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Overview

Brief Summary

Zea mays, corn or maize, is a annual grass in the Poaceae (grass family) that originated in Central America and is one of the top three cereal crops grown in the world, along with rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum spp.), with 2010 global commercial production of dried corn totaling 844.4 million metric tons, harvested from 161.9 million hectares.

Corn was domesticated in Mexico and Central America more than 7,000 years ago from teosinthe or wild maize (Z. mays subsp. mexicana). The corn plant may grow 1–4 m (3 to 13 ft) tall, with leaf blades 50 to 90 cm (19 to 35 in) long. The monoecious plant forms a terminal raceme (branched inflorescence) of male flowers—the tassel”--,while the axillary female inflorescences form cylindrical "cobs," each with 16–30 rows of spikelets (which develop into “kernels” when the seeds mature) and long protruding styles (the corn silks). Mature kernels are typically white or yellow, but may also range in color from red to purple.

Corn is used fresh (“green”) for human consumption, or may be dried and ground into flour or meal, important in Central American dishes, or popped and eaten as a snack. Corn oil, obtained from the grain, is used in cooking as well as many industrial uses, and cornstarch from processed grain is used as a thickener in sauces and puddings. Cornstarch can be further processed enzymatically to make high-fructose corn syrup, which has become widely used to replace sugar (sucrose) as an inexpensive sweetener in processed food and beverage products. In recent years, this use has become controversial, with critics charging that the sweetener is linked to obesity, but the American Medical Association has reported that additional research is needed to assess these claims.

In addition to use as a human food, the seed head and whole plant are used forage and silage, an important source of feed for livestock. Corn has become an increasingly important biofuel, both in the form of corn oil (used as bio-diesel) and ethanol (an alcohol fermented and distilled from the processed kernels), which is blended with petroleum-based gasoline in various proportions for use as fuel.

With Although grown in temperate and tropical countries worldwide, the U.S. alone produces more than one third of the global total of dried corn (316.2 metric tons), with China, Brazil, Mexico, and Argentina also producing significant amounts. Corn production increased by 42% worldwide over the past decade, associated with the increased demand and prices for corn as biofuel.

(AMA 2008, FAOSTAT 2012, Flora of China 2012, van Wyk 2005, Wikipedia 2012.)

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Distribution

Distribution in Egypt

Nile Valley North of Nubia, Nubia. 

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Global Distribution

Originally from central America, now cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics, also grown for fodder in temperate regions.

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Zea mays subsp. huehuetenangensis (Iltis & Doebley) Doebley:
Guatemala (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
  • Barkworth, M. E., K. M. Capels, S. Long & M. B. Piep. 2003. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 2. 25: i–xxv, 1–783. In Fl. N. Amer. Oxford University Press, New York.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1021466 External link.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Zea mays var. huehuetenangensis Iltis & Doebley:
Guatemala (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
  • SPECIMEN BASED RECORD. Published protolog data.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/9990002 External link.
  • Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. Morrone Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1024044 External link.
  • Davidse, G., M. Sousa Sánchez & A. O. Chater. (eds.) 1994. Alismataceae a Cyperaceae. Fl. Mesoamer. 6: i–xvi, 1–543.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/8200 External link.
  • Filgueiras, T. S. 2003. Zea. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): III. Subfamilies Panicoideae, Aristidoideae, Arundinoideae, and Danthonioideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 46: 635–639.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1004287 External link.
  • Davidse, G. 1994. 175. Zea L. Fl. Mesoamer. 6: 400–401.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1003188 External link.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Zea mays var. parviglumis Iltis & Doebley:
Guatemala (Mesoamerica)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
  • SPECIMEN BASED RECORD. Published protolog data.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/9990002 External link.
  • Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. Morrone Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1024044 External link.
  • Filgueiras, T. S. 2003. Zea. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): III. Subfamilies Panicoideae, Aristidoideae, Arundinoideae, and Danthonioideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 46: 635–639.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1004287 External link.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Zea mays subsp. parviglumis Iltis & Doebley:
Guatemala (Mesoamerica)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
  • SPECIMEN BASED RECORD. Published protolog data.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/9990002 External link.
  • Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. Morrone Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1024044 External link.
  • Espejo Serna, A., A. R. López-Ferrari & J. Valdés-Reyna. 2000. Poaceae. Monocot. Mexic. Sinopsis Floríst. 10: 7–236 [and index].   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1015183 External link.
  • McVaugh, R. 1983. Gramineae. 14: 1–436. In R. McVaugh Fl. Novo-Galiciana. The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/9853 External link.
  • Barkworth, M. E., K. M. Capels, S. Long & M. B. Piep. 2003. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 2. 25: i–xxv, 1–783. In Fl. N. Amer. Oxford University Press, New York.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1021466 External link.
  • Filgueiras, T. S. 2003. Zea. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): III. Subfamilies Panicoideae, Aristidoideae, Arundinoideae, and Danthonioideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 46: 635–639.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1004287 External link.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Zea mays L.:
Argentina (South America)
Australia (Oceania)
Belize (Mesoamerica)
Burma (Asia)
Bolivia (South America)
Brazil (South America)
Canada (North America)
Chile (South America)
China (Asia)
Colombia (South America)
Costa Rica (Mesoamerica)
Ecuador (South America)
El Salvador (Mesoamerica)
Ethiopia (Africa & Madagascar)
French Guiana (South America)
Gabon (Africa & Madagascar)
Guatemala (Mesoamerica)
Guyana (South America)
Honduras (Mesoamerica)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
Caribbean (Caribbean)
United States (North America)
Peru (South America)
Panama (Mesoamerica)
Nicaragua (Mesoamerica)
Suriname (South America)
Uruguay (South America)
India (Asia)
Venezuela (South America)
Paraguay (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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A native of America but now cultivated in all warm countries throughout the world.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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America, widely cultivated in all warm countries.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Annuals, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Prop roots present, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems solitary, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem internodes solid or spongy, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 1-2 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 2-6 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf sheath enlarged, inflated or distended, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blade auriculate, Leaf blades 2 or more cm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blade with prominen tly raised or widened midvein, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades more or less hairy, Leaf blades scabrous, roughened, or wrinkled, Ligule present, Ligule a fringed, ciliate, or lobed membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence lateral or axillary, Inflorescence a dense slender spike-like panicle or raceme, branches contracted, Inflorescence with 2 or more spikes, fascicles, glomerules, heads, or clusters per culm, Inflorescence spike linear or cylindric, several times longer than wide, Inflorescence a panicle with narrowly racemose or spicate branches, Inflorescence single raceme, fascicle or spike, Inflorescence with 2-10 branches, Inflorescence branches paired or digitate at a single node, Rachis enlarged, corky, Flowers unisexual, Plants monoecious, Spikelets sessile or subsessile, Spikelets laterally compressed, Inflorescence or spikelets partially hidden in leaf sheaths, subtended by spatheole, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 1 fertile floret, Spikelets with 2 florets, Spikelets paired at rachis nodes, Spikelets in paired units, 1 sessile, 1 pedicellate, Pedicellate spikelet rudimentary or absent, usually sterile, Spikelets unisexual, Spikelets not disarticulating, or tardy, Spikelets closely appressed or embedded in concave portions of axis, Monoecious - staminate and pistillate spikelets on separate inflorescences, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes equal or subequal, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, or membranous, Lemma 1 nerved, Lemma 3 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma apex truncate, rounded, or obtuse, Lemma awnless, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea longer than lemma, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis.
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Description

Culms erect, 1–4 m tall. Leaf sheaths with transverse veinlets; leaf blades 50–90 × 3–12 cm, glabrous or with tubercle-based hairs, margins scabrid, midvein stout; ligule ca. 2 mm. Female inflorescence a cylindrical "cob," with 16–30 rows of spikelets; glumes equal, veinless, margins ciliate; florets hyaline. Male inflorescence a "tassel" of many digitate racemes; spikelets 9–14 mm, unequally pedicellate, one pedicel 1–2 mm, the other 2–4 mm; glumes subequal, membranous, lower ca. 10-veined, margins ciliate, upper 7-veined; lower lemma and palea hyaline, subequal; upper lemma smaller than lower. Anthers orange, ca. 5 mm. Fl. and fr. summer–autumn. 2n = 20, 40, 80.
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Description

Annual; culm solid. Spikelets unisexual. Staminate spikelets in pairs, about 9 mm long; lower glume lanceolate, pubescent, keeled, long-ciliate, margin thinner, 9-11-nerved, as Iong as the spikelet; upper glume oblong-lanceolate, 7- nerved, nearly as long as the lower; lower lemma minutely hairy on the back and margins, 3-nerved, about 8 mm long; palea as long as the lemma; upper lemma smaller than the lower palea, cleft usually to the base; anthers 3, about 6 mm long. Pistillate inflorescence axillary, the spikelets in many rows on a thickened, almost woody axis, enclosed by numerous large foliaceous bracts or spathes, the tyles extremely long, like silky threads. Caryopsis greatly exceeding the glumes at maturity.
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Elevation Range

? m
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Ecology

Habitat

Cultivated cereal (Maize, Corn).

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Habitat & Distribution

Widely cultivated in China [originating in America; widely cultivated elsewhere].
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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Corn in Illinois

Zea mays (Corn) introduced
(honeybees collect pollen & are non-pollinating; corn is wind-pollinated; this observation is from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera cp np

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Foodplant / spot causer
immersed pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta straminea causes spots on live leaf of Zea mays

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / saprobe
Chytriomyces nodulatus is saprobic on submerged leaf of Zea mays
Remarks: captive: in captivity, culture, or experimentally induced

Foodplant / feeds on
adult of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera feeds on live leaf of Zea mays

Foodplant / saprobe
internal Diplophlyctis intestina is saprobic on stem of Zea mays
Remarks: captive: in captivity, culture, or experimentally induced

Foodplant / saprobe
Entophlyctis aurea is saprobic on submerged leaf of Zea mays

Foodplant / saprobe
Alternaria dematiaceous anamorph of Lewia infectoria is saprobic on dead, fungus infected leaf of Zea mays

Foodplant / open feeder
caterpillar of Mamestra brassicae grazes on live leaf of Zea mays

Foodplant / miner
larva of Oscinella frit mines live leaf of Zea mays

Foodplant / miner
caterpillar of Ostrinia nubilalis mines live stem of Zea mays
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
adult of Oulema melanopus/rufocyanea agg. feeds on leaf of Zea mays
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / parasite
black, open telium of Puccinia sorghi parasitises live sheath of Zea mays

Foodplant / pathogen
erumpent sorus of Ustilago maydis infects and damages live stem of Zea mays
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
Volutella anamorph of Volutella colletotrichoides is saprobic on Zea mays

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Annual.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Zea mays

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Zea mays

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
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Wikipedia

Cultigen

A cultigen (from the Latin cultus - cultivated, and gens - kind) is a plant that has been deliberately altered or selected by humans; it is the result of artificial selection. These "man-made" or anthropogenic plants are, for the most part, plants of commerce that are used in horticulture, agriculture and forestry. Because cultigens are defined by their mode of origin and not by where they are growing, plants meeting this definition remain cultigens whether they are naturalised in the wild, deliberately planted in the wild, or growing in cultivation. Cultigens arise in the following ways: selections of variants from the wild or cultivation including vegetative sports (aberrant growth that can be reproduced reliably in cultivation); plants that are the result of plant breeding and selection programs; genetically modified plants (plants modified by the deliberate implantation of genetic material); and graft-chimaeras (plants grafted to produce mixed tissue, the graft material possibly from wild plants, special selections, or hybrids).

Cultigens may be named in any of a number of ways. The traditional method of scientific naming is under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, and many of the most important cultigens, like maize (Zea mays) and banana (Musa acuminata), are so named. Although it is perfectly in order to give a cultigen a botanical name, in any rank desired, now or at any other time,[1] these days it is more common for cultigens to be given names in accordance with the principles, rules and recommendations laid down in the Cultivated Plant Code which provides for the names of cultigens in three classification categories, the cultivar, the Group (formerly Cultivar-group), and the grex.[nb 1] From that viewpoint it may be said that there is a separate discipline of cultivated plant taxonomy, which forms one of the ways to look at cultigens. The Cultivated Plant Code does not recognize the use of trade designations and other marketing devices as scientifically acceptable names.[2]

Not all cultigens have been given names according to the Cultivated Plant Code. Apart from ancient cultigens like those mentioned above there may be occasional anthropogenic plants such as those that are the result of breeding, selection, and tissue grafting that are of no commercial value and have therefore not been given names according to the Cultivated Plant Code.

Formal definition[edit]

A cultigen is a plant whose origin or selection is primarily due to intentional human activity.[3]

The distinction "wild" and "cultivated"[edit]

Interest in the distinction between wild and cultivated plants dates back to antiquity. Botanical historian Alan Morton notes that wild and cultivated plants (cultigens) were of intense interest to the ancient Greek botanists (partly for religious reasons) and that the distinction was discussed in some detail by Theophrastus (370–285 BCE) the "Father of Botany". Theophrastus was a pupil of both Plato and Aristotle and succeeded the latter as head of the Peripatetic School of Philosophy at the Lyceum in Athens. Theophrastus accepted the view that it was human action not divine intervention that produced cultivated plants (cultigens) from wild plants and he also "had an inkling of the limits of culturally induced (phenotypic) changes and of the importance of genetic constitution" (Historia Plantarum III, 2,2 and Causa Plantarum I, 9,3). He also noted that cultivated varieties of fruit trees would degenerate if cultivated from seed.[4]

Origin of term[edit]

Liberty Hyde Bailey 1858-1954, who coined the word cultigen in 1918

The word cultigen was coined in 1918[5] by Liberty Hyde Bailey (1858–1954) an American horticulturist, botanist and cofounder of the American Society for Horticultural Science. He was aware of the need for special categories for those cultivated plants that had arisen by intentional human activity and which would not fit neatly into the Linnaean hierarchical classification of ranks used by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Cultivated Plant Code).

In his 1918 paper Bailey noted that for anyone preparing a descriptive account of the cultivated plants of a country (he was at that time preparing such an account for North America) it would be clear that there are two gentes or kinds (Latin singular, gens; plural, gentes) of plants. Firstly, those that are of known origin or nativity "of known habitat". These he referred to as indigens. The other kind was:

" ... a domesticated group of which the origin may be unknown or indefinite, which has such characters as to separate it from known indigens, and which is probably not represented by any type specimen or exact description, having therefore no clear taxonomic beginning."

He called this second kind of plant a cultigen, the word derived from the conflation of the Latin cultus - cultivated, and gens - kind.

In 1923[6] Bailey extended his original discussion emphasising that he was dealing with plants at the rank of species and he referred to indigens as:

" those that are discovered in the wild "

and cultigens as plants that:

" arise in some way under the hand of man "

He then defined a cultigen as:

"... a species, or its equivalent, that has appeared under domestication ..."

Bailey's definitions[edit]

Bailey soon altered his 1923 definition of cultigen when, in 1924, he gave a new definition in the Glossary of his Manual of Cultivated Plants[7] as:

" Plant or group known only in cultivation; presumably originating under domestication; contrast with indigen "

This, in essence, is the definition given at the head of this piece. This definition of the cultigen permits the recognition of cultivars, unlike the 1923 definition which restricts the idea of the cultigen to plants at the rank of species.

In later publications of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium, Cornell, the idea of the cultigen having the rank of species returned (e.g. Hortus Second in 1941 and Hortus Third in 1976):[8][9] both of these publications indicate that the terms cultigen and cultivar are not synonymous and that cultigens exist at the rank of species only.

"A cultigen is a plant or group of apparent specific rank, known only in cultivation, with no determined nativity, presumably having originated, in the form in which we know it, under domestication. Compare indigen. Examples are Cucurbita maxima, Phaseolus vulgaris, Zea mays'".

Recent usage in horticulture has, however, maintained a distinction between cultigen and cultivar while nevertheless allowing the inclusion of cultivars within the definition (see "Usage in horticulture" below).

Cultigens and cultivars[edit]

Cultigen and cultivar may be confused with one another. Cultigen is a general-purpose term encompassing not only plants with cultivar names but others as well (see introductory text above), while cultivar is a formal classification category (in the ICNCP).

Although in his 1923 paper Bailey used only the rank of species for the cultigen, it was clear to him that many domesticated plants were more like botanical varieties than species and so he established a new classification category for these, the cultivar, generally assumed to be a contraction of the words “cultivated” and “variety”. Bailey was never explicit about the etymology of the word cultivar and it has been suggested that it is a contraction of the words “cultigen” and “variety”.[10] He defined cultivar in his 1923 paper as:

... " a race subordinate to species, that has originated and persisted under cultivation; it is not necessarily, however, referable to a recognised botanical species. It is essentially the equivalent of the botanical variety except in respect to its origin ".

This definition and understanding of cultivar has changed over time (see current definition in cultivar).

Usage[edit]

Usage in botany[edit]

In botanical literature the word cultigen is generally used to denote a plant which, like the wheat (Triticum aestivum) is of unknown origin, but presumed to be an ancient human selection. Plants like these have been given binomials according to the Botanical Code and therefore have names that have the same form as those of plants that occur naturally in the wild. As these cultigens are the result of deliberate human selection there is no difference, in principle, between them and modern plants with additional names under the Cultivated Plant Code. The use of binomials for cultigens occurs for the most part because they were following the accepted nomenclatural conventions that pre-dated the Cultivated Plant Code. In theory cultigens can be named under either Code or both, although in practice almost all have cultivar names governed by the Cultivated Plant Code.

Usage in horticulture[edit]

Cabbage
Cabbage.jpg
Cabbage, cultivar unknown
Details
SpeciesBrassica oleracea
Cultivar groupCapitata Group
OriginMediterranean, 1st century
Cultivar group
members
Many

The year 1953 was an important one for cultivated plant taxonomy because this was the date of publication of the first International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants in which Bailey’s term cultivar was introduced. It was also the year that the eponymous journal commemorating the work of Bailey (who died in 1954), Baileya, was published. In the first volume of Baileya taxonomist and colleague of Bailey, George Lawrence, wrote a short article clarifying the distinction between the new term cultivar and the variety. In the same article he also tried to clarify the critical term taxon which had been introduced by German biologist Meyer in the 1920s but had only just been introduced and accepted in botanical circles. This brief article by Lawrence is useful for its insight into the understanding of the meaning of the word cultigen at this time. He opens the article:

In 1918, L.H. Bailey distinguished those plants originating in cultivation from the native plants by designating the former as cultigens and the latter as indigens (indigenous or native to the region). At the same time he proposed the term cultivar to distinguish varieties originating in cultivation from botanical varieties known first in the wild.[11]

In horticulture the definition and use of the term cultigen has varied but generally, unlike usage in botany, it encompasses cultivars. One example is the definition given in the Botanical Glossary of The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening[12] which defines cultigen as:

" A plant found only in cultivation or in the wild having escaped from cultivation; included here are many hybrids and cultivars, "...

The use of cultigen in this sense is essentially the same as the definition of the cultigen published by Bailey in 1924.

Other usage[edit]

The term cultigen is occasionally applied in a very general sense to any organisms that do not have a wild or uncultivated counterpart, see for example.[13] Animal breeds raised in captivity would be included here. It might seem that the word "domesticate" could serve the same purpose as cultigen. However, the widely held view that domesticated plants and animals are simply wild plants and animals used in domestic situations (often as tamed wild animals, or plants introduced directly from the wild, rather than being specially selected for particular desirable characteristics) would not support this view. However there is debate about what constitutes domestication and some authors maintain that to be termed domesticated or a "domesticate" a plant or animal must have been genetically "changed" in some way from its wild counterparts, either by conscious or unconscious selection.[14] Regardless of this debate, it is clear that the term cultigen originated within horticulture and botany and that these areas are where it has mostly been applied.

Recommended usage[edit]

Wider use of the term cultigen as defined here has been proposed [3] for the following reasons:

  • supports current usage in horticulture
  • assists clarity in non-technical discussions about “wild” and “cultivated” plants (for example, cultivated plants as commonly understood (plants in cultivation) are not the same as the "cultivated plants" of the Cultivated Plant Code, and the distinction between "wild" and "cultivated" habitats is becoming progressively blurred)
  • has the potential to simplify the language and definitions used in the Articles and Recommendations of the Cultivated Plant Code
  • gives greater precision and clarity to the definition of the respective scope, terminology and concepts of the Botanical Code and the Cultivated Plant Code
  • avoids the potential for confusion within the Cultivated Plant Code over its scope, that is, whether it is concerned with:
    • where plants are growing (in the wild or in cultivation)
    • how they originated (whether they are the result of intentional human activity or not)
    • whether it simply provides a mechanism for regulating the names of those cultigens requiring special classification categories that are not part of the Linnaean hierarchy of the Botanical Code i.e. cultivar and Group names [3][15]

Critique of definition[edit]

Pedunculate Oak
Leaves and acorns; note the long acorn stems
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
Phylum:Magnoliophyta
Class:Magnoliopsida
Order:Fagales
Family:Fagaceae
Genus:Quercus
Section:Quercus
Species:Q. robur
Binomial name
Quercus robur
L.

Potential misunderstandings and questions arising from the definition of cultigen given here have been discussed in the literature[15] and are summarised below.

  • Natural and artificial selection
The selection process is termed "artificial" when human preferences or influences have a significant effect on the evolution of a particular population or species (see artificial selection). Note: artificial selection is a part of the overall selection process - it does not imply that humans are not part of nature, it is simply useful sometimes to distinguish when there has been human influence on selection (as with cultigens).
  • What exactly does altered mean?
There are cases that do not seem to comply with the definition. For example, we can presume that the entire global flora is changing as a result of human-induced climate change. Does this mean that all plants are cultigens?
In cases like this the definition refers to "deliberate" selection and this would be of particular plant characteristics that are not exhibited by a plant's wild counterparts (but see Selections from the wild).
  • What exactly does deliberately selected mean?
From the moment a plant is taken from the wild it is subject to human selection pressure - from the selection of the original propagation material to the purchase of the plant in a nursery. Surely this form of selection is not deliberate? Again, the early human selection of crops 7,000-10,000 years ago is thought to have occurred quite unintentionally. Variants useful to horticulture often arise spontaneously, they are not deliberate products. Are these cases of unintentional, accidental, or unconscious selection?
There certainly appear to be cases where origin or selection of a plant is not "deliberate". However, the long term propagation of plants that have some utility, usually economic or ornamental, can hardly be regarded as unintentional and these plants will, almost without exception, have characteristic(s) that distinguish them from their wild counterparts.
  • What about plants selected from the wild?
Plants like Quercus robur, Pedunculate or English Oak, Liquidambar styraciflua, Sweetgum and Eucalyptus globulus, Blue Gum grown in parks and gardens are essentially the same as their wild counterparts and are therefore not cultigens. However, occasionally within natural plant variation there occur characters that are of value to horticulture but of little interest to botany. For example a plant might have flowers of several different colours but these may not have been given formal botanical names. It is customary in horticulture to introduce such variants to commerce and to give them cultivar names. Technically these plants have not been deliberately altered in any way from plants growing (or once growing) in the wild but as they are deliberately selected and named it seems permissible to refer to them as cultigens. These occurrences are very few. The definition could be (clumsily) extended by mentioning that selection can be for "desirable variation that is not recognised in botanical nomenclature" (which excludes those plants simply transferred from the wild into cultivation).
  • What about gene flow between populations?
Occasionally cultigens escape from cultivation into the wild where they breed with indigenous plants. Selections may be made from the progeny in the wild and brought back into cultivation where they are used for breeding and the results of the breeding again escape into the wild to breed with indigenous plants. Lantana has behaved much like this. The genetic material of a cultigen may become part of the gene pool of a population where, over time, it may be largely or completely swamped. In cases like this what plants are to be called cultigens?
Whether a plant is a cultigen or not does not depend on where it is growing. If it complies with the definition then it is a cultigen. Cases like this have always been difficult for botanical nomenclature. Unnamed progeny in the wild might be given a name like Lantana aff. camara (aff. = having affinities with) or may remain unnamed. Its cultigenic origin may or may not be recognised by the allocation of a cultivar name.
  • Plants of unknown origin
Occasionally plants will occur whose origin is unknown. Plants growing in cultivation that are unknown in the wild may be determined as cultigenic as a result of scientific investigation, but may remain a mystery.
  • Difficult cases
It may happen that a hybrid cross that has occurred in nature is also performed deliberately in cultivation and that the progeny appear identical. How do we know which plants are cultigens?
If the cross in cultivation is followed by deliberate selection and naming then this will indicate a cultigen. However in a case like this it may not be possible to tell.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ McNeill et al. (2006). International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.  Art. 28 "Note 3. Nothing precludes the use, for cultivated plants, of names published in accordance with the requirements of the botanical Code."
  2. ^ Cultivated Plant Code, 2004, Principle 6.
  3. ^ a b c Spencer, R.D. and Cross, R.G. 2007. The cultigen. Taxon 56(3):938-940
  4. ^ Morton, A.G. 1981. History of Botanical Science. London: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-508382-3.
  5. ^ Bailey, L.H. 1918. The indigen and cultigen. Science ser. 2, 47:306-308
  6. ^ Bailey, L.H. 1923. Various cultigens, and transfers in nomenclature. Gentes Herb. 1:113--136
  7. ^ Bailey, L.H. 1924. Manual of cultivated plants. Macmillan, New York
  8. ^ Bailey, L.H. 1941. Hortus second : a concise dictionary of gardening, general horticulture and cultivated plants in North America. The Macmillan Company, New York.
  9. ^ Bailey, L.H. 1976. Hortus third : a concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. Macmillan Collier Macmillan, New York.
  10. ^ Trehane, P. 2004. 50 years of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. Acta Horticulturae 634: 17-27.
  11. ^ Lawrence, George H. M. 1953. "Cultivar, Distinguished from Variety." Baileya 1: 19–20.
  12. ^ Huxley, A., Griffiths, M., and Levy, M. (eds.) 1992. The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan, London
  13. ^ "Definition of cultigen from Online Medical Dictionary". Retrieved 2008-06-25. 
  14. ^ see, for example, Goudie, A. 2006. The human impact on the natural environment. Blackwell, Oxford.
  15. ^ a b Spencer, R.D. 1999. Cultivated plants and the codes of nomenclature – towards the resolution of a demarcation dispute. pp.171—181 in: S. Andrews, A.C. Leslie and C. Alexander (eds). Taxonomy of Cultivated Plants: Third Symposium. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN 1-900347-89-X

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ The category grex was added in the 2009 Cultivated Plant Code and applies only to orchids

Further reading[edit]

  • Spencer, R.D. and Cross, R.G. 2007. The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN), the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP), and the cultigen. Taxon 56(3):938-940
  • Spencer, R, Cross, R & Lumley, P. 2007. (3rd edn) Plant names: a guide to botanical nomenclature. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia. (Also CABI International Wallingford, UK.) The definition of cultigen given in the Glossary of this reference does not include deliberately selected plants that are identical to plants growing (or once growing) in the wild. ISBN 978-0-643-09440-6 (pbk.).
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Notes

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This plant (maize, corn) was first domesticated in Central America about 7000 years ago and is now the third most important crop in the world. The many cultivars are grown for cereal or forage, and it is also an important source of oil, syrup, and alcohol.
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Maize (corn) is a very important food for livestock as well as for man. The grain is ground into flour or cooked without grinding; small green corn (unripe cobs) forms a favorite vegetable; the dry cobs are used as fuel and the spathes are used for making paper.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Cultivated corn is treated by Kartesz (Synthesis of the North American Flora, 1999) as Zea mays ssp. mays, in contrast to Z. mays ssp. parviglumis, one of the species of teosinte. (Another teosinte is Z. mexicana, sometimes treated as Z. mays ssp. mexicana.). However, in many floristic and agricultural works, corn/maize is treated as a distinct species, Zea mays, separate from the teosintes.

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