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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Brief

Flowering class: Monocot Habit: Herb
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"
Global Distribution

India, South East Asia and Africa

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Alappuzha, Palakkad, Idukki, Malappuram, Kannur, Wayanad, Ernakulam

"
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Barnyard grass is a weed of Eurasian origin that occurs throughout the
continental United States. It is also found in southern Canada from
British Columbia east to Novia Scotia [19,27,39,57,63].
  • 19. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851]
  • 27. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563]
  • 39. Magee, Dennis W. 1981. Freshwater wetlands: A guide to common indicator plants of the Northeast. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press. 245 p. [14824]
  • 57. Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p. [13158]
  • 63. Smeins, Fred E. 1971. Effect of depth of submergence on germination of Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv. Proceedings, North Dakota Academy of Science. 24(2): 14-18. [24037]

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Regional Distribution in the Western United States

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This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

3 Southern Pacific Border
5 Columbia Plateau
6 Upper Basin and Range
8 Northern Rocky Mountains
10 Wyoming Basin
12 Colorado Plateau
13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
14 Great Plains
16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands

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Occurrence in North America

AZ AR CA CO CT FL GA HI ID IL
IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA MI MN
MS MO MT NE NV NH NJ NM NY NC
ND OH OK OR PA SC SD TN TX UT
VT VA WA WV WI WY DC AB BC MB
NB NS ON PQ SK MEXICO

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Distribution in Egypt

 

Nile region, oases, Mediterranean region and western desert.

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Global Distribution

Warm temperate and subtropical regions of the world, sometimes extending into the tropics.

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Distribution: Pakistan (Sind, Baluchistan, Punjab, N.W.F.P., Gilgit & Kashmir); warm temperate and subtropical regions of the world, extending into the tropics (but scarcely so in Africa).
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Tropical Asia and Africa. A very variable weedy species; several varieties ( 4 in Taiwan) were recognized.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the term: warm-season

Barnyard grass is an introduced, nonrhizomatous, warm-season annual.
Stems may be solitary or in small tufts, erect or reclining at the base,
up to 6.6 feet tall (2 m) [16,28,39,52,80]. Leaves are flat, 4 to 12
inches (10-30 cm) long and 0.2 to 0.6 (5-15 mm) inch wide [18,19,27,46].
The panicle is 2 to 8.4 inches (5-21 cm) long, upright or nodding
[19,46,68]. Barnyard grass has a fibrous root system [39,49].
  • 16. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 18. Hallsten, Gregory P.; Skinner, Quentin D.; Beetle, Alan A. 1987. Grasses of Wyoming. 3rd ed. Research Journal 202. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Agricultural Experiment Station. 432 p. [2906]
  • 19. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851]
  • 27. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563]
  • 28. Keeley, Paul E.; Thullen, Robert J. 1991. Growth and interaction of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Weed Science. 39: 369-375. [24036]
  • 39. Magee, Dennis W. 1981. Freshwater wetlands: A guide to common indicator plants of the Northeast. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press. 245 p. [14824]
  • 46. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155]
  • 49. Nester, Ruel P. 1969. Barnyardgrass competition and control in rice. Rice Journal. 72(2): 12-14. [24034]
  • 52. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 68. Stubbendieck, J.; Nichols, James T.; Roberts, Kelly K. 1985. Nebraska range and pasture grasses (including grass-like plants). E.C. 85-170. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska, Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service. 75 p. [2269]
  • 80. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]

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Description

Annuals; culm caespitose, 30-100 cm tall. Blade linear, 10-40 cm long, 2-15 mm wide; sheath slightly keeled; ligule absent. Panicle 10-20 cm long, axis often papillose-hisped, racemes 2-7 cm long. Spikelets 3-5 mm long, awned or awnless, hispid on veins, interveins scabrous to hispidulous; glumes minutely hairy, with longer, rigid hairs on veins; lower glume ca. equaling lower lemma, acuminate to awn-pointed; upper lemma pale, coriaceous; lower lemma mucronate-tipped or with an awn as much as 4 mm long.
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Physical Description

Annuals, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems geniculate, decumbent, or lax, sometimes rooting at nodes, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem internodes solid or spongy, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 1-2 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades 1-2 cm wide, Leaf blades 2 or more cm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blade with prominently raised or widened midvein, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence an open panicle, openly paniculate, branches spreading, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence a panicle with narrowly racemose or spicate branches, Inflorescence with 2-10 branches, Inflorescence bran ches more than 10 to numerous, Inflorescence branches 1-sided, Rachis angular, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets sessile or subsessile, Spikelets dorsally compressed or terete, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 1 fertile floret, Spikelets with 2 florets, Spikelet with 1 fertile floret and 1-2 sterile florets, Spikelets paired at rachis nodes, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets in paired units, 1 sessile, 1 pedicellate, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating below the glumes, Spikelets secund, in rows on one side of rachis, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes distinctly unequal, Glumes shorter than adjacent lemma, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Glumes awned, awn 1-5 mm or longer, Glumes keeled or winged, Glume surface hairy, villous or pilose, Glumes 4-7 nerved, Lemma coriaceous, firmer or thicker in texture than the glumes, Lemma becoming indurate, enclosing p alea and caryopsis, Lemma 5-7 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma body or surface hairy, Lemma apex acute or acuminate, Lemma awnless, Lemma margins inrolled, tightly covering palea and caryopsis, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea longer than lemma, Palea 2 nerved or 2 keeled, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Description

Coarse annual; culms 25-100 cm high, erect or ascending. Leaf-blades 7-35 cm long, 4-20 mm wide; ligule absent; sheaths glabrous, rarely appressed hairy. Inflorescence linear to ovate, 6-22 cm long, the racemes untidily 2-several-rowed, the longest 2-10 cm long, usually with short secondary branchlets at the base. Spikelets ovate-elliptic, mostly 3-.4 mm long, hispid; lower lemma acuminate or with an awn up to 5 cm long; upper lemma 2-3 mm long, including the short herbaceous tip.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Annuals. Culms to 80 cm high, robust, erect; nodes glabrous. Leaves 6-34 x 0.3-1.5 cm, rounded at base; sheaths keeled; ligules absent. Panicles 5-18 cm long; racemes 5-12, each 2-5 cm long. Spikelets 3-5 mm long, ovate-lanceolate, awned, hispid; awns 1-3 cm long. Lower glume 2-3 x 1.5-2 mm, ovate, cuspidate, 5-nerved. Upper glume 3-5 mm long, ovate-lanceolate, cuspidate, 5-nerved. Lower floret male or barren. Upper floret bisexual. First lemma c. 3 x 1.5 mm, ovate-lanceolate, awned, 5-7-nerved, scabrid. Palea 2-3 x 1 mm, elliptic-oblong, 2-keeled. Second lemma 3-4 x 1-2 mm, ovate, acuminate. Palea 2-3 x 1 mm, elliptic-oblong, 2-keeled, 2-nerved. Stamens 3; anthers c. 1 mm long, yellow. Ovary c. 0.5 mm long, oblong; stigma c. 1 mm long, white."
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Synonym

Panicum crus-galli L., Sp. Pl. 56. 1753.
 Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv. var. formosensis Ohwi, Acta Phytotax. Geobot.11: 38. 1942; Hsu, Fl. Taiwan 5: 554. 1978. 
Panicum oryzicola Vasinger, Trudy Prikl. Bot. Selekts. 25(4): 125. 1931. 
Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv. var. oryzicola (Vasinger) Ohwi, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 11: 38. 1942; Hsu, Fl. Taiwan 5: 554. 1978. 
Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv. var. praticola Ohwi, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 11: 37. 1942; Hsu, Fl. Taiwan 5: 554. 1978.
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

Marshy fields
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Habitat characteristics

Barnyard grass is widespread in fields, waste places, ditches, marshes,
wet meadows, floodplains and along lakeshores and streambanks
[18,20,33,38,39]. It is locally common in floodplains, riverbottoms,
and seasonally wet habitats [1,63,80], but also occurs in drier habitats
[24]. Barnyard grass is most often found on disturbed, generally
nonsaline soils [25,53,63], but grows on a variety of soil types
[38,53]. Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli is generally absent
from sites that have greater than 12 inches (30 cm) of standing water
for more than 4 weeks at a time [42,63]. It occurs in shallow water or
after drawdown [63]. Barnyard grass tolerates poor drainage and
flooding, but not severe drought [7,31,44,60].

In California, the two varieties of barnyard grass differ in habitat
preference and colonizing ability. Echinochloa crus-galli var.
crus-galli is a cosmopolitan weed of wet, disturbed ground and occurs in
shallow water around the periphery of rice fields. Echinochloa
crus-galli var. oryzicola is a crop mimic that is found primarily in
permanently flooded cultivated rice fields [1].

Elevations of barnyard grass are as follows:

feet meters

Arizona 150-7,000 45-2,100 [27]
California less than 4,950 less than 1,500 [20]
Colorado 4,500-7,500 1,350-2,250 [19]
Kansas 3,370-4,675 1,021-1,417 [38]
Montana 2,800-3,300 840-1,000 [86]
South Dakota 1,940-2,025 587- 614 [71]
Texas 7,400 2,320 [21]
Utah 2,705-7,045 820-2,135 [80]
Wyoming 3,700-5,100 1,110-1,530 [86]
  • 1. Barrett, Spencer C. H.; Wilson, Blake F. 1983. Colonizing ability in the Echinochloa crus-galli complex (barnyard grass). II. Seed biology. Canadian Journal of Botany. 61: 556-562. [24031]
  • 18. Hallsten, Gregory P.; Skinner, Quentin D.; Beetle, Alan A. 1987. Grasses of Wyoming. 3rd ed. Research Journal 202. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Agricultural Experiment Station. 432 p. [2906]
  • 19. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851]
  • 20. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 21. Hinckley, L. C. 1944. The vegetation of the Mount Livermore area in Texas. The American Midland Naturalist. 32: 236-250. [4451]
  • 24. Holmgren, Arthur H. 1958. Weeds of Utah. Special Report 12. Logan, UT: Utah State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 85 p. [2935]
  • 25. Johnson, James R.; Nichols, James T. 1970. Plants of South Dakota grasslands: A photographic study. Bull. 566. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 163 p. [18483]
  • 27. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563]
  • 31. Kudish, Michael. 1992. Adirondack upland flora: an ecological perspective. Saranac, NY: The Chauncy Press. 320 p. [19377]
  • 33. Larson, Gary E. 1993. Aquatic and wetland vascular plants of the Northern Great Plains. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-238. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 681 p. [22534]
  • 38. Lindauer, Ivo E. 1983. A comparison of the plant communities of the South Platte and Arkansas River drainages in eastern Colorado. The Southwestern Naturalist. 28(3): 249-259. [5886]
  • 39. Magee, Dennis W. 1981. Freshwater wetlands: A guide to common indicator plants of the Northeast. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press. 245 p. [14824]
  • 42. McAtee, W. L. 1917. Propagation of wild-duck foods. Bulletin No. 465. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agricutlure. 40 p. [20530]
  • 44. Mitich, Larry W. 1990. Intriguing world of weeds: barnyardgrass. Weed Technology. 4(4): 918-920. [14946]
  • 53. Rahman, Marlis; Ungar, Irwin A. 1990. The effect of salinity on seed germination and seedling growth of Echinochloa crusgalli. Ohio Journal of Science. 90(1): 13-15. [11635]
  • 60. Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L. 1991. Prescribed grazing as a secondary impact in a western riparian floodplain. Journal of Range Management. 44(4): 369-373. [15091]
  • 63. Smeins, Fred E. 1971. Effect of depth of submergence on germination of Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv. Proceedings, North Dakota Academy of Science. 24(2): 14-18. [24037]
  • 7. Conover, Denis G.; Geiger, Donald R. 1989. Establishment of a prairie on a borrow-pit at the Bergamo-Mt. St. John Nature Preserve in Greene County, Ohio. Ohio Journal of Science. 89(3): 42-44. [9744]
  • 71. Tieszen, Larry L.; Ode, David J.; Barnes, Paul W.; Bultsma, Paul M. 1983. Seasonal variation in C3 and C4 biomass at the Ordway Prairie and selectivity by bison and cattle. In: Kucera, Clair L., ed. Proceedings, 7th North American prairie conference; 1980 August 4-6; Springfield, MO. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri: 165-174. [3218]
  • 80. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 86. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]

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Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the terms: codominant, cover, swamp

In the Sacramento Valley of California, barnyard grass occurs in wetland
communities with swamp grass (Crypsis schoenoides) and bearded
sprangletop (Leptochloa fascicularis) [47].

Barnyard grass is found in the southern High Plains region of northern
Texas and southern New Mexico. In this region, it is codominant with
red sprangletop (L. filiformis) in wet meadow and prairie communities
and is also found in shinnery communities [4,5].

Barnyard grass occurs in temporarily flooded palustrine wetlands of the
northern prairie and plains communities [26,83].

In eastern Colorado and western Kansas, barnyard grass occurs in the
plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides) riparian zone. Common associates
include saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima), sandbar willow (Salix exigua),
and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) [38,60]. Barnyard grass is
also a member of saltcedar and willow-cottonwood communities in Arizona
[55].

Barnyard grass is the dominant species in some wetlands of North Dakota.
Common associates include water plantain (Alisma triviale), American
slough grass (Beckmannia syzigachne), needle spikerush (Eleocharis
acicularis), hedge hyssop (Gratiola neglecta), and pale smartweed
(Polygonum lapathifolium) [16,63].

In South Dakota, barnyard grass occurs in mixed-grass prairie dominated
by blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides),
western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii), and needlegrass (Stipa spp.).
Other associates include needleleaf sedge (Carex eleocharis), Sandberg
bluegrass (Poa secunda), sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), and
little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) [37,71]. In tallgrass
prairies of northeast Kansas, barnyard grass occurs in communities
dominated by big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii var. gerardii), little
bluestem, and Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans) [14].

At Gettysburg National Military Park in Pennsylvania, barnyard grass
occurs in a variety of forest cover types as an understory species.
Species associated with barnyard grass not previously mentioned include
white ash (Fraxinus americana), mockernut hickory (Carya tomentosa),
shagbark hickory (C. ovata), black walnut (Juglans nigra), eastern
redbud (Cercis canadensis), flowering dogwood (Cornus florida),
sassafrass (Sassafrass albidum), and red pine (Pinus resinosa) [85].
  • 14. Gibson, David J. 1989. Effects of animal disturbance on tallgrass prairie vegetation. The American Midland Naturalist. 121: 144-154. [6641]
  • 16. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 26. Kantrud, Harold A.; Millar, John B.; van der Valk, A. G. 1989. Vegetation of wetlands of the prairie pothole region. In: van der Valk, Arnold, ed. Northern prairie wetlands. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press: 132-187. [15217]
  • 37. Lewis, James K.; Van Dyne, George M.; Albee, Leslie R.; Whetzal, Frank W. 1956. Intensity of grazing: Its effect on livestock and forage production. Bulletin 459. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State College, Agricultural Experiment Station. 44 p. [11737]
  • 38. Lindauer, Ivo E. 1983. A comparison of the plant communities of the South Platte and Arkansas River drainages in eastern Colorado. The Southwestern Naturalist. 28(3): 249-259. [5886]
  • 4. Bolen, Eric G.; Smith, Loren M.; Schramm, Harold L., Jr. 1989. Playa Lakes: prairie wetlands of the southern High Plains. BioScience. 39(9): 615-623. [11483]
  • 47. Mushet, David M.; Euliss, Ned H., Jr.; Harris, Stanley W. 1992. Effects of irrigation on seed production and vegetative characteristics of four moist-soil plants on impounded wetlands in California. Wetlands. 12(3): 204-207. [24038]
  • 5. Bryant, Fred C.; Smith, Loren M. 1988. The role of wildlife as an economic input into a farming or ranching operation. In: Mitchell, John E., ed. Impacts of the Conservation Reserve Program in the Great Plains: Proceedings; 1987 September 16-18; Denver, CO. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-158. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 95-98. [5147]
  • 55. Rea, Amadeo M. 1988. Habitat restoration and avian recolonization from wastewater on the Middle Gila River, Arizona. In: Whitehead, E. E. [and others], eds. Proceedings, Arid lands conference; 1985; Tucson, AZ. [Place of publication unknown]: Bellhaven/Westview Press: 1395-1405. [9823]
  • 60. Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L. 1991. Prescribed grazing as a secondary impact in a western riparian floodplain. Journal of Range Management. 44(4): 369-373. [15091]
  • 63. Smeins, Fred E. 1971. Effect of depth of submergence on germination of Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv. Proceedings, North Dakota Academy of Science. 24(2): 14-18. [24037]
  • 71. Tieszen, Larry L.; Ode, David J.; Barnes, Paul W.; Bultsma, Paul M. 1983. Seasonal variation in C3 and C4 biomass at the Ordway Prairie and selectivity by bison and cattle. In: Kucera, Clair L., ed. Proceedings, 7th North American prairie conference; 1980 August 4-6; Springfield, MO. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri: 165-174. [3218]
  • 83. Wienhold, C. E.; van der Valk, A. G. 1989. The impact of duration of drainage on the seed banks of northern prairie wetlands. Canadian Journal of Botany. 67(6): 1878-1884. [13799]
  • 85. Yahner, R. H.; Storm, G. L.; Melton, R. E.; [and others]. 1991. Floral inventory and vegetative cover type mapping of Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site. Tech. Rep. NPS/MAR/NRTR - 91/050. Philadelphia, PA: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Mid-Atlantic Region. 149 p. [17987]

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Habitat: Ecosystem

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

FRES15 Oak - hickory
FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood
FRES18 Maple - beech - birch
FRES28 Western hardwoods
FRES31 Shinnery
FRES38 Plains grasslands
FRES39 Prairie
FRES41 Wet grasslands
FRES42 Annual grasslands

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Habitat: Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

20 White pine - northern red oak - red maple
22 White pine - hemlock
23 Eastern hemlock
28 Black cherry - maple
39 Black ash - American elm - red maple
52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak
53 White oak
55 Northern red oak
57 Yellow-poplar
58 Yellow-poplar - eastern hemlock
59 Yellow-poplar - white oak - northern red oak
63 Cottonwood
67 Mohrs (shin) oak
110 Black oak
217 Aspen
235 Cottonwood - willow

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Habitat: Plant Associations

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

K048 California steppe

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Weed of irrigation ditches and rice-fields.

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General Ecology

Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: restoration, succession

Barnyard grass is a pioneer species that readily invades disturbed sites
[63,68]. It is found most often in open, unshaded areas [25,44], and is
intolerant of dense shade [44]. Barnyard grass invades South Dakota
rangelands and rapidly colonizes overflow and subirrigated range sites
that have been denuded or disturbed in Nebraska [37,68]. In Idaho,
barnyard grass is an increaser species on periodically flooded sites
along streams [58]. At a restoration prairie site in Ohio, barnyard
grass established at the edge of an ephemeral pond that is subject to
periodic flooding and drying [7]. In an old-field succession deciduous
forest in southwestern Ohio, barnyard grass was found growing in a
2-year-old stand, but was not present in stands 10, 50, 90, or 200 years
old [56,74].
  • 25. Johnson, James R.; Nichols, James T. 1970. Plants of South Dakota grasslands: A photographic study. Bull. 566. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 163 p. [18483]
  • 37. Lewis, James K.; Van Dyne, George M.; Albee, Leslie R.; Whetzal, Frank W. 1956. Intensity of grazing: Its effect on livestock and forage production. Bulletin 459. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State College, Agricultural Experiment Station. 44 p. [11737]
  • 44. Mitich, Larry W. 1990. Intriguing world of weeds: barnyardgrass. Weed Technology. 4(4): 918-920. [14946]
  • 56. Roberts, Teresa L.; Vankat, John L. 1991. Floristics of a chronosequence corresponding to old field-deciduous forest succession in southwestern Ohio. II. Seed banks. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 118(4): 377-384. [17752]
  • 58. Rosentreter, Roger. 1992. High-water indicator plants along Idaho waterways. In: Clary, Warren P.; McArthur, E. Durant; Bedunah, Don; Wambolt, Carl L., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on ecology and management of riparian shrub communities; 1991 May 29-31; Sun Valley, ID. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-289. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 18-24. [19090]
  • 63. Smeins, Fred E. 1971. Effect of depth of submergence on germination of Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv. Proceedings, North Dakota Academy of Science. 24(2): 14-18. [24037]
  • 68. Stubbendieck, J.; Nichols, James T.; Roberts, Kelly K. 1985. Nebraska range and pasture grasses (including grass-like plants). E.C. 85-170. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska, Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service. 75 p. [2269]
  • 7. Conover, Denis G.; Geiger, Donald R. 1989. Establishment of a prairie on a borrow-pit at the Bergamo-Mt. St. John Nature Preserve in Greene County, Ohio. Ohio Journal of Science. 89(3): 42-44. [9744]
  • 74. Vankat, John L.; Carson, Walter P. 1991. Floristics of a chronosequence corresponding to old field-deciduous forest succession in sw Ohio. III. Post-disturbance vegetation. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 118(4): 385-391. [17754]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: therophyte

Therophyte

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Life Form

More info for the term: graminoid

Graminoid

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Fire Ecology

Barnyard grass may colonize burned areas from soil-stored seed after
fire. Fires that thin or remove canopy vegetation produce conditions
that may be conducive to colonization by barnyard grass.

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Regeneration Processes

Barnyard grass reproduces by seed. It is self-pollinating [51] and a
prolific seed producer [28,44,68]. A healthy plant can produce from
750,000 to one million seeds [44]. Barnyard grass seed is water
dispersed [1]. Seed viability in soil is variable [10,44]. In
Stoneville, Mississippi, in 1972, a 50-year study on longevity of buried
seed of barnyard grass was initiated. Seed viability was 1 percent
after burial for 2.5 years; less than 6 percent of seed survived 6
months or longer [10]. However, according to Dawson [8], barnyard grass
seed may be viable in the soil for up to 13 years. In another study by
Mitich [44], seed viability of barnyard grass was 100 percent after 6 to
8 years of dry storage in irrigated sandy loam soil, and all seed was
nonviable after 15 years. Watanabe [79] found that barnyard grass seed
germination rate was 27 percent after burial for 6 months and 3 percent
after burial for 6.5 years. Barnyard grass seed germinates over a wide
temperature range, 55 to 104 degrees Fahrenheit (13-40 deg C), with
optimum germination occurring from 68 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (20-30
deg C) [53,62].

The buoyancy and hence dispersal by water of barnyard grass seeds is
probably influenced by their weight. A survey of seed weight [1]
demonstrated that seeds of E. crus-galli var. oryzicola were on the
average 2 to 3 times heavier than those of E. crus-galli var.
crus-galli. The lighter seeds of E. crus-galli var. crus-galli
exhibited greater buoyancy, with approximately 50 percent of seeds
remaining afloat after 4 to 5 days in water. In contrast, 95 percent of
E. crus-galli var. oryzicola seeds had sunk after 5 days. Decay of
dormancy in E. crus-galli var. oryzicola is more rapid than in E.
crus-galli var. crus-galli following dry storage and burial in soil.
  • 1. Barrett, Spencer C. H.; Wilson, Blake F. 1983. Colonizing ability in the Echinochloa crus-galli complex (barnyard grass). II. Seed biology. Canadian Journal of Botany. 61: 556-562. [24031]
  • 10. Egley, G. H.; Chandler, J. M. 1978. Germination and viability of weed seeds after 2.5 years in a 50-year buried seed study. Weed Science. 26(3): 230-239. [19609]
  • 28. Keeley, Paul E.; Thullen, Robert J. 1991. Growth and interaction of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Weed Science. 39: 369-375. [24036]
  • 44. Mitich, Larry W. 1990. Intriguing world of weeds: barnyardgrass. Weed Technology. 4(4): 918-920. [14946]
  • 51. Potvin, Catherine. 1991. Temperature-induced variation in reproductive success: field and control experiments with the C4 grass Echinochloa crus-galli. Canadian Journal of Botany. 69: 1577-1582. [24039]
  • 53. Rahman, Marlis; Ungar, Irwin A. 1990. The effect of salinity on seed germination and seedling growth of Echinochloa crusgalli. Ohio Journal of Science. 90(1): 13-15. [11635]
  • 62. Shipley, B.; Parent, M. 1991. Germination responses of 64 wetland species in relation to seed size, minimum time to reproduction and seedling relative growth rate. Functional Ecology. 5(1): 111-118. [14554]
  • 68. Stubbendieck, J.; Nichols, James T.; Roberts, Kelly K. 1985. Nebraska range and pasture grasses (including grass-like plants). E.C. 85-170. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska, Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service. 75 p. [2269]
  • 79. Watanabe, Yasushi. 1982. Mechanisms regulating seed germination and emergence of some summer annual weeds in Hokkaido. Japanese Agricultural Research Quarterly. [Ibaraki: Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tropical Agricultural Research Center]. 15(3): 161-166. [33876]
  • 8. Dawson, J. H.; Bruns, V. F. 1975. Longevity of barnyardgrass, green foxtail, and yellow foxtail seeds in soil. Weed Science. 23(5): 437-440. [24041]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

Barnyard grass is probably killed by fire.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: March-September
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Source: India Biodiversity Portal

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Phenology

More info on this topic.

Barnyard grass flowering dates for several states are as follows:

Arizona July-Sept [27]
California July-Oct [46]
Colorado Aug-Sept [86]
Florida all year [84]
Illinois Aug-Oct [45]
Montana June-Oct [86]
Nebraska Aug-Sept [61]
North Carolina July-Oct [52]
North Dakota July 15 [65]
South Carolina July-Oct [52]
West Virginia Aug-Oct [67]
Wyoming Aug-Oct [86]
Great Plains June-Sept [16]
  • 16. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 27. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563]
  • 45. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. (Revised edition). Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383]
  • 46. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155]
  • 52. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 61. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2d ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604]
  • 65. Stevens, O. A. 1956. Flowering dates of weeds in North Dakota. North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station Bimonthly Bulletin. 18(6): 209-213. [5168]
  • 67. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]
  • 84. Wunderlin, Richard P. 1982. Guide to the vascular plants of central Florida. Tampa, FL: University Presses of Florida, University of South Florida. 472 p. [13125]
  • 86. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]

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Flower/Fruit

Fl. & Fr. Per.: June-October.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Life Expectancy

Annual.

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© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Echinochloa crus-galli

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Echinochloa crus-galli

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 13
Specimens with Barcodes: 32
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Source: NatureServe

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Management

Management considerations

More info for the term: competition

Generally, seed yields from barnyard grass stands are reduced in 2 to 3
years because of competition with other weeds [43]. In Missouri,
natural seeding of barnyard grass was stimulated by periodic draining
and flooding of a wetland site; a July 1 to September 15 drawdown
produced an excellent stand of barnyard grass which was utilized by
waterfowl [6]. In California, draining barnyard grass fields in the
spring and discing them can benefit stands. At the Mendota Waterfowl
Management Area, California, this practice has been used to perpetuate
stands of barnyard grass for up to 6 years.

Barnyard grass may harbor a virus-like disease of cereals [17].

Toxicity tests of effluents in water and sediment were conducted using
the two varieties of barnyard grass. Effluents from a sewage treatment
plant, tannery, textile mill, pulp and paper mill, and coking plant
inhibited germination, chlorophyll synthesis, and growth of
barnyard grass [77,78].
  • 17. Haber, S.; Harder, D. E. 1992. Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) & barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli), new hosts of the virus-like agent causing flame chlorosis in cerals. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 14: 278-280. [24042]
  • 43. Miller, A. Wendell. 1962. Waterfowl habitat improvement in California. In: Proceedings, annual conference of Western Association of State Fish & Game Commissioners. [Volume unknown]: 112-118. [15439]
  • 6. Burgess, Harold H. 1969. Habitat management on a mid-continent waterfowl refuge. Journal of Wildlife Management. 33(4): 843-847. [14506]
  • 77. Walsh, Gerald E.; Weber, David E.; Simon, Tasha L.; Brashers, Linda K. 1991. Toxicity tests of effluents with marsh plants in water and sediment. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 10(4): 517-525. [24032]
  • 78. Walsh, Gerald E.; Weber, David E.; Simon, Tasha L.; [and others]. 1991. Use of marsh plants for toxicity testing of water and sediment. In: Gorusch, J. W.; Lower, W. R.; Wang, W.; Lewis, M. A., eds. Plants for toxicity assessment: Volume 2. ASTM STP 1115. Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials: 341-354. [25181]

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cover Value

More info for the term: cover

Barnyard grass cover values are as follows [86]:

UT WY ND

upland game birds poor fair good
waterfowl poor fair good
small nongame birds fair fair good
small mammals fair fair ----
  • 86. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]

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Nutritional Value

Barnyard grass has fair to poor forage value for livestock [68]. In
Minnesota, toxic levels of nitrate have been reported in barnyard grass
[40]. Nutritional values of sun-cured barnyard grass in the milk stage
are as follows [87]:

_________________________________________United States
Dry matter % 84.2 100.0
Ash % 7.7 9.1
Crude fiber % 31.0 36.8
Ether extract % 1.8 2.1
N-free extract % 34.0 40.4
Protein (N x 6.25)
Sheep dig. coef.* % 57.0 57.0
Cattle dig. prot.* % 5.9 7.0
Goats dig. prot. % 6.2 7.4
Horses dig. prot. % 6.2 7.4
Rabbits dig. prot. % 6.4 7.6
Sheep dig. prot. % 5.6 6.6
Energy
Cattle DE* Mcal/kg 1.95 2.31
Sheep DE Mcal/kg 1.98 2.35
Cattle ME* Mcal/kg 1.60 1.90
Sheep ME Mcal/kg 1.62 1.93
_______________________________________________________
*dig. coef.=protein digestible coefficient
dig. prot.=digestible protein
DE=digestible energy
ME=metabolizable energy
  • 40. Marten, G. C.; Andersen, R. N. 1975. Forage nutritive value and palatability of 12 common annual weeds. Crop Science. 15: 821-827. [25]
  • 68. Stubbendieck, J.; Nichols, James T.; Roberts, Kelly K. 1985. Nebraska range and pasture grasses (including grass-like plants). E.C. 85-170. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska, Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service. 75 p. [2269]
  • 87. National Academy of Sciences. 1971. Atlas of nutritional data on United States and Canadian feeds. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. 772 p. [1731]

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Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

More info for the term: cover

Barnyard grass is readily grazed by livestock in Arizona and West
Virginia, and can be cultivated for hay [27,67].

Seeds of barnyard grass are eaten by songbirds, waterfowl, and greater
prairie chickens [6,9,59,63,75]. Barnyard grass is an important source
of food and cover for waterfowl in the Sacramento Valley [47]. In the
playa lakes of Texas and New Mexico, meadows dominated by barnyard grass
are important habitat for waterfowl and pheasant [4].
  • 27. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563]
  • 4. Bolen, Eric G.; Smith, Loren M.; Schramm, Harold L., Jr. 1989. Playa Lakes: prairie wetlands of the southern High Plains. BioScience. 39(9): 615-623. [11483]
  • 47. Mushet, David M.; Euliss, Ned H., Jr.; Harris, Stanley W. 1992. Effects of irrigation on seed production and vegetative characteristics of four moist-soil plants on impounded wetlands in California. Wetlands. 12(3): 204-207. [24038]
  • 59. Schmidt, F. J. W. 1936. Winter food of the sharp-tailed grouse and pinnated grouse in Wisconsin. Wilson Bulletin. September: 186-203. [16729]
  • 6. Burgess, Harold H. 1969. Habitat management on a mid-continent waterfowl refuge. Journal of Wildlife Management. 33(4): 843-847. [14506]
  • 63. Smeins, Fred E. 1971. Effect of depth of submergence on germination of Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv. Proceedings, North Dakota Academy of Science. 24(2): 14-18. [24037]
  • 67. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]
  • 75. Vogel, Willis G. 1981. A guide for revegetating coal minesoils in the eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-68. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 190 p. [15575]
  • 9. Dugger, Katie M.; Fredrickson, Leigh H. 1992. Life history and habitat needs of the wood duck. Fish and Wildlife Leaflet 13.1.6. Waterfowl Management Handbook. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 8 p. [20789]

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Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

Barnyard grass has colonized desert riparian and wetland community sites
along the Gila river in Arizona that were supplied by year-round flows
of wastewater. If wastewater areas are managed on a permanent
year-round basis, habitat rehabilitation and avian colonization may
occur [55].

Barnyard grass can be utilized for quick, temporary erosion control on
coal mine sites in the eastern United States [75].
  • 55. Rea, Amadeo M. 1988. Habitat restoration and avian recolonization from wastewater on the Middle Gila River, Arizona. In: Whitehead, E. E. [and others], eds. Proceedings, Arid lands conference; 1985; Tucson, AZ. [Place of publication unknown]: Bellhaven/Westview Press: 1395-1405. [9823]
  • 75. Vogel, Willis G. 1981. A guide for revegetating coal minesoils in the eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-68. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 190 p. [15575]

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Palatability

Barnyard grass produces fair pasture when grazed during early growth
stages but becomes harsh and unpalatable at maturity [68]. It is
palatable to sheep in Minnesota [40].
  • 40. Marten, G. C.; Andersen, R. N. 1975. Forage nutritive value and palatability of 12 common annual weeds. Crop Science. 15: 821-827. [25]
  • 68. Stubbendieck, J.; Nichols, James T.; Roberts, Kelly K. 1985. Nebraska range and pasture grasses (including grass-like plants). E.C. 85-170. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska, Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service. 75 p. [2269]

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Wikipedia

Echinochloa crus-galli

Echinochloa crus-galli is a type of wild grass originating from tropical Asia that was formerly classified as a type of panicum grass. It is commonly known as cockspur (or cockspur grass), barnyard millet, Japanese millet, water grass, common barnyard grass, or simply "barnyard grass" (which may refer to any species of Echinochloa or the genus as a whole however). This plant can grow to 60" (1.5 m) in height and has long, flat leaves which are often purplish at the base. Most stems are upright, but some will spread out over the ground. Stems are flattened at the base. The seed heads are a distinctive feature, often purplish, with large millet-like seeds in crowded spikelets.

Considered one of the world's worst weeds, it reduces crop yields and causes forage crops to fail by removing up to 80% of the available soil nitrogen. The high levels of nitrates it accumulates can poison livestock. It acts as a host for several mosaic virus diseases. Heavy infestations can interfere with mechanical harvesting.

Individual plants can produce up to 40,000 seeds per year. Water, birds, insects, machinery, and animal feet disperse it, but contaminated seed is probably the most common dispersal method.

Description[edit]

Echinochloa crus-galli 2006.08.27 15.00.13-p8270053.jpg
Echinochloa crus-galli 2006.08.27 15.00.29-p8270054.jpg

Polymorphous coarse, tufted annual, tall and often weedy; culms erect to decumbent, 0.8-1.5 m tall, rather thick, branching at base.

Leaves flat, glabrous, elongate, 30–50 cm long, 1–2 cm broad, scabrous, slightly thickened at margin; ligules absent; sheaths smooth, lower ones often reddish; panicle 8–30 cm long, green or purple, exerted, somewhat nodding, densely branched, the branches to 5 cm long, erect or ascending sessile;

Spikelets 3–4 mm long, densely arranged on branches, ovoid, awnless, but move often long-awned, pale green to dull purple, short-bristly along veins; racemes spreading, ascending or appressed, the lower somewhat distant, as much as 10 cm long, sometimes branched; glumes and lower lemma minutely hairy on surface with longer more rigid hairs on veins; first glume about two-fifths as long as spikelet, deltoid, the second as long as the spikelet, short-awned; sterile lemma membranous, with a straight scabrous awn, 2–4 cm long or awnless; fertile lemma ovate-elliptic, acute, pale yellow, lustrous, smooth, 3-3.5 mm long. Fl.

Aug.-Oct.; seed maturing Sept.-Oct., up to 40,000/plant. Var. crusgalli has long, somewhat spreading papillose cilia at the summits of the internodes and bases of the branches in the inflorescence and short, very thick papillose cilia along the lateral nerves of the 2nd glume, sterile lemma, and somewhat spreading spikes", and sterile lemmas with awns 0–10 mm long.[2]

Distribution[edit]

Barnyard grass commonly occurs throughout tropical Asia and Africa in fields and along roadsides, ditches, along railway lines, and in disturbed areas such as gravel pits and dumps. It also invades riverbanks and the shores of lakes and ponds. It occurs in all agricultural regions. This species is considered an invasive species in North America where it occurs throughout the continental United States. It is also found in southern Canada from British Columbia east to Newfoundland.[3] It was first spotted in the Great Lakes region in 1843.[4]

Ecology[edit]

Ranging from Boreal Moist to Wet through Tropical Very Dry to Moist forest life zones. Adapted to nearly all types of wet places, this grass is often a common weed in paddy fields, roadsides, cultivated areas, and fallow fields. It grows on variety of wet sites such as ditches, low areas in fertile croplands and wet wastes, often growing in water. Succeeds in cool regions, but better adapted to areas where average annual temperature is 14-16°C. Not restricted by soil pH.

Usage[edit]

A warm-season grass used as cattle fodder and is sometimes cultivated for this purpose. It is also suited for silage, but not for hay. It is fed green to animals and provides fodder throughout the year; hay made from this plant can be kept up to 6 years. This grass is also used for reclamation of saline and alkaline areas, especially in Egypt.

The grain of some varieties is eaten by humans in times of scarcity and sometimes used for adulterating fennel.[5] The roots are boiled to cure indigestion in the Philippines. The young shoots are eaten as a vegetable. The plant extract is used in diseases of the spleen. Young shoots are eaten as a vegetable in Java. Reported to be preventative and tonic, barnyard grass is a folk remedy in India for carbuncles, haemorrhages, sores, spleen trouble, cancer and wounds.

In the Hisar district of the Indian state of Haryana the seeds Of this grass are commonly eaten with cultivated rice grains to make rice pudding or khir on Hindu fast-days.

Japanese barnyard millet (Echinochloa esculenta), a domesticated form of E. crus-galli, is cultivated on a small scale in Japan, Korea and China.

Diseases and pests[edit]

This grass is subject to brown spot, a fungal infection caused by Bipolaris oryzae .

Brown spot Bipolaris oryzae

Common names[edit]

Punjabi dialect forms[edit]

The following Punjabi dialect forms are recorded in Punjab for this grass:

  • Hisar
    • bharti, s.f., Echinochloa crus-galli

Indian languages[edit]

  • Marathi:
    • barag, s.m., millet, also used for Panicum miliaceum.
  • Kannada:
    • baraga', s.m., baragu, s.n., 1. Panicum frumentaceum, Indian millet; 2. A kind of hill grass from which writing pens are made.
  • Malayalam:
    • varige, varagu, varaku, s.m., Panicum frumentaceum; a grass Panicum.
  • Tamil:
    • சாமை cāmai (சாமி), s.m., A kind of grain, millet. < From Old Indo-Aryan šyāmā s.m., 1. Poor-man's millet, sown in Āvaṇi and maturing in six weeks to four months, Panicum crusgalli. Compare: சிறுசாமை ciṟu-cāmai, n. < id. + சாமை, a kind of little millet, Panicum; சாமைவகை. (சங். அக.); புற்சாமை puṟ-cāmai, n. < id. + a species of little millet, Panicum; சாமைவகை.; பனிச்சாமை paṉi-c-cāmai, n. < பனி + a kind of little millet, Panicum; சாமைவகை. (யாழ். அக.)
    • வரகு varaku, s.n. 1. Common millet, Paspalum scrobiculatum; ஒருவகைத் தானியம். புறவுக் கரு வன்ன புன்புல வரகின். 2. Poor man's millet, Echinochloa crusgalli; சாமைவகை. Paspalum scrobiculatum Linn. = P. frumentaceum Rottb. P. crusgalli is not identified in Hooker.
  • Telegu:
    • చామ cāma, ṭsāma, pl.m., The millet Panicum miliaceum Also compare బొంతచామలు Panicum frumentaceum< From Old Indo-Aryan šyāmā s.m., 1. Poor-man's millet, sown in Āvaṇi and maturing in six weeks to four months, Echinochloa crusgalli.
    • varaga, Inscr. varuvu, n., Panicum miliaceum.

Non-Indian languages[edit]

[verification needed]

Notes[edit]

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Echinochloa caudata

Echinochloa caudata, is a species of Echinochloa.


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Echinochloa crus-galli (Cockspur Grass, Cockspur Panic-grass, Barn-yard Grass, Barnyard Millet) is distinguished by its untidy racemes of acuminate or awned spikelets. It is a polymorphic weed of warm temperate and subtropical regions, whose numerous intergrading races are apparently the consequence of cleistogamous self-pollination. There is much uncertainty as to which segregates are worth recognising as species (see, for example, Gould, Fairbrothers and Ali in Amer. Midl. Nat. 7: 36-59.1972 for North America; and Vickery in Flora New South Wales, Gram. 189-211.1975 for Australia).

Certain specimens among those cited are unusual in that the lower lemma is indurated. Such specimens are found occasionally among populations of Echinochloa crusgalli (notably in India and Pakistan), and have been separated as Echinochloa glabrescens.

This is said to be a good fodder grass, once sown for its grain in Lahore district and occasionally still eaten in times of want. It is common in marshy places and rice fields below 3000 m.

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Common Names

barnyard grass
common barnyard grass

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The currently accepted scientific name of barnyard grass is Echinochloa
crus-galli (L.) Beauv. [16,19,45,80]. It is a member of the Poaceae
family. There are two varieties of barnyard grass [1,72]:

E. c. var. crus-galli
E. c. var. oryzicola (Vas) Ohwi
  • 1. Barrett, Spencer C. H.; Wilson, Blake F. 1983. Colonizing ability in the Echinochloa crus-galli complex (barnyard grass). II. Seed biology. Canadian Journal of Botany. 61: 556-562. [24031]
  • 16. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 19. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851]
  • 45. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. (Revised edition). Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383]
  • 72. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1994. Plants of the U.S.--alphabetical listing. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 954 p. [23104]
  • 80. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]

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