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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Grass Family (Poaceae). Marsh bristlegrass is a warm season, weak, rhizomatous perennial. The height ranges from 1 to 3 feet. The leaf blade is flat, about 6 to 10 inches long, 1/4 inch wide, prominent midrib, and upper surface covered with soft hair. The leaf sheath is rounded with generally shorter than average internodes and often purple tinged. The ligule is a fringe of short hair. The seedhead is a spikelike panicle, 1 to 2 inches long, and yellowish in color with each spikelet surrounded by 5 or more yellow or purple bristles.

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Alternative names

knotroot bristlegrass, yellow bristlegrass, knotroot foxtail, marsh bristle grass

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Distribution

Range Description

This species is widespread throughout North America, South America, Europe, Southeast Asia, Australasia and less frequently in South Africa.
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© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Panicum glaucum var. brasiliense Trin. ex Nees:
Brazil (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Setaria parviflora var. parviflora :
Argentina (South America)
Belize (Mesoamerica)
Bolivia (South America)
Brazil (South America)
Chile (South America)
Colombia (South America)
Costa Rica (Mesoamerica)
Ecuador (South America)
El Salvador (Mesoamerica)
French Guiana (South America)
Guatemala (Mesoamerica)
Guyana (South America)
Honduras (Mesoamerica)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
Nicaragua (Mesoamerica)
Panama (Mesoamerica)
Peru (South America)
Paraguay (South America)
Suriname (South America)
United States (North America)
Venezuela (South America)
Caribbean (Caribbean)
Canada (North America)
Uruguay (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Setaria imberbis fo. radicans Hack.:
Argentina (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Setaria flava var. pumila E. Fourn.:
Mexico (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Setaria geniculata var. latifolia E. Fourn.:
Mexico (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Setaria imberbis fo. flaviseta Hack.:
Argentina (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Setaria imberbis fo. brevispica Hack.:
Argentina (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Setaria gracilis fo. megalantha Stuck.:
Argentina (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Setaria gracilis fo. brevispica (Hack.) Hack.:
Bolivia (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Setaria gracilis fo. breviglumis Hack.:
Argentina (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Setaria tenella Desv.:
Peru (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Setaria imberbis fo. uberior Hack.:
Paraguay (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Setaria imberbis fo. breviseta Hack.:
Paraguay (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Setaria imberbis fo. longiseta Hack.:
Paraguay (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Setaria discolor Hack.:
Paraguay (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Setaria gracilis var. pauciseta (E. Desv.) B.K. Simon:
Australia (Oceania)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Panicum imberbe var. glauco-caesium Döll:
Uruguay (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Panicum imberbe var. latifolium Döll:
Brazil (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Panicum pallidefuscum Schumach.:
Ghana (Africa & Madagascar)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Setaria floriana Andersson:
Ecuador (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez. (eds.) 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75: i–viii, 1–1181.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/42250 External link.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguélen:
Argentina (South America)
Australia (Oceania)
Belize (Mesoamerica)
Bolivia (South America)
Brazil (South America)
Canada (North America)
Chile (South America)
Colombia (South America)
Costa Rica (Mesoamerica)
Ecuador (South America)
El Salvador (Mesoamerica)
French Guiana (South America)
Guatemala (Mesoamerica)
Guyana (South America)
Honduras (Mesoamerica)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
Venezuela (South America)
Peru (South America)
Nicaragua (Mesoamerica)
Panama (Mesoamerica)
Caribbean (Caribbean)
United States (North America)
Suriname (South America)
Paraguay (South America)
Uruguay (South America)
Philippines (Asia)
New Guinea (Asia)
China (Asia)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Chaetochloa geniculata (Poir.) Millsp. & Chase:
Bolivia (South America)
Ecuador (South America)
Peru (South America)
United States (North America)
Caribbean (Caribbean)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Global Range: MA to FL and TX, in the interior north to WV, IL, and KS, west to CA; tropical America to Argentina and Chile.

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© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Perennials, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Rhizomes present, Rhizome short and compact, stems close, Stems trailing, spreading or prostrate, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems geniculate, decumbent, or lax, sometimes rooting at nodes, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem internodes solid or spongy, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 1-2 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves shea thing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blades scabrous, roughened, or wrinkled, Ligule present, Ligule a fringe of hairs, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence a dense slender spike-like panicle or raceme, branches contracted, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence spike linear or cylindric, several times longer than wide, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets dorsally compressed or terete, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 1 fertile floret, Spikelets with 2 florets, Spikelet with 1 fertile floret and 1-2 sterile florets, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating below the glumes, Spikelets all subtended by bristles, Spikelet bristles 4-many, Spikelet bract s bristles not disarticulating with spikelets, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes distinctly unequal, Glumes shorter than adjacent lemma, Glume equal to or longer than spikelet, Glumes 3 nerved, Glumes 4-7 nerved, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, or membranous, Lemma similar in texture to glumes, Lemma becoming indurate, enclosing palea and caryopsis, Lemma 5-7 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma rugose, with cross wrinkles, or roughened, Lemma apex acute or acuminate, Lemma awnless, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea shorter than lemma, Palea 2 nerved or 2 keeled, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Description

Annual or short-lived perennial with basal buds or a short knotty rhizome. Culms erect or geniculate, 20–90 cm tall. Leaf sheaths keeled, glabrous; leaf blades stiff, flat or involute, 5–30 × 0.2–0.8 cm, glabrous or adaxial surface pilose at base, apex acuminate; ligule ca. 1 mm. Panicle densely cylindrical, 2–15 × 0.5–1.2 cm; branches reduced to a single mature spikelet subtended by 8–12 bristles; axis pubescent; bristles golden or purplish brown when mature, 2–3 times spikelet length. Spikelets elliptic, 1.8–2.5 mm; lower glume ovate, 1/3 as long as spikelet, acute; upper glume broadly ovate, ca. 1/2 as long as spikelet, obtuse; lower floret neuter; lower palea firmly membranous, lanceolate, about as long as the upper floret but narrower, keels wingless, minutely papillose; upper lemma ovate-elliptic, finely rugose. Fl. and fr. Oct–Dec. 2n = 72.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Cenchrus parviflorus Poiret in Lamarck, Encycl. 6: 52. 1804; Chaetochloa geniculata (Poiret) Millspaugh & Chase; Panicum geniculatum Poiret; P. pallidefuscum Schumacher; P. rubiginosum Steudel; Setaria glauca (Linnaeus) P. Beauvois var. pallidefusca (Schumacher) T. Koyama; S. gracilis Kunth; S. pallidefusca (Schumacher) Stapf & C. E. Hubbard.
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Type Information

Type fragment for Panicum laevigatum Muhl. ex Elliott
Catalog Number: US 80728
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): H. Muhlenberg
Locality: Eddings Island, South Carolina, United States, North America
  • Type fragment: Elliott, S. 1816. Sketch Bot. S. Carolina and Georgia. 1: 112.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Type fragment for Setaria imberbis f. flaviseta Hack. in Stuck.
Catalog Number: US 2809278
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): T. Stuckert
Year Collected: 1904
Locality: Estancia San Teodoro, ped. Villamonte., Córdoba, Argentina, South America
  • Type fragment: Stuckert, T. 1904. Anales Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires ser. 3. 4: 77.
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Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Type fragment for Setaria tenella Desv.
Catalog Number: US 81295
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): Collector unknown
Locality: Rio Huallaga, margen Derecha del; Balsa Probana; dtto. Tocache Nuevo, Mariscal Cáceres, San Martín, Peru, South America
  • Type fragment: Desvaux, N. A. 1831. Opusc. 77.
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Lectotype; Syntype for Panicum imberbe var. latifolium Döll in Mart.
Catalog Number: US 977938
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined; Alleged type specimen status verified from secondary sources
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): A. F. Regnell
Year Collected: 1874
Locality: Caldas., Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America
  • Lectotype: Pensiero, J. F. 1999. Darwiniana. 37: 90.; Döll, J. C. 1877. Fl. Bras. 2 (2): 157.; Syntype: Pensiero, J. F. 1999. Darwiniana. 37: 90.; Döll, J. C. 1877. Fl. Bras. 2 (2): 157.
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Type collection; Type collection for Setaria perennis Hall ex Smyth
Catalog Number: US 744685
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Alleged type specimen status verified from secondary sources
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): B. Smyth
Year Collected: 1890
Locality: Hutchinson., Reno, Kansas, United States, North America
  • Type collection: Smyth, B. B. 1892. Checklist Pl. Kansas. 26.; Type collection: Nash, G. V. 1901. Man. Fl. N. States & Canada. 90.
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Type collection; Type collection for Setaria perennis Hall ex Smyth
Catalog Number: US 865698A
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Alleged type specimen status verified from secondary sources
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): B. Smyth
Year Collected: 1890
Locality: Hutchinson., Reno, Kansas, United States, North America
  • Type collection: Smyth, B. B. 1892. Checklist Pl. Kansas. 26.; Type collection: Nash, G. V. 1901. Man. Fl. N. States & Canada. 90.
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Type collection; Type collection for Setaria perennis Hall ex Smyth
Catalog Number: US 977330
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Alleged type specimen status verified from secondary sources
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): B. Smyth
Year Collected: 1890
Locality: Hutchinson., Reno, Kansas, United States, North America
  • Type collection: Smyth, B. B. 1892. Checklist Pl. Kansas. 26.; Type collection: Nash, G. V. 1901. Man. Fl. N. States & Canada. 90.
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Isosyntype for Setaria perennis Hack., nom. illeg.
Catalog Number: US 82083
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): A. Rehmann
Year Collected: 1875
Locality: Makapansberge, Streydpoort., Transvaal, South Africa, Africa
  • Isosyntype: Hackel, E. 1895. Bull. Herb. Boissier. 3: 379.
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Type fragment for Panicum dasyurum Nees in Mart.
Catalog Number: US 977939
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. C. v. Hoffmannsegg
Locality: Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America
  • Type fragment: Nees von Esenbeck, C. G. D. 1829. Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2: 241.
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Type fragment for Panicum brasiliense Spreng.
Catalog Number: US 80534
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. C. v. Hoffmannsegg
Locality: Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America
  • Type fragment: Sprengel, C. P. J. 1825. Syst. Veg. (ed. 16). 1: 321.
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Syntype for Chamaeraphis glauca var. perennis Beal
Catalog Number: US 977270
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Status verified by specimen annotations only
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): A. H. Curtiss
Locality: Duval, Florida, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Beal, W. J. 1896. Grasses N. Amer. 2: 156.
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Type fragment for Setaria ventenatii Kunth
Catalog Number: US 3049717
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. P. Ventenat
Locality: Sierra de Naguabo ad Rio Blanco, Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico, West Indies
  • Type fragment: Kunth, C. S. 1835. Rev. Gramin. 2: 251.
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Type fragment for Setaria flava var. pumila E. Fourn.
Catalog Number: US 84696
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): M. Virlet d'Aoust
Year Collected: 1851
Locality: San Luis Potosi, Mexico, North America
  • Type fragment: Fournier, E. P. 1886. Mexic. Pl. 2: 46.
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Type fragment for Setaria purpurascens Kunth in Humb.
Catalog Number: US 977947
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): Collector unknown
Locality: Quito, near Chillo Turubamba., Pichincha, Ecuador, South America
  • Type fragment: Kunth, C. S. 1815. Nova Genera Sp. Pl. 1: 110.
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Type fragment for Setaria geniculata var. latifolia E. Fourn.
Catalog Number: US 84694
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. Bourgeau
Year Collected: 1866
Locality: Region of Orizaba., Veracruz, Mexico, North America
  • Type fragment: Fournier, E. P. 1886. Mexic. Pl. 2: 46.
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Type fragment for Panicum tejucense Nees in Mart.
Catalog Number: US 81296
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): K. F. P. von Martius
Locality: Near Tejuco., Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America
  • Type fragment: Nees von Esenbeck, C. G. D. 1829. Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2: 243.
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Type fragment for Panicum beccabunga Rendle
Catalog Number: US 1445210
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): F. M. J. Welwitsch
Year Collected: 1860
Locality: Morro de Monino, Angola, Africa
  • Type fragment: Rendle, A. B. 1899. Cat. Africa Pl. Welwitsch. 2: 179.
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Isotype fragment for Setaria discolor Hack.
Catalog Number: US 3049710
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. Hassler
Year Collected: 1908
Locality: Sierra de Amambay, Estrella., Amambay, Paraguay, South America
  • Isotype fragment: Hackel, E. 1909. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 7: 371.
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Isotype for Setaria discolor Hack.
Catalog Number: US 978055
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. Hassler
Year Collected: 1908
Locality: In Campis Arenosis Estrella., Amambay, Paraguay, South America
  • Isotype: Hackel, E. 1909. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 7: 371.
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Type fragment for Chaetochloa versicolor E.P. Bicknell
Catalog Number: US 865699A
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. P. Bicknell
Year Collected: 1897
Locality: Kingsbridge, N.Y. City., New York, United States, North America
  • Type fragment: Bicknell, E. P. 1898. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 25: 105.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Setaria parviflora is a common, native species of moist ground. It is the most morphologically diverse and widely distributed of the indigenous perennial species of Setaria. It grows best on moist or wet sites such as wet sandy soils, sloughs, and acid flatwoods. In Texas and Louisiana, it grows well on salty prairie sites and salt marshes if water level is relatively low.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Depth range based on 8 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 0.5
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Comments: Open ground, pastures, cultivated soil, salt marshes, and moist ground along the coast.

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Habitat & Distribution

Mountain slopes, roadsides, waste places. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan [throughout the tropics and subtropics].
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Dispersal

Establishment

It grows from late March or early April until fall from short, knotty, branching rhizomes. Foliage is a distinctive whitish green. The base of the plant is slender and wiry. It produces two and sometimes three seed crops during one growing season the first one during May or June. Bristles are left along the seed stalk after the seeds disseminate. It grows best on moist or wet sites. In Florida, it grows on wet sandy soils, sloughs, and acid flatwoods. In Texas and Louisiana, it grows well on salty prairie sites; also grows on salt marshes if water level is relatively low.

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Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Setaria parviflora

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Thacker, H.

Reviewer/s
Scott, J.A.

Contributor/s

Justification
Setaria parviflora has been assessed as Least Concern due to its global widespread distribution. There are also no known threats to this species and it has been listed as a weed (Global Compendium of Weeds).
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Widespread distribution, even when treated as a American endemic excluding the European species S. gracilis.

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Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status, such as, state noxious status and wetland indicator values.

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Population

Population
The exact population size is not known but this species is extremely widespread throughout the globe.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known to this species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures targeted specifically at this species, however it occurs in many protected areas and seed has been collected and stored ex situ as part of the Millennium Seed Bank project.
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Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

Please contact your local NRCS Field Office.

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This grass is seldom abundant enough to be a key management species. For maximum production, no more than 50 percent of current year's growth by weight should be removed during growing season. Summer grazing deferments of at least 90 days every 2 to 3 years improve plant vigor. This grass can withstand controlled burning if done after September.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Marsh bristlegrass is grazed moderately by livestock, usually during the spring and summer. It becomes unpalatable in the fall and provides poor forage after maturity. When grazed for roughage, it should be supplemented with a mineral and protein concentrate. Birds readily eat the seeds.

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Wikipedia

Setaria parviflora

Setaria parviflora is a species of grass known by the common names marsh bristlegrass, bristly foxtail, knotroot bristlegrass, and yellow bristlegrass. It is native to North America, including Mexico and the United States from California to the East Coast, Central America and the West Indies,[1] and South America.[2]

This grass is a perennial with small, knotty rhizomes. It produces stems 30 centimeters to well over one meter tall. The leaf blades are up to 25 centimeters long and under a centimeter wide.[1] The leaves are whitish-green.[3] The inflorescence is a compact, spikelike panicle up to 8 or 10 centimeters long. Surrounding each spikelet are up to 12 yellow or purple bristles.[1] The bristles stay on the stalk after the seeds drop away.[3]

This grass grows in moist habitat.[1] It can grow in salty habitat such as salt marshes.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Setaria parviflora. Grass Manual Treatment.
  2. ^ Setaria parviflora. Germplasm Resources Information Network.
  3. ^ a b c Setaria parviflora. USDA NRCS Plant Fact Sheet.
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Notes

Comments

Forms with perennating basal buds persisting for more than one season are sometimes separated as a different species, but there are no other distinguishing features and this character is probably of little significance. Specimens lacking basal parts become impossible to assign to species. However, if they are separated, Setaria pallidefusca is the correct name for the annual form.

The perennial form of Setaria parviflora has been known as S. geniculata P. Beauvois, but that name was based not on Panicum geniculatum Poiret (1798), as has been widely supposed, but on P. geniculatum Willdenow (1809), which applies to a different species.

This species is a forage grass and is used medicinally.

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Called Setaria geniculata in many older references, but treated as Setaria parviflora by Kartesz (1994 checklist). The European species Setaria gracilis has sometimes been included in S. geniculata, but is maintained as a separate species by Kartesz and by Wagner et al. (1990). Kartesz (1999) includes S. gracilis in S. parviflora.

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