Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Perennials, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Rhizomes present, Rhizome elongate, creeping, stems distant, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stems branching above base or distally at nodes, Stem internodes solid or spongy, Stems with inflorescence 1-2 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 2-6 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basa l leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaves with distinct crossveins, net-like transverse veins, Leaf blade auriculate, Leaf blades 1-2 cm wide, Leaf blades 2 or more cm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blade with prominently raised or widened midvein, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades scabrous, roughened, or wrinkled, Ligule present, Ligule an unfringed eciliate membrane, Inflorescence lateral or axillary, Inflorescence racemose, Inflorescence a dense slender spike-like panicle or raceme, branches contracted, Inflorescence with 2 or more spikes, fascicles, glomerules, heads, or clusters per culm, Inflorescence spike linear or cylindric, several times longer than wide, Inflorescence single raceme, fascicle or spike, Inflorescence with 2-10 branches, Flowers unisexual, Plants m onoecious, Spikelets sessile or subsessile, Spikelets laterally compressed, Inflorescence or spikelets partially hidden in leaf sheaths, subtended by spatheole, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 1 fertile floret, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets unisexual, Spikelets falling with parts of disarticulating rachis or pedicel, Spikelets closely appressed or embedded in concave portions of axis, Monoecious - staminate and pistillate spikelets on separate inflorescences, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes distinctly unequal, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, or membranous, Lemma 1 nerved, Lemma 3 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma apex truncate, rounded, or obtuse, Lemma awnless, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea longer than lemma, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Type Information

Holotype for Euchlaena perennis Hitchc.
Catalog Number: US 727077
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): A. S. Hitchcock
Year Collected: 1910
Locality: About 1 mi S of Py Station, Zapotlan., Jalisco, Mexico, North America
Elevation (m): 1524 to 1524
  • Holotype: Hitchcock, A. S. 1922. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 12: 207.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Zea perennis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Zea perennis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Zea perennis

Zea perennis is a true grass species in the genus Zea and a teosinte.

Z. perennis is one of the two perennial species in the genus Zea. The other perennial, Z. diploperennis, is the sister taxa of Z. perennis. Those two species also form a clade with Z. luxurians. Together the three species make up the Luxuriantes section in the genus Zea.[2] Z. perennis is the sole tetraploid in the genus and fertile hybrids with diploid "Zea" are rare. Ribosomal ITS evidence suggested introgression between Z perennis and Z mays that must have come from either crossing the ploidy barrier or been from the diploid ancestral pool. Z perennis is generally considered to be an autotetraploid from some ancestral population of Z diploperennis [3]

Due to the economic importance of maize, there is significant scientific interest in using the genes of the other Zea species for crop improvement. Z. perennis is of particular interest because of the potential for maize to become a perennial crop. However, there has been difficulty in using genes from Z. perennis in Z. mays mays for crop improvement because the genes used often contain unwanted teosinte traits. Z. perennis is tropical and non-winter hardy, which has led to problems in using its genes to make a perennial form of maize.[4] In order to overcome this, breeding efforts have focused on deeper rhizomes that can survive below the frost line.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "GRIN Species Records of Zea". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-11-06. [dead link]
  2. ^ Doebley, J. (1990). Molecular Systematics of Zea (Gramineae). Maydica, (35), 143–150.
  3. ^ Buckler, E. S., & Holtsford, T. P. (1996). Zea systematics: ribosomal ITS evidence. Molecular biology and evolution, 13(4), 612–22.
  4. ^ Jackson, W., & Kirschenmann, F. (2009). A 50-Year Farm Bill. The Land Institute.
  5. ^ http://www.perennialsolutions.org/perennial-cereal-grains-a-promise-requiring-patience-and-prioritization
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Considered exotic in North America (23 Mar 94)

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