hairs, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence simple spikes, Inflorescence a dense slender spike-like panicle or raceme, branches contracted, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence spike linear or cylindric, several times longer than wide, Inflorescence single raceme, fascicle or spike, Peduncle or rachis scabrous or pubescent, often with long hairs, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets sessile or subsessile, Spikelets dorsally compressed or terete, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 1 fertile floret, Spikelets with 2 florets, Spikel ets 1-4 in short bristly fascicles, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating below the glumes, Spikelets not disarticulating, or tardy, Spikelets in bur-like clusters or fascicles with fused bracts, bristles or spines, Spikelets all subtended by bristles, Spikelet bristles 4-many, Inner spikelet bristles all round, Spikelet bracts bristles not disarticulating with spikelets, Rachilla or pedicel hairy, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 1 clearly present, the other greatly reduced or absent, Glumes distinctly unequal, Glumes shorter than adjacent lemma, Glumes 3 nerved, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, or membranous, Lemma coriaceous, firmer or thicker in texture than the glumes, Lemma 5-7 nerved, Lemma 8-15 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma body or surface hairy, Lemma apex truncate, rounded, or obtuse, Lemma apex dentate, 2-fid, Lemma awnless, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Lemma surface pilose, setose o r bristly, Palea present, well developed, Palea about equal to lemma, Stamens 3, Styles 1, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis.
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Description

Annual. Culms robust, up to 3 m tall, densely pubescent at nodes and below inflorescence. Leaf sheaths loose, smooth; leaf blades 20–100 × 2–5 cm, both surfaces and margins scabrous; base subcordate; ligule 2–3 mm. Inflorescence linear to broadly elliptic, dense, 40–50 × 1.5–2.5 cm; axis densely pubescent; involucre persistent, enclosing 1–9 spikelets, basal stipe pubescent, 1–25 mm; bristles usually shorter than spikelets, almost glabrous to densely plumose. Spikeles obovate, 3.5–4.5 mm; lower glume minute, ca. 1 mm; upper glume 1.5–2 mm, 3-veined; lower floret staminate, lemma ca. 2.5 mm, 5-veined, margins membranous and ciliate, palea thinly papery, puberulous; upper lemma 5–7-veined, thinly papery, puberulous, margins ciliate, tip obtuse; anthers with a tuft of short hairs at tip. Fl. and fr. Sep–Oct. 2n = 14.
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Elevation Range

900-2300 m
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"A tall, erect annual with slender or stout stems, 0.3-3 m high, simple or branched, sometimes with conspicuous prop roots from the lowest nodes; internodes solid, grooved; sheaths rounded, usually glabrous, margin ciliate, collar pubescent or glabrous; ligule 2.5-7 mm long, the membrane 0.2-1.2 mm long, the cilia 1.5-6 mm long. Leaf blades lanceolate, 30-150 cm long and 0.5-7 cm wide, linear to linear-lanceolate from a rounded base, flat, more or less rough, glabrous, apex acute. Inflorescence spike-like, generally 2-20 cm long and 0.5-6 cm broad, compact, cylindrical, greenish-yellow with a pinkish tinge turning pale brown or purplish when mature, closely packed with spikelets and bristles; branchlets reduced to clusters of 1-8 spikelets. Grains oblong, obovoid or pyriform, variable in colour from white or pale grey to yellow or light blue in colour."
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Synonym

Panicum glaucum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 56. 1753; Alopec-urus typhoides N. L. Burman; Panicum americanum Linnaeus; Pennisetum americanum (Linnaeus) Leeke; P. americanum subsp. typhoideum Maire & Weiller; P. spicatum (Linnaeus) Körnicke var. typhoideum T. Durand & Schinz; P. typhoides (N. L. Burman) Stapf & C. E. Hubbard; P. typhoideum Richard, nom. illeg. superfl.
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Synonym

Panicum glaucum L., Sp. Pl. 56. 1753.
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Type Information

Type fragment for Cenchrus pycnostachyus Steud.
Catalog Number: US 865721A
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): Collector unknown
Locality: "Guinea" is only geographical data given., Guinea ?, Africa
  • Type fragment: Steudel, E. G. von. 1854. Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 109.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Yellow Foxtail is a common grass that occurs in every county of Illinois (see Distribution Map). It was introduced accidentally from Europe. Habitats include limestone glades, gravelly areas along rivers, vacant lots, lawns, grassy areas along railroads and roadsides, fields, pastures, mined land, and miscellaneous waste areas. This grass prefers highly disturbed areas and rarely invades natural areas to any significant degree.
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Comments: Cultivated.

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General Habitat

Waste lands
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Habitat & Distribution

Cultivated. N and E China [native to Africa; widely introduced elsewhere].
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Setaria glauca

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pennisetum glaucum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pennisetum typhoides

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

This adaptable grass is typically found in full sun, moist to slightly dry conditions, and soil containing loam, clay loam, or gravelly material. Most growth and development occurs during the summer. It tolerates occasional mowing, although the surviving plants will be shorter and less erect. This grass can spread aggressively in disturbed areas.
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Wikipedia

Pearl millet

Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is the most widely grown type of millet. It has been grown in Africa and the Indian subcontinent since prehistoric times. The center of diversity, and suggested area of domestication, for the crop is in the Sahel zone of West Africa. Recent archaeobotanical research has confirmed the presence of domesticated pearl millet on the Sahel zone of northern Mali between 2500 and 2000 BC.[1] Cultivation subsequently spread and moved overseas to India. The earliest archaeological records in India date to around 2000 BC,[2] and it spread rapidly through India reaching South India by 1500 BC, based on evidence from the site of Hallur. Cultivation also spread throughout eastern and southern Africa. Records exist for cultivation of pearl millet in the United States in the 1850s, and the crop was introduced into Brazil in the 1960s.

Pearl millet is well adapted to growing areas characterized by drought, low soil fertility, and high temperature. It performs well in soils with high salinity or low pH. Because of its tolerance to difficult growing conditions, it can be grown in areas where other cereal crops, such as maize or wheat, would not survive.

Today pearl millet is grown on over 260,000 km2 of land worldwide. It accounts for approximately 50% of the total world production of millets.[3]

Common names for pearl millet[edit]

Pearl millet around the world[edit]

India[edit]

India is the largest producer of pearl millet.

Sahel[edit]

Pearl millet is an important food across the Sahel. It is a main staple (along with sorghum) in a large region of northern Nigeria, Niger, Mali and Burkina Faso. In Nigeria it is usually grown as an intercrop with sorghum and cowpea, the different growth habits, growth period and drought vulnerability of the three crops maximising total productivity and minimising the risk of total crop failure. It is often ground into a flour, rolled into large balls, parboiled, liquefied into a watery paste using fermented milk and then consumed as a beverage. This beverage called "fura" in Hausa is popular drink in northern Nigeria and southern Niger.

Namibia[edit]

A scientist in Zimbabwe checks a pearl millet crop

In Namibia, pearl millet is locally known as "mahangu" and is grown mainly in the north of that country, where it is the staple food. In the dry, unpredictable climate of this area it grows better than alternatives such as maize.

Mahangu is usually made into a porridge called "oshifima" (or "oshithima"), or fermented to make a drink called "ontaku" or "oshikundu".

Traditionally the mahangu is pounded with heavy pieces of wood in a 'pounding area'. The floor of the pounding area is covered with a concrete-like coating made from the material of termite mounds. As a result, some sand and grit gets into the pounded mahangu, so products like oshifima are usually swallowed without chewing.[4][not in citation given] After pounding, winnowing may be used to remove the chaff.

Some industrial grain processing facilities now exist, such as those operated by Namib Mills. Efforts are also being made to develop smaller scale processing using food extrusion and other methods. In a food extruder, the mahangu is milled into a paste before being forced through metal die. Products made this way include breakfast cereals, including puffed grains and porridge, pasta shapes, and "rice".[5][not in citation given]

Recently more productive varieties of pearl millet have been introduced, enabling farmers to increase production considerably.[6]

Research and development[edit]

To combat the problem of micronutrient malnutrition in Africa and Asia, a study of serving iron-biofortified pearl millets which is bred conventionally without genetic modification to a control group is proved to have higher level of iron absorbance by the group.[7] The most widely grown millet is pearl millet, which is an important sized crop in India and parts of Africa. Finger millet, proso millet, and foxtail millet are also important crop species. In the developed world, millets are less important. For example, in the United States the only significant crop is proso millet, which is mostly grown for bird seed.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Manning, Katie, Ruth Pelling, Tom Higham, Jean-Luc Schwenniger and Dorian Q Fuller (2010) 4500-year old domesticated pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) from the Tilemsi Valley, Mali: new insights into an alternative cereal domestication pathway. Journal of Archaeological Science 38 (2): 312-322
  2. ^ Fuller,D.Q. (2003). African crops in prehistoric South Asia: a critical review. in Neumann,K., Butler,A., Kahlheber,S. (ed.) Food, Fuel and Fields. Progress in Africa Archaeobotany. Africa Praehistorica 15 series. Cologne: Heinrich-Barth-Institut, 239-271.
  3. ^ Millet. Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research.
  4. ^ http://www.holidaytravel.com.na/index.php?fArticleId=222
  5. ^ "Enhancing food security in Namibia through value-added products". Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. March 2003. Archived from the original on 6 December 2005. Retrieved 4 March 2012. 
  6. ^ Board on Science and Technology for International Development; Office of International Affairs; National Research Council (1996-02-14). "Pearl Millet: Subsistence Types". Lost Crops of Africa: Volume I: Grains. Lost Crops of Africa 1. National Academies Press. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-309-04990-0. Retrieved 2007-11-07. 
  7. ^ Munyaradzi, Makoni (29 August 2013). "Biofortified pearl millet 'can combat iron deficiency'". SciDev Net. Retrieved 29 August 2013. 
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Notes

Comments

This is a cultivated species grown for both grain and forage, and is especially suited to regions with a short growing season (Bulrush Millet, Pearl Millet).
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Comments

For a discussion of the complex nomenclatural problems in this species see Terrell in Taxon 25:297-304. 1976.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Treated as Pennisetum glaucum by Kartesz (1999). Treated as Setaria pumila ssp. pumila by Flora of North America (2003).

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