Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Big sacaton (Sporobolus wrightii) is a native, warm-season grass that forms dense clumps. It is a coarse, upright bunch grass that can grow from 3 to 8 feet tall. Leaves are anywhere from 1 to 2½ inches wide and up to 1 foot long. The pale flowers of big sacaton form in stiff, upright clusters 1 to 2 feet long.

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Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Alternative names

Sporobolus airoides (Torr.) Torr. var. wrightii (Munro ex Scribn.) Gould

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Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Occurrence in North America

     AZ  CA  HI  NM  OK  TX  UT  MEXICO

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Big sacaton occurs from southeastern Arizona east to western Texas and
Oklahoma south to northern Mexico [17,30,45]. 
  • 17.  Cox, Jerry R.; Morton, Howard L. 1986. Big sacaton (Sporobolus wrightii)        riparian grassland management: annual winter burning, annual winter        mowing, and spring grazing. Applied Agricultural Research. 1(2):        105-111.  [14990]
  • 30.  Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock,        Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of        California Press. 1085 p.  [6563]
  • 45.  Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry        C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo,        UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p.  [2944]

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Regional Distribution in the Western United States

More info on this topic.

This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

    7  Lower Basin and Range
   12  Colorado Plateau
   13  Rocky Mountain Piedmont

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Distribution and adaptation

Big sacaton grows primarily on heavier soils in lowland or wetland sites. It is tolerant of highly alkaline and saline soil, and can tolerate poorly drained soils and seasonally flooded areas. The plant is also found on open areas such as rocky slopes, plateaus, and mesas.

Big sacaton is distributed throughout the Southwest. For a current distribution map, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Website.

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USDA NRCS Kika de la Garza Plant Materials Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Big sacaton is a native, perennial bunchgrass 3 to 6 feet (0.9-1.8 m)
tall [5,14,27,47] that grows in dense clumps up to 3 feet (0.9 m) in
diameter [47,48].  Leaves are up to 12 inches (30 cm) long [47,48].
Seedheads are open and 1 to 2 feet (0.3-0.6 m) long [48].
  • 5.  Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H. 1992. Response of birds to wildfire in        native versus exotic Arizona grassland. Southwestern Naturalist. 37(1):        73-81.  [18594]
  • 14.  Cox, Jerry R. 1988. Seasonal burning and mowing impacts on Sporobolus        wrightii grasslands. Journal of Range Management. 41(1): 12-15.  [3046]
  • 27.  Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of        California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p.        [21992]
  • 47.  Gay, Charles W., Jr.; Dwyer, Don D. 1965. New Mexico range plants.        Circular 374. Las Cruces, NM: New Mexico State University, Cooperative        Extension Service. 85 p.  [4039]
  • 48.  Humphrey, Robert R. 1970. Arizona range grasses: Their description,        forage value and management. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona        Press. 159 p.  [5567]

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Physical Description

Perennials, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 1-2 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 2-6 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath and blade d ifferentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blade margins folded, involute, or conduplicate, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Ligule present, Ligule a fringe of hairs, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence simple spikes, Inflorescence an open panicle, openly paniculate, branches spreading, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence branches more than 10 to numerous, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets laterally compressed, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 1 fertile floret, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating above the glumes, glumes persistent, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes distinctly unequal, Glumes shorter than adjacent lemma, Glumes 1 nerved, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, or memb ranous, Lemma similar in texture to glumes, Lemma 1 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma awnless, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea about equal to lemma, Palea 2 nerved or 2 keeled, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis, Caryopsis ellipsoid, longitudinally grooved, hilum long-linear.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Type Information

Isotype for Epicampes crassiculmis Piper
Catalog Number: US 999049
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. Palmer
Year Collected: 1891
Locality: Alamosa, Mexico, Central America
  • Isotype: Piper, C. V. 1905. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 18: 144.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Holotype for Epicampes crassiculmis Piper
Catalog Number: US 81870
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. Palmer
Year Collected: 1890
Locality: Alamos., Sonora, Mexico, North America
  • Holotype: Piper, C. V. 1905. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 18: 144.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Isotype for Sporobolus altissimus Vasey
Catalog Number: US 82015
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. Palmer
Year Collected: 1888
Locality: San Diego, California, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Vasey, G. 1889. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. ser. 2. 2: 212.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Isotype for Sporobolus altissimus var. minor Vasey
Catalog Number: US 998328
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): T. S. Brandegee
Year Collected: 1889
Locality: San Regius., Baja California, Mexico, North America
  • Isotype: Vasey, G. 1889. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. ser. 2. 2: 213.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Type fragment for Sporobolus schaffneri Mez
Catalog Number: US 87214
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): W. Schaffner
Locality: San Luis Potosi, Mexico, North America
  • Type fragment: Mez, C. C. 1921. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 295.
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Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Isotype for Sporobolus wrightii Munro ex Scribn.
Catalog Number: US 825415
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. G. Pringle
Year Collected: 1881
Locality: Santa Cruz Valley near Tuscon., Pima, Arizona, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Scribner, F. L. 1882. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 9: 103.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Type fragment for Bauchea karwinskyi E. Fourn.
Catalog Number: US 998324
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): W. F. von Karwinsky von Karwin
Locality: Canon de Las Minas et Victoria., Mexico, Central America
  • Type fragment: Fournier, E. P. 1886. Mexic. Pl. 2: 87.
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Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Type fragment for Sporobolus eminens J. Presl
Catalog Number: US 92019
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Status verified by specimen annotations only
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): T. P. X. Haenke
Locality: Acapulco., Guerrero, Mexico, North America
  • Type fragment: Presl, J. S. 1830. Reliq. Haenk. 1: 242.
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Type fragment for Sporobolus expansus Scribn.
Catalog Number: US 3351770
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): T. S. Brandegee
Year Collected: 1893
Locality: Pescadero., Baja California, Mexico, North America
  • Type fragment: Scribner, F. L. 1894. Zoe. 4 (4): 390.
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Ecology

Habitat

Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the terms: cactus, marsh, series

Big sacaton occurs mainly in semidesert grassland and shrubland
communities [2,7,15,49].  It is also found in wetland communities such
as desert marshes, playa lakes, bolson depressions (enclosed basins),
and on floodplains [18,36,50,51].

In southeastern Arizona big sacaton grassland is common in lowland
habitats and on floodplains [4,6,12].  Common associates include
vine-mesquite (Panicum obtusum), hairy grama (Bouteloua hirsuta),
slender grama (B. filiformis), and sand dropseed (Sporobolus
cryptandrus) [6,34,43].  In Arizona and New Mexico big sacaton occurs on
lower elevation plateaus and mesas with New Mexico feathergrass (Stipa
neomexicana) [46].  In New Mexico a giant dropseed (Sporobolus
giganteus)-big sacaton-little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) series
has been described [19].  In Texas big sacaton is a prominent species in
bottomlands and on creek flats of the Rio Grande [33].  At the mouth of
the Rio Grande, a big sacaton series has been described [40].  It forms
a mosaic with shrublands in the Texas ebony (Pithecellobium
flexicaule)-snake eyes (Phaulothamnus spinescens) series, tidal flats in
the glasswort (Salicornia bigelovii/S. virginica)-saltwort (Batis
maritima) series and cordgrass (Spartina spp.) marshes.  It is also a
member of the saltgrass (Distichlis spicata)-Olney threesquare (Scirpus
americanus) series [40].

In the Chihuahuan Desert big sacaton grassland communities have been
described [25,49,50].  In Arizona a western honey mesquite (Prosopis
glandulosa var. torreyana) and big sacaton grassland occurs [49].  Big
sacaton is found in bolson depressions surrounded by desert scrub such
as honey mesquite; these basins may encircle a saline marsh or playa
[50].  Common associates include fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens),
mound saltbush (A. obovata), tobosa (Hilaria mutica), alkali sacaton
(Sporobolus airoides), and seepweed (Suaeda spp.) [25,50].  In
north-central Mexico big sacaton is found in stands of prickly-pear
(Opuntia spp.) cactus [29]. 

The following publications list big sacaton as a community dominant or
codominant:

Habitat relationships of some native perennial grasses in southeastern
  Arizona [6]
Vegetation and community types of the Chihuahuan Desert [25]
Desert grassland [36]
  • 2.  Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H. 1978. Response of birds, small mammals, and        vegetation to burning sacaton grasslands in southeastern Arizona.        Journal of Range Management. 31(4): 296-300.  [3075]
  • 4.  Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H. 1990. Effects of fire on wildlife in        southwestern lowland habitats. In: Krammes, J. S., technical        coordinator. Effects of fire management of Southwestern natural        resources: Proceedings of the symposium; 1988 November 15-17; Tucson,        AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-191. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment        Station: 50-64.  [11273]
  • 6.  Bock, Jane H.; Bock, Carl E. 1986. Habitat relationships of some native        perennial grasses in southeastern Arizona. Desert Plants. 8(1): 3-14.        [478]
  • 7.  Britton, Carlton M.; Wright, Henry A. 1983. Brush management with fire.        In: McDaniel, Kirk C., ed. Proceedings--brush management symposium; 1983        February 16; Albuquerque, NM. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management:        61-68.  [521]
  • 12.  Cox, J. R.; Gillen, R. L.; Ruyle, G. B. 1989. Big sacaton riparian        grassland management: Seasonal grazing effects on plant and animal        production. Applied Agricultural Research. 4(2): 127-134.  [11117]
  • 15.  Cox, Jerry R.; Ibarra-F, F. A.; Martin-R, M. H. 1990. Fire effects on        grasses in semiarid deserts. In: Krammes, J. S., technical coordinator.        Effects of fire management of Southwestern natural resources:        Proceedings of the symposium; 1988 November 15-17; Tucson, AZ. Gen.        Tech. Rep. RM-191. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture,        Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station:        43-49.  [11272]
  • 18.  Cross, Anne Fernald. 1991. Vegetation of two southeastern Arizona desert        marshes. Madrono. 38(3): 185-194.  [16107]
  • 19.  Dick-Peddie, William A. 1993. New Mexico vegetation: past, present, and        future. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. 244 p.  [21097]
  • 25.  Henrickson, James; Johnston, Marshall C. 1986. Vegetation and community        types of the Chihuahuan Desert. In: Barlow, J. C.; [and others]
  • 29.  Janzen, D. H. 1986. Chihuahuan Desert nopaleras: defaunated big mammal        vegetation. Annual Review of Ecological Systems. 17: 595-636.  [5018]
  • 33.  Nealley, G. C. 1888. Report of an investigation of the forage plants of        western Texas. Bulletin 6. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Botanical Division: 30-47.  [5256]
  • 34.  Nichol, A. A. [revisions by Phillips, W. S.]
  • 36.  Schmutz, E. M.; Smith, E. L.; Ogden, P. R.; [and others]
  • 40.  Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. 1992. Plant communities of Texas        (Series level): February 1992. Austin, TX: Texas Parks and Wildlife        Department, Texas Natural Heritage Program. 38 p.  [20509]
  • 43.  Wallmo, O. C. 1955. Vegetation of the Huachuca Mountains, Arizona.        American Midland Naturalist. 54: 466-480.  [20325]
  • 46.  Allred, Kelly W.; Hatch, Stephan L.; Soreng, Robert. 1986. Verified        checklist of the grasses of New Mexico. Res. Rep. 579. Las Cruces, NM:        New Mexico State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 47 p.        [6577]
  • 49.  Brown, David E. 1982. Semidesert grassland. In: Brown, David E., ed.        Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico.        Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 123-131.  [3603]
  • 50.  Brown, David E. 1982. Chihuahuan desertscrub. In: Brown, David E., ed.        Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico.        Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 169-179.  [3607]
  • 51.  Minckley, W. L.; Brown, David E. 1982. Wetlands. In: Brown, David E.,        ed.  Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and        Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 223-287.  [8898]

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Habitat: Rangeland Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following Rangeland Cover Types (as classified by the Society for Range Management, SRM):

More info for the term: vine

   414  Salt desert shrub
   502  Grama-galleta
   505  Grama-tobosa shrub
   706  Blue grama-sideoats grama
   707  Blue grama-sideoats grama-black grama
   712  Galleta-alkali sacaton
   725  Vine mesquite-alkali sacaton
   727  Mesquite-buffalograss
   729  Mesquite

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Habitat: Plant Associations

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This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

   K027  Mesquite bosque
   K054  Grama-tobosa prairie
   K058  Grama-tobosa shrubsteppe
   K060  Mesquite savanna
   K065  Grama-buffalograss
   K085  Mesquite-buffalograss

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Habitat: Ecosystem

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This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

   FRES30  Desert shrub
   FRES32  Texas savanna
   FRES33  Southwestern shrubsteppe
   FRES38  Plains grasslands
   FRES40  Desert grasslands

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Habitat characteristics

Big sacaton grows mainly on low alluvial flats, bottomlands, and arroyos
subject to flooding [6,14,23,47,48].  It also occurs in wide floodplains
[53].  In southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico big sacaton
forms nearly monotypic stands on broad floodplains [4].  It is also
found on open, unshaded areas such as rocky slopes, plateaus, and mesas
[30,46].  It generally grows on sand, sandy loam, silty clay loam
[12,14,36], and saline soils [24,45].  Big sacaton occurs at elevations
of 2,000 to 5,000 feet (600-1,500 m) in Arizona and 3,100 to 7,000 feet
(930-2,100 m) in New Mexico [30,47].
  • 4.  Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H. 1990. Effects of fire on wildlife in        southwestern lowland habitats. In: Krammes, J. S., technical        coordinator. Effects of fire management of Southwestern natural        resources: Proceedings of the symposium; 1988 November 15-17; Tucson,        AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-191. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment        Station: 50-64.  [11273]
  • 6.  Bock, Jane H.; Bock, Carl E. 1986. Habitat relationships of some native        perennial grasses in southeastern Arizona. Desert Plants. 8(1): 3-14.        [478]
  • 12.  Cox, J. R.; Gillen, R. L.; Ruyle, G. B. 1989. Big sacaton riparian        grassland management: Seasonal grazing effects on plant and animal        production. Applied Agricultural Research. 4(2): 127-134.  [11117]
  • 14.  Cox, Jerry R. 1988. Seasonal burning and mowing impacts on Sporobolus        wrightii grasslands. Journal of Range Management. 41(1): 12-15.  [3046]
  • 23.  Haferkamp, Marshall R. 1982. Defoliation impacts on quality and quantity        of forage harvested from big sacaton (Sporobolus wrightii Munro).        Journal of Range Management. 35(1): 26-31.  [24616]
  • 24.  Henrickson, James. 1974. Saline habitats and halophytic vegetation of        the Chihuahuan Desert region. In: Wauer, Roland H.; Riskind, David H.,        eds. Transactions of the symposium on the biological resources of the        Chihuahuan Desert region, United States and Mexico; 1974 October 17-18;        Alpine, TX. Transactions and Proceedings Series No. 3. Washington, DC:        U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service: 289-314.        [16063]
  • 30.  Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock,        Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of        California Press. 1085 p.  [6563]
  • 36.  Schmutz, E. M.; Smith, E. L.; Ogden, P. R.; [and others]
  • 45.  Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry        C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo,        UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p.  [2944]
  • 46.  Allred, Kelly W.; Hatch, Stephan L.; Soreng, Robert. 1986. Verified        checklist of the grasses of New Mexico. Res. Rep. 579. Las Cruces, NM:        New Mexico State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 47 p.        [6577]
  • 47.  Gay, Charles W., Jr.; Dwyer, Don D. 1965. New Mexico range plants.        Circular 374. Las Cruces, NM: New Mexico State University, Cooperative        Extension Service. 85 p.  [4039]
  • 48.  Humphrey, Robert R. 1970. Arizona range grasses: Their description,        forage value and management. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona        Press. 159 p.  [5567]
  • 53.  Bock, J. H. 1995 [pers. comm.]

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Habitat: Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

    68  Mesquite
   242  Mesquite

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Dispersal

Establishment

Seedbed preparation should begin well in advance of planting. Planting can be scheduled for early spring or where there is minimal cool-season weeds, big sacaton can also be planted in the fall.

Establish a clean, weed-free seedbed by either tillage or herbicides. Prior to planting, the site should be firm and have accumulated soil moisture.

Big sacaton seed can be drilled or broadcast. Seed should be planted at 1/8 to 1/4 inch depth. It is better to plant too shallow than too deep. A seeding rate of 1/2 to 1 pound of pure live seed per acre is recommended. Plants can also be grown in small paper containers and then transplanted for establishment of grass hedges and wind barriers. On saline soils, weed-free mulch can be used to improve establishment. Establishment is highly dependent on good rainfall or irrigation.

Soil analysis should be performed prior to planting to determine salinity levels and necessary levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Nitrogen should not be applied until the stand is established. Evaluate the stand after 60 days. If 1 plant per square foot is present than the planting has been successful.

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USDA NRCS Kika de la Garza Plant Materials Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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General Ecology

Fire Management Considerations

More info for the terms: formation, litter, succession

Land managers have traditionally recommended burning big sacaton
grassland in either fall or winter [7,14].  According to Cox [14],
winter and fall burns have a detrimental effect on big sacaton plant
production for at least three summer growing seasons [14].  Loss of
summer-formed leaves inhibits formation of winter leaves, and root
crowns may be damaged by frost.  Winter burning may reduce plant litter,
making green foliage more available to livestock but reducing the
long-term viability of big sacaton plants [17]. 

In Arizona seed-eating rodents are abundant on burned big sacaton sites.
Bock and Bock [2] propose that ideal wildlife habitat would be mosaic of
big sacaton stands in various stages of postfire succession.
  • 2.  Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H. 1978. Response of birds, small mammals, and        vegetation to burning sacaton grasslands in southeastern Arizona.        Journal of Range Management. 31(4): 296-300.  [3075]
  • 7.  Britton, Carlton M.; Wright, Henry A. 1983. Brush management with fire.        In: McDaniel, Kirk C., ed. Proceedings--brush management symposium; 1983        February 16; Albuquerque, NM. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management:        61-68.  [521]
  • 14.  Cox, Jerry R. 1988. Seasonal burning and mowing impacts on Sporobolus        wrightii grasslands. Journal of Range Management. 41(1): 12-15.  [3046]
  • 17.  Cox, Jerry R.; Morton, Howard L. 1986. Big sacaton (Sporobolus wrightii)        riparian grassland management: annual winter burning, annual winter        mowing, and spring grazing. Applied Agricultural Research. 1(2):        105-111.  [14990]

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Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: cover, fire severity, fuel, severity, top-kill, wildfire

Big sacaton sprouts after top-kill by fire [53].  Big sacaton may
recover to prefire coverage in 2 to 3 years on ungrazed sites [4].
Postfire recovery is influenced by fire severity [2] and season of
burning [14].  In southeastern Arizona in 1975 and 1976 three wildfires
occurred in an ungrazed big sacaton grassland community [2].  The first
two fires occurred in mid-May and mid-June 1975, and the third in
February 1976.  Permanent study sites were established on the two summer
burns and on adjacent unburned (control) areas in August 1975.  In
February 1976 a wildfire occurred on one of the control sites which then
became the winter burn study site.  The summer burns occurred during
hot, dry weather and were probably more severe than the winter burn [2].
Big sacaton postfire percent cover on the four study sites is listed
below; prefire cover was not reported.

                           summer burns             winter burn
          control    first year    second year       first year

sacaton     74               35            70            50

In postfire year 1, big sacaton percent cover was less on burned than
unburned sites, and less on the summer than winter burns.  It was
similar to prefire cover in the second year [2]. 

In southeastern Arizona the impacts of burning on big sacaton forage
quality and quantity were studied [14,15].  Plots were burned with a
headfire in winter (Feb. 6), summer (July 10), and fall (Oct. 2) 1980,
1981, and 1982.  Plots had been lightly grazed for 5 years prior to
burning.  The time from ignition to total forage consumption by fire was
recorded by plot.  Fuel moistures and weather conditions were as follows
[14]:

            fine fuel-moisture     wind speed     air temperature
            % oven-dry weight     mi/hr (km/hr)    deg F (deg C)

winter           10-30              10 (16)        50-64 (10-18)
summer           20-25              8-15 (13-24)   84-86 (29-30)
fall             45-55              8-10 (13-16)   66-77 (19-25)

Big sacaton green forage at the peak of the summer growing season (Aug.
21) 1,2, and 3 years after treatment was as follows:

                   number of growing seasons after treatment
 
                         1              2              3
                                   
                                      kg/ha

winter                400-735        690-850         595-695
summer                700-865        850-935         1,375-1,590
fall                  260-725        575-805         745-890
untreated             1,695-1,900    1,365-1,720     1,650-2,000

Green forage availability for the 3 treatment years was consistently
greater on untreated plots than on burned plots.  In postfire years 1
and 2, big sacaton green forage was greater on summer than on winter- or
fall-burned plots.  By postfire year 3 green forage on summer-burned
plots was nearly equivalent to that on unburned plots [14].  At postfire
year 1, standing crops were 60 percent less on spring- and fall-burned
plots.  At postfire year 2, live biomass on spring-burned plots was 30
percent less than on control plots.  On fall-burned plots, 50 percent of
plants failed to produce leaves the following spring.  Removing hte
standing dead biomass which insulates against cold temperatures may have
killed the plants [56].
  • 2.  Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H. 1978. Response of birds, small mammals, and        vegetation to burning sacaton grasslands in southeastern Arizona.        Journal of Range Management. 31(4): 296-300.  [3075]
  • 4.  Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H. 1990. Effects of fire on wildlife in        southwestern lowland habitats. In: Krammes, J. S., technical        coordinator. Effects of fire management of Southwestern natural        resources: Proceedings of the symposium; 1988 November 15-17; Tucson,        AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-191. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment        Station: 50-64.  [11273]
  • 14.  Cox, Jerry R. 1988. Seasonal burning and mowing impacts on Sporobolus        wrightii grasslands. Journal of Range Management. 41(1): 12-15.  [3046]
  • 15.  Cox, Jerry R.; Ibarra-F, F. A.; Martin-R, M. H. 1990. Fire effects on        grasses in semiarid deserts. In: Krammes, J. S., technical coordinator.        Effects of fire management of Southwestern natural resources:        Proceedings of the symposium; 1988 November 15-17; Tucson, AZ. Gen.        Tech. Rep. RM-191. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture,        Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station:        43-49.  [11272]
  • 53.  Bock, J. H. 1995 [pers. comm.]
  • 56.  Cox, J. R.; Morton, H. L. 1986. The effects of seasonal fire on live        biomass and standing crop in a big sacaton (Sporobolus wrightii)        grassland. In: Joss, P. J.; Lynch, P. W.; Williams, D. B., editors.        Rangelands under siege: [Proceedings, International Rangeland Congress]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

More info for the terms: top-kill, wildfire

Many fires probably top-kill big sacaton. In southeastern Arizona a
February 1985 wildfire "consumed" all available big sacaton forage [12].

"Hot" early summer fires may kill big sacaton plants.  At the Research
Ranch in southeastern Arizona, Bock and Bock [2] studied the impact of
fire on an ungrazed sacaton grassland community.  Height and percent
cover of big sacaton were reduced until postfire year 2 on sites burned
in summer or winter [2]. This study was part of an extensive
body of research on fire effects in semidesert grassland, oak savanna,
and Madrean oak woodlands of southeastern Arizona. See the Research Project Summary of this work for more information on burning
conditions, fires, and fire effects on more than 100 species of plants,
birds, small mammals, and grasshoppers.
  • 2.  Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H. 1978. Response of birds, small mammals, and        vegetation to burning sacaton grasslands in southeastern Arizona.        Journal of Range Management. 31(4): 296-300.  [3075]
  • 12.  Cox, J. R.; Gillen, R. L.; Ruyle, G. B. 1989. Big sacaton riparian        grassland management: Seasonal grazing effects on plant and animal        production. Applied Agricultural Research. 4(2): 127-134.  [11117]

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Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the term: tussock

   Tussock graminoid

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Fire Ecology

More info for the terms: frequency, natural, root crown, top-kill

Big sacaton sprouts after top-kill [6,53].  Burning may stimulate leaf
production.  The ability of big sacaton to recover after fire depends on
the extent of root crown removal by fire [14].  The greatest potential
for natural fire occurs when lightning strike frequency peaks in early
summer [14].  Big sacaton is best adapted to summer fires.  Fall and
spring burning may have long-term negative effects [56].
  • 6.  Bock, Jane H.; Bock, Carl E. 1986. Habitat relationships of some native        perennial grasses in southeastern Arizona. Desert Plants. 8(1): 3-14.        [478]
  • 14.  Cox, Jerry R. 1988. Seasonal burning and mowing impacts on Sporobolus        wrightii grasslands. Journal of Range Management. 41(1): 12-15.  [3046]
  • 53.  Bock, J. H. 1995 [pers. comm.]
  • 56.  Cox, J. R.; Morton, H. L. 1986. The effects of seasonal fire on live        biomass and standing crop in a big sacaton (Sporobolus wrightii)        grassland. In: Joss, P. J.; Lynch, P. W.; Williams, D. B., editors.        Rangelands under siege: [Proceedings, International Rangeland Congress]

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Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: fire suppression

Big sacaton is shade intolerant [53].  In the early 1900's, the
Southwest had extensive stands of big sacaton grassland.
Channelization, drought, grazing, and fire suppression have all
contributed to the invasion of these grasslands by mesquite (Prosopis
spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) [8,28,36,49,55].
  • 8.  Cornejo, Dennis O.; Leigh, Linda S.; Felger, Richard S.; Hutchinson,        Charles F. 1982. Utilization of mesquite in the Sonoran Desert: past and        future. In: Parker, Harry W., editor. Mesquite utilization 1982:        Proceedings of the symposium; 1982 October 29-30; Lubbock, TX. Lubbock,        TX: Texas Tech University, College of Agricultural Sciences: Q-1-Q-20.        [5457]
  • 28.  Humphrey, Robert R. 1963. The role of fire in the desert and desert        grassland areas of Arizona. In: Proceedings, 2nd annual Tall Timbers        fire ecology conference; 1963 March 14-15; Tallahassee, FL. Tallahassee,        FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 45-61.  [19000]
  • 36.  Schmutz, E. M.; Smith, E. L.; Ogden, P. R.; [and others]
  • 49.  Brown, David E. 1982. Semidesert grassland. In: Brown, David E., ed.        Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico.        Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 123-131.  [3603]
  • 53.  Bock, J. H. 1995 [pers. comm.]
  • 55.  Cox, Jerry R.; Morton, Howard L.; LaBaume, Jimmy T.; Renard, Kenneth G.        1983. Reviving Arizona's rangelands. Journal of Soil and Water        Conservation. 38: 342-345.  [24914]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: hemicryptophyte

  
   Hemicryptophyte

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Life Form

More info for the term: graminoid

Graminoid

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Regeneration Processes

Big sacaton reproduces exclusively by seed.  It lacks specialized
morphological seed dispersal mechanisms.  In saline habitats of the
Chihuahuan Desert, seed may be dispersed by ducks [24].  Big sacaton
seed has low germination and establishment rates under high temperatures
such as those found in the desert southwest [38].  Establishment of big
sacaton seed increased with a reduction of soil temperature from an
average of 104 degrees Fahrenheit (40 deg C) to 79 degrees Fahrenheit
(26 deg C) [38].  In the laboratory, big sacaton germination was 84
percent under optimum conditions (alternating temperatures of 68-95
degrees Fahrenheit [20-35 deg C] and alternating light and dark periods)
[52].  Emergence, average shoot height, average root and shoot weight,
and average root length were all less in soils at temperatures of 127
degrees Fahrenheit (53 deg C) than in soils at temperatures of 102
degrees Fahrenheit (39 deg C) [38].
  • 24.  Henrickson, James. 1974. Saline habitats and halophytic vegetation of        the Chihuahuan Desert region. In: Wauer, Roland H.; Riskind, David H.,        eds. Transactions of the symposium on the biological resources of the        Chihuahuan Desert region, United States and Mexico; 1974 October 17-18;        Alpine, TX. Transactions and Proceedings Series No. 3. Washington, DC:        U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service: 289-314.        [16063]
  • 38.  Sosebee, R. E.; Wan, C. 1989. Plant ecophysiology: a case study of honey        mesquite. In: Wallace, Arthur; McArthur, E. Durant; Haferkamp, Marshall        R., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on shrub ecophysiology and        biotechnology; 1987 June 30 - July 2; Logan, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep.        INT-256. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,        Intermountain Research Station: 103-118.  [5931]
  • 52.  Sosebee, R. E.; Herbel, C. H. 1969. Effects of high temperatures on        emergence and initial growth of range plants. Agronomy Journal. 61:        621-624.  [4036]

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

Big sacaton initiates leaf production in both summer and winter; winter
leaves form within a protective sheath and expand in early spring [14].
Plants have some green foliage throughout the year [14,23].  Flowering
occurs from April to May in California and from July to October in
Arizona [32,45].
  • 32.  Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA:        University of California Press. 1905 p.  [6155]
  • 14.  Cox, Jerry R. 1988. Seasonal burning and mowing impacts on Sporobolus        wrightii grasslands. Journal of Range Management. 41(1): 12-15.  [3046]
  • 23.  Haferkamp, Marshall R. 1982. Defoliation impacts on quality and quantity        of forage harvested from big sacaton (Sporobolus wrightii Munro).        Journal of Range Management. 35(1): 26-31.  [24616]
  • 45.  Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry        C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo,        UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p.  [2944]

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status (e.g. threatened or endangered species, state noxious status, and wetland indicator values).

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USDA NRCS Kika de la Garza Plant Materials Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Management

Management considerations

Big sacaton grasslands favor wildlife [2]; they are utilized by rodents
and birds [2,4].  In the Southwest big sacaton grasslands have been
severely degraded by channelization, erosion, and overgrazing [4,55].
They are now present in only 5 percent of their original range [14,17].

In southeastern Arizona big sacaton stands produce large green biomass
quantities (1,500-3,200 pounds/acre [1,680-3,580 kg/ha]) in the summer
that may slow runoff, enhance infiltration, and trap sediments [12].
Big sacaton is important for impeding erosion in areas where flash
floods occur [53].  Forage is present throughout the year, but
utilization of big sacaton is limited by dead standing foliage; burning
or mowing can remove dead foliage, but may decrease forage production of
big sacaton for up to 2 years [12,14].  For maximum big sacaton forage
production, Cox and others [12] recommend grazing big sacaton in the
spring, not grazing in dry summers, and discontinuing fall grazing.
Fall defoliation exposes big sacaton crowns to below freezing
temperatures; crown exposure may reduce forage production for up to 4
years [14] or kill plants [12]. 

Managers have traditionally recommended fall and winter burning or
mowing big sacaton grassland [14,17].  In southeastern Arizona Cox [14]
studied the effect of burning and mowing on big sacaton forage quantity
and quality.  Big sacaton plots were mowed to 2-inch (5 cm) stubble
height in winter (Feb. 6), summer (July 10), and fall (Oct. 2) in 1980,
1981, and 1982.  Big sacaton forage quality improved for 6 weeks after
mowing in all seasons [14,23].  Accelerated growth on summer-defoliated
plots supported the hypothesis that summer mowing has the least negative
impact on big sacaton production.  Winter and fall mowing had a
detrimental effect on production for three summer growing seasons [14].
In another study in southeastern Arizona, Cox and Morton [17] reported
that annual winter (February 27) mowing plus spring-summer grazing
improved the availability and quality of big sacaton live biomass.
However, mowing had a negative effect on growth early in the
spring-summer grazing period [17].  See PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE for
information on burning big sacaton grassland.
  • 2.  Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H. 1978. Response of birds, small mammals, and        vegetation to burning sacaton grasslands in southeastern Arizona.        Journal of Range Management. 31(4): 296-300.  [3075]
  • 4.  Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H. 1990. Effects of fire on wildlife in        southwestern lowland habitats. In: Krammes, J. S., technical        coordinator. Effects of fire management of Southwestern natural        resources: Proceedings of the symposium; 1988 November 15-17; Tucson,        AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-191. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment        Station: 50-64.  [11273]
  • 12.  Cox, J. R.; Gillen, R. L.; Ruyle, G. B. 1989. Big sacaton riparian        grassland management: Seasonal grazing effects on plant and animal        production. Applied Agricultural Research. 4(2): 127-134.  [11117]
  • 14.  Cox, Jerry R. 1988. Seasonal burning and mowing impacts on Sporobolus        wrightii grasslands. Journal of Range Management. 41(1): 12-15.  [3046]
  • 17.  Cox, Jerry R.; Morton, Howard L. 1986. Big sacaton (Sporobolus wrightii)        riparian grassland management: annual winter burning, annual winter        mowing, and spring grazing. Applied Agricultural Research. 1(2):        105-111.  [14990]
  • 23.  Haferkamp, Marshall R. 1982. Defoliation impacts on quality and quantity        of forage harvested from big sacaton (Sporobolus wrightii Munro).        Journal of Range Management. 35(1): 26-31.  [24616]
  • 53.  Bock, J. H. 1995 [pers. comm.]
  • 55.  Cox, Jerry R.; Morton, Howard L.; LaBaume, Jimmy T.; Renard, Kenneth G.        1983. Reviving Arizona's rangelands. Journal of Soil and Water        Conservation. 38: 342-345.  [24914]

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Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

The Falfurrias Germplasm release of big sacaton was chosen because of its ability to produce abundant forage, especially on droughty, alkaline and saline sites. It also produces nutritious, green forage throughout the winter months in south Texas. This selected collection came from Falfurrias, TX. It was evaluated at both the Kika de la Garza Plant Materials Center and the Knox City Plant Materials Center.

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USDA NRCS Kika de la Garza Plant Materials Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Big sacaton should not be grazed the first year. After stands are established, either continuous or rotational grazing can be used. It is recommended that a minimum 12-inch stubble height be maintained under continuous grazing. For rotational grazing, forage height should be utilized between 8 to 16 inches. Big sacaton will benefit from an annual mowing at an 18-24 inch height when used as a grass hedge or wind barrier.

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USDA NRCS Kika de la Garza Plant Materials Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cover Value

More info for the term: cover

Big sacaton stands provide cover for wildlife and cattle in summer
[6,12].  In Arizona mature stands of big sacaton provide cover for
Botteri's sparrow and other passerines, collared peccaries, diamondback
rattlesnakes, and many rodents [2,4,53].  Botteri's sparrow reaches
maximum breeding densities in big sacaton grasslands [5].
  • 2.  Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H. 1978. Response of birds, small mammals, and        vegetation to burning sacaton grasslands in southeastern Arizona.        Journal of Range Management. 31(4): 296-300.  [3075]
  • 4.  Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H. 1990. Effects of fire on wildlife in        southwestern lowland habitats. In: Krammes, J. S., technical        coordinator. Effects of fire management of Southwestern natural        resources: Proceedings of the symposium; 1988 November 15-17; Tucson,        AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-191. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment        Station: 50-64.  [11273]
  • 5.  Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H. 1992. Response of birds to wildfire in        native versus exotic Arizona grassland. Southwestern Naturalist. 37(1):        73-81.  [18594]
  • 6.  Bock, Jane H.; Bock, Carl E. 1986. Habitat relationships of some native        perennial grasses in southeastern Arizona. Desert Plants. 8(1): 3-14.        [478]
  • 12.  Cox, J. R.; Gillen, R. L.; Ruyle, G. B. 1989. Big sacaton riparian        grassland management: Seasonal grazing effects on plant and animal        production. Applied Agricultural Research. 4(2): 127-134.  [11117]
  • 53.  Bock, J. H. 1995 [pers. comm.]

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Nutritional Value

Big sacaton forage quality is highest in the spring [12].  As plants
mature, leaves and stems become coarse and tough [48].  Average
percentage of crude protein contained in big sacaton forage harvested
from the South Texas Plains near Whitsett from May 1977 to February 1979
was as follows [23]:

                            spring      summer      fall      winter

defoliation treatments

none                         10.1        5.8         6.4        5.4
monthly (spring to fall)     12.3       10.3        12.1       10.9
spring and mid-summer        12.0        9.7        10.9        9.1
spring and early summer      12.3       10.2        10.6        8.9
spring                       12.9        7.5         8.6        8.6
spring/late summer/fall      12.1        7.2        10.9       10.0
mid-summer and fall          12.8        6.4        11.5       10.1
  • 12.  Cox, J. R.; Gillen, R. L.; Ruyle, G. B. 1989. Big sacaton riparian        grassland management: Seasonal grazing effects on plant and animal        production. Applied Agricultural Research. 4(2): 127-134.  [11117]
  • 23.  Haferkamp, Marshall R. 1982. Defoliation impacts on quality and quantity        of forage harvested from big sacaton (Sporobolus wrightii Munro).        Journal of Range Management. 35(1): 26-31.  [24616]
  • 48.  Humphrey, Robert R. 1970. Arizona range grasses: Their description,        forage value and management. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona        Press. 159 p.  [5567]

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Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

More info for the term: forbs

Big sacaton is a valuable forage species for livestock in arid and
semiarid regions.  In Arizona new spring growth of big sacaton is
readily eaten by livestock [2].  It is grazed throughout the year when
preferred grasses or forbs are not available [12,30].
  • 2.  Bock, Carl E.; Bock, Jane H. 1978. Response of birds, small mammals, and        vegetation to burning sacaton grasslands in southeastern Arizona.        Journal of Range Management. 31(4): 296-300.  [3075]
  • 12.  Cox, J. R.; Gillen, R. L.; Ruyle, G. B. 1989. Big sacaton riparian        grassland management: Seasonal grazing effects on plant and animal        production. Applied Agricultural Research. 4(2): 127-134.  [11117]
  • 30.  Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock,        Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of        California Press. 1085 p.  [6563]

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Uses

Big sacaton may be used in pure stands or as part of a rangeland seeding mix for highly alkaline soils. It is useful for revegetating saline soils throughout the Southwest. It performs well as a grass hedge terrace or windstrip for erosion control. It helps stabilize watershed structures, stream banks and flood plain areas. Big sacaton is also useful for wildlife cover.

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USDA NRCS Kika de la Garza Plant Materials Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Wikipedia

Sporobolus wrightii

Sporobolus wrightii is a species of grass known by the common names big sacaton and giant sacaton. It is native to the western United States[1] and northern and central Mexico.[2] This species is sometimes considered a variety of Sporobolus airoides.[3][4]

This species is a perennial bunchgrass with thick stems that can reach 2.5 meters tall. The leaves are 20 to 70 centimeters long. The panicle is lance-shaped in outline and up to 60 centimeters long. It contains purplish or greenish spikelets.[2][4]

This plant grows in plains and desert grassland, shrubsteppe, and desert shrubland habitat. It may occur in desert wetland habitat types such as desert marshes, seasonal lakes, and floodplains. In this kind of habitat it is an important species for preventing erosion and slowing runoff by trapping sediments. It may be a common to prominent or dominant species. It dominates some grasslands in its native range, alongside other common grasses. This type of grassland has been reduced to a fraction of its pristine range by forces such as overgrazing and the channelization of water.[3]

This grass provides a good forage for livestock, producing large amounts of green matter. It is an important species for grazers on grasslands in parts of Arizona. It is also valuable for wildlife.[3]

References

  1. ^ Sporobolus wrightii. NatureServe.
  2. ^ a b Sporobolus wrightii. Grass Manual Treatment.
  3. ^ a b c Esser, Lora L. 1995. Sporobolus wrightii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory
  4. ^ a b Sporobolus wrightii. Jepson Manual Treatment.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Common Names

big sacaton
sacaton
giant sacaton

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The currently accepted scientific name of big sacaton is Sporobolus
wrightii Munro (Poaceae) [27,30,45,54].
  • 27.  Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of        California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p.        [21992]
  • 30.  Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock,        Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of        California Press. 1085 p.  [6563]
  • 45.  Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry        C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo,        UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p.  [2944]
  • 54.  Kartesz, John T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of        the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II--thesaurus. 2nd ed.        Portland, OR: Timber Press. 816 p.  [23878]

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Synonyms

Sporobolus airodes var. wrightii (Munro) Gould [27,45,54]
  • 27.  Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of        California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p.        [21992]
  • 45.  Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry        C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo,        UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p.  [2944]
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