Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Spanish (1) (learn more)

Overview

Brief Summary

Rye (Secale cereale) is an important cereal crop in the cooler parts of northern and central Europe and Russia, cultivated up to the Arctic Circle and to 4000 m above sea level. The broad area of production includes Russia, Poland, Germany, Argentina, South Africa, Canada, and the United States. Rye is extremely hardy and can grow in sandy soils of low fertility. It is more tolerant of drought, cold, and other adverse growing conditions than are other cereal crops, is more winter hardy than all other small grains, and exhibits a greater amount of fall and early spring growth than do wheat (Triticum) or Oats (Avena sativa). Although spring and winter biotypes of Rye exist, most of the world supply is obtained from winter varieties. Cereal Rye is grown for grain, forage, hay, and as a weed-suppressing cover crop.

Because cereal rye matures earlier than other small grains, strict harvest and grazing management procedures are important to prevent it from becoming a weed. Feral rye is a serious problem in winter annual grain production in the western and central United States (feral plants are plants that are derived in part or fully from crop plants that have become partly or fully undomesticated, meaning they can reproduce on their own and are not dependent on managed cultivation). Feral rye is considered a weed of wheat and Barley (Hordeum vulgare) fields and was likely spread as a contaminant in the seed of domesticated cereals as they were introduced into new areas.

Rye was probably domesticated in eastern Turkey and Armenia, but more recently than wheat. In all Rye-producing countries more than 50% of the grain is used in animal feed, but it is also important in human nutrition. Rye is used in making "black bread", including pumpernickel, although the bread color may vary since the rye flour is often mixed with wheat flour, which lightens the color and adds gluten. Like wheat flour, rye flour can be used to make leavened bread, but the dough is less elastic and retains less carbon dioxide. Rye bread has a generally stronger flavor than wheat bread, has fewer calories, has a higher mineral and fiber content, and has a higher lysine content. A "sourdough process" involving lactic acid fermentation may be used in bread-making. (e.g., for "crisp bread"). Rye is used to make whiskey in the United States, gin in the Netherlands, and beer in Russia. Young plants are used as fodder for livestock. The mature straw is too tough for animal fodder, but can be used for bedding, thatching, paper making, and straw hats.

Ergot (Claviceps purpurea) is a fungus that parasitizes Rye and is poisonous to humans and livestock. Eating rye bread contaminated with Ergot may cause a range of disturbing symptoms.

(Vaughan and Geissler 1997; White et al. 2006)

  • Vaughan, J.G. and C.A. Geissler. 1997. The New Oxford Book of Food Plants (revised and updated edition). Oxford University Press, New York.
  • White, A.D., D.J. Lyon, C. Mallory-Smith, C.R. Medlin, and J.P. Yenish. 2006. Feral Rye (Secale cereale) in Agricultural Production Systems. Weed Technology 20(3): 815-823.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Leo Shapiro

Supplier: Leo Shapiro

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comprehensive Description

Description

Cereal rye is an erect annual grass, with flat leaf blades and dense flower spikes. Each large spike consists of many 2-flowered spikelets with long awns. The grain is relatively large, typically around ½ inch long. There are 18,000 seeds per pound.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution and adaptation

The cultivar ‘Aroostook’ is expected to produce a satisfactory stand as a late seeded cover crop if a minimum of 260-350 growing degree days (base 40 degrees F) remain after seeding. While ‘Aroostook’ was developed primarily for use in northern climates, it is widely adapted as a cover crop and forage producer outside the Northeast.

Cereal rye is distributed throughout the United States. For a current distribution map, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Website.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Culms erect, 80–180 cm tall, scabrous or villous below spike. Leaf blade glaucous, 10–20 × (0.2–)0.5–1 cm, glabrous or abaxial surface sparsely pilose. Spike erect, 5–15 × 1–1.5 cm excluding awns; rachis tough. Spikelets ca. 15 mm excluding awns, with 2(or 3) florets. Glumes linear or linear-lanceolate, 10–12 mm, scabrous along keels, margin membranous, apex usually acuminate. Lemma strongly compressed, 12–15 mm, pectinately spinose-ciliate along keels; awn 30–50 mm. Palea equaling lemma. Fl. and fr. Jul–Aug. 2n = 14.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Annuals, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 1-2 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, d istichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blade auriculate, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades more or less hairy, Ligule present, Ligule an unfringed eciliate membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence racemose, Inflorescence simple spikes, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence spike linear or cylindric, several times longer than wide, Inflorescence single raceme, fascicle or spike, Inflorescence spikelets arranged in a terminal bilateral spike, Peduncle or rachis scabrous or pubescent, often with long hairs, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets sessile or subsessile, Spikelets laterally compressed, Spikelet 3-10 mm wide, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 2 florets, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets disticho usly arranged, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating above the glumes, glumes persistent, Spikelets disarticulating beneath or between the florets, Spikelets closely appressed or embedded in concave portions of axis, Rachilla or pedicel hairy, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes equal or subequal, Glumes shorter than adjacent lemma, Glumes awn-like, elongated or subulate, Glumes keeled or winged, Glumes 1 nerved, Lemma similar in texture to glumes, Lemma coriaceous, firmer or thicker in texture than the glumes, Lemma 5-7 nerved, Lemma body or surface hairy, Lemma apex acute or acuminate, Lemma distinctly awned, more than 2-3 mm, Lemma with 1 awn, Lemma awn 2-4 cm long or longer, Lemma awned from tip, Lemma awns straight or curved to base, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea shorter than lemma, Palea 2 nerved or 2 keeled, Palea keels winged, scabrous, or ciliate, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis, Caryopsis ellipsoid, longitudinally grooved, hilum long-linear, Caryopsis hairy at apex.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

is the cultivated rye. It is, apparently, rarely grown in Pakistan although there are records of it from Baluchistan, N.W.F.P. and Kashmir. It resembles S. segetale but has a tough rhachis.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Culm up to 50-100 cm tall, 2 mm in diameter. Blade narrowly linear-lanceolate, 20-30 cm long, 6-15 mm wide; ligule minute, 0.5 mm long, truncate; auricle present. Spike cylindrical, flat, 10-15 mm long excluding the awn.Spikelets with 2fertile florets, 10 mm long; glumes very narrow, subulate, subequal, 1-3-nerved, shortly awn-tipped, 18 mm long; lemma deltoid-lanceolate, 5-nerved, hispid along midnerve and margins, as long as the spikelet, long awned; palea deltoid-lanceolate, as long as the lemma, 2-keeled, margins overlapping, truncate, minutely ciliate.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Triticum cereale (Linnaeus) Salisbury (1796), not Schrank (1789); T. secale Link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat & Distribution

Cultivated. Anhui, Fujian, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei,Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Yunnan [widely cultivated elsewhere].
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Dispersal

Establishment

The best method to plant ‘Aroostook’ following potatoes, corn, soybeans, and other row crops, is to drill the seed one inch deep using a conventional grain drill equipped with packer wheels. Another satisfactory method is to broadcast the seed followed by a shallow disking or harrowing and cultipacking. Use a minimum of 2 bushels per acre (110 to 120 lb/acre). ‘Aroostook’ rye can also be aerial seeded in standing corn or other row crops. Aerial seeding is very dependent on favorable weather for success. For very late plantings or aerial seedings, 3 bushels per acre is recommended. No seed treatment is recommended.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Foodplant / miner
larva of Agromyza ambigua mines leaf of Secale cereale
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / miner
larva of Agromyza intermittens mines leaf of Secale cereale
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / miner
larva of Agromyza nigrella mines leaf of Secale cereale

Foodplant / miner
larva of Agromyza nigrociliata mines leaf of Secale cereale
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / miner
solitary larva of Agromyza rondensis mines leaf of Secale cereale

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / feeds on
pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta hordei var. europaea feeds on Secale cereale

Foodplant / parasite
Blumeria graminis parasitises live Secale cereale

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Cephus pygmeus feeds within stem of Secale cereale
Other: major host/prey

Plant / resting place / within
puparium of Chromatomyia nigra may be found in leaf-mine of Secale cereale

Foodplant / parasite
Sphacelia anamorph of Claviceps purpurea parasitises inflorescence of Secale cereale
Remarks: season: 7

Foodplant / pathogen
long stalked apothecium of Gloeotinia granigena infects and damages fallen seed of Secale cereale
Remarks: season: 5-7

Foodplant / feeds on
adult of Oulema melanopus/rufocyanea agg. feeds on leaf of Secale cereale
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered, initially immersed pseudothecium of Phaeosphaeria graminis is saprobic on dead stem of Secale cereale
Remarks: season: spring, summer
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Prionychus ater feeds on Secale cereale
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / pathogen
Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides var. acuformis infects and damages Secale cereale

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Pseudonapomyza atra feeds within leaf of Secale cereale
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
immersed, crowded or in rows pycnidium of Pseudoseptoria coelomycetous anamorph of Pseudoseptoria donacis causes spots on sheath of Secale cereale
Remarks: season: 5-7

Foodplant / parasite
uredium of Puccinia graminis f.sp. secalis parasitises live sheath of Secale cereale

Foodplant / parasite
hypophyllous, subepidermal telium of Puccinia recondita parasitises live leaf of Secale cereale

Foodplant / spot causer
linear, long covered by epidermis telium of Puccinia striiformis var. striiformis causes spots on live inflorescence of Secale cereale

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered or in small groups, immersed pseudothecium of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis is saprobic on dead sheath of Secale cereale

Foodplant / spot causer
immersed, thin, subcuticular stromatic plates of Rhynchosporium coelomycetous anamorph of Rhynchosporium secalis causes spots on live sheath of Secale cereale
Remarks: season: 4-9

Foodplant / pathogen
immersed stroma of Pseudocercosporella dematiaceous anamorph of Tapesia yallundae infects and damages live stem of Secale cereale

Foodplant / pathogen
embedded sorus of Tilletia caries infects and damages ovary of Secale cereale

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Trachelus tabidus feeds within stem of Secale cereale
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Trachelus troglodyta feeds within stem of Secale cereale
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
sorus of Urocystis occulta parasitises live inflorescence of Secale cereale
Remarks: season: 6

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Zabrus tenebrioides feeds on Secale cereale

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Secale cereale

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Secale cereale

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 8
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status (e.g. threatened or endangered species, state noxious status, and wetland indicator values).

Public Domain

USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Pests and potential problems

This section is under development.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Info Flora (CRSF/ZDSF) & Autoren 2005

Supplier: Name It's Source (profile not public)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Control

Please contact your local agricultural extension specialist or county weed specialist to learn what works best in your area and how to use it safely. Always read label and safety instructions for each control method. Trade names and control measures appear in this document only to provide specific information. USDA, NRCS does not guarantee or warranty the products and control methods named, and other products may be equally effective.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

Late fall and early spring growth, and prostrate fall leaf growth make ‘Aroostook’ (New York) rye a valuable cover crop. ‘Aroostook’ rye can be seeded in northern Maine as late as September 30th. The leaf area index, (when the plants are growing at 200 growing degree days with a base of 32 degrees F) is significantly greater than ‘Balbo.’ The foundation seed for ‘Aroostook’ rye is produced by the Big Flats, NY Plant Materials Center, and is available to commercial seed producers. Commercially produced certified seed is available from some dealers. Currently, most seed production occurs in the Midwest.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

There is usually adequate residual fertilizer following a row crop to produce the cover crop. Due to ‘Aroostook’s abundant spring growth, it is important to plow, spray, graze, or cut its stands in a timely manner when managed for green manure, cover crop, or forage. Strong growth can be anticipated in March in the southern part of the Northeast. Northern locations typically begin growth in April. For pasture, extremely rapid rotation or stocking with large numbers of animals is required to capture the spring growth. In areas with high nitrogen availability, take preventative measures for grass tetany or other related reactions; an acclimation period for livestock is highly recommended.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Weediness

This plant may become weedy or invasive in some regions or habitats and may displace desirable vegetation if not properly managed. Please consult with your local NRCS Field Office, Cooperative Extension Service office, or state natural resource or agriculture department regarding its status and use. Weed information is also available from the PLANTS Web site at plants.usda.gov.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Cereal rye is a commonly used winter cover crop in the northeastern U.S. Due to the late harvest of many crops, fall-planted cover crops often do not make adequate growth to provide winter soil protection, but cereal rye can germinate and grow under cooler conditions than other covers. Cereal rye can also be used for spring forage production, and fed as pasture, green chop, or put up as haylage. It is reported that rye forage may impart an off-flavor to milk. Cereal rye does have an allelopathic affect on some weed species.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Rye

For other uses, see Rye (disambiguation).

Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and as a forage crop. It is a member of the wheat tribe (Triticeae) and is closely related to barley (Hordeum) and wheat (Triticum). Rye grain is used for flour, rye bread, rye beer, crisp bread, some whiskeys, some vodkas, and animal fodder. It can also be eaten whole, either as boiled rye berries, or by being rolled, similar to rolled oats.

Rye is a cereal grain and should not be confused with ryegrass, which is used for lawns, pasture, and hay for livestock.

History[edit]

Rye is one of a number of species that grow wild in central and eastern Turkey, and in adjacent areas. Domesticated rye occurs in small quantities at a number of Neolithic sites in (Asia Minor) Turkey, such as PPNB Can Hasan III, but is otherwise virtually absent from the archaeological record until the Bronze Age of central Europe, c. 1800–1500 BC.[1] It is possible that rye traveled west from (Asia Minor) Turkey as a minor admixture in wheat (possibly as a result of Vavilovian mimicry), and was only later cultivated in its own right. Although archeological evidence of this grain has been found in Roman contexts along the Rhine, Danube, and in the British Isles,[citation needed] Pliny the Elder was dismissive of rye, writing that it "is a very poor food and only serves to avert starvation"[2] and spelt is mixed into it "to mitigate its bitter taste, and even then is most unpleasant to the stomach".[3]

Since the Middle Ages people have cultivated rye widely in Central and Eastern Europe. It serves as the main bread cereal in most areas east of the French-German border and north of Hungary. In Southern Europe, it was cultivated on marginal lands.

Claims of much earlier cultivation of rye, at the Epipalaeolithic site of Tell Abu Hureyra in the Euphrates valley of northern Syria remain controversial. Critics point to inconsistencies in the radiocarbon dates, and identifications based solely on grain, rather than on chaff.

Agronomy[edit]

Winter rye is any breed of rye planted in the fall to provide ground cover for the winter. It actually grows during any warmer days of the winter, when sunlight temporarily warms the plant above freezing, even while there is general snow cover. It can be used to prevent the growth of winter-hardy weeds, and can either be harvested as a bonus crop, or tilled directly into the ground in spring to provide more organic matter for the next summer's crop. It is sometimes used in winter gardens, and is a common nurse crop.

The flame moth, rustic shoulder-knot and turnip moth are among the species of Lepidoptera whose larvae feed on rye.

Production and consumption statistics[edit]

Rye Export Treemap (2012) from Harvard Atlas of Economic Complexity
Top Ten Rye Producers — 2005
(million metric ton)
 Russia3.6
 Poland3.4
 Germany2.8
 Belarus1.2
 Ukraine1.1
 China0.6
 Canada0.4
 Turkey0.3
 United States0.2
 Austria0.2
World Total13.3
EU 2008 figures include Poland, Germany
and Austria.
Source: FAO [4]
Minerals
Ca33 mg
Fe2.67 mg
Mn121 mg
P374 mg
K264 mg
Na6 mg
Zn3.73 mg
Cu0.450 mg
Mg2.680 mg
Se0.035 mg

Rye is grown primarily in Eastern, Central and Northern Europe. The main rye belt stretches from northern Germany through Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania and Latvia into central and northern Russia. Rye is also grown in North America (Canada and the USA), in South America (Argentina, Brazil), in Turkey, in Kazakstan and in northern China.

Production levels of rye have fallen in most of the producing nations, as of 2005. For instance, production of rye in Russia fell from 13.9 million metric tons (Mt) in 1992 to 3.4 Mt in 2005. Corresponding figures for other countries are as follows: Poland – falling from 5.9 Mt in 1992 to 3.4 Mt in 2005; Germany – 3.3 Mt to 2.8 Mt; Belarus – 3.1 Mt to 1.2 Mt; China – 1.7 Mt to 0.6 Mt; Kazakhstan – 0.6 Mt to 0.02 Mt.[4] Most rye is consumed locally or exported only to neighboring countries, rather than being shipped worldwide.[citation needed]

Diseases[edit]

Main article: List of rye diseases

Rye is highly susceptible to the ergot fungus. Consumption of ergot-infected rye by humans and animals results in a serious medical condition known as ergotism. Ergotism can cause both physical and mental harm, including convulsions, miscarriage, necrosis of digits, hallucinations and death. Historically, damp northern countries that have depended on rye as a staple crop were subject to periodic epidemics of this condition. There have been "occurrence[s] of ergotism with periods where there were high incidents of people persecuted for being witches. Emphasis was placed on the Salem witch trials in Massachusetts in 1692, where there was a sudden rise in the number of people accused of being witches, but earlier examples were taken from Europe, as well."[not in citation given][5]

Uses[edit]

Secale cereale - cereal rye - Steve Hurst USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database.jpg
Secale cereale - cereal rye 2 - Steve Hurst USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database.jpg
Wild Rye

Rye bread, including pumpernickel, is a widely eaten food in Northern and Eastern Europe. Rye is also used to make crisp bread. Rye flour is high in gliadin but low in glutenin. It therefore has a lower gluten content than wheat flour. It also contains a higher proportion of soluble fiber. Alkylresorcinols are phenolic lipids present in high amounts in the bran layer (e.g. pericarp, testa and aleurone layers) of wheat and rye (0.1–0.3% of dry weight).[6]

Rye is used to make alcoholic drinks, like rye whiskey and rye beer. Other uses of rye include kvass and an alternative medicine known as rye extract. Rye straw is used to make corn dollies.

Cultivation[edit]

Rye grows well in much poorer soils than those necessary for most cereal grains. Thus, it is an especially valuable crop in regions where the soil has sand or peat. Rye plants withstand cold better than other small grains do. Rye will survive with snow cover that would otherwise result in winter-kill for winter wheat. Most farmers grow winter ryes, which are planted and begin to grow in autumn. In spring, the plants develop and produce their crop.[5] Fall planted rye shows fast growth. By the summer solstice plants reach their maximum height, of about a 120 cm (4 ft) while spring planted wheat has only recently germinated. Vigorous growth suppresses even the most noxious weed competitors, and rye can be grown without application of herbicides. Rye is a common, unwanted invader of winter wheat fields. If allowed to grow and mature, it may cause substantially reduced prices (docking) for harvested wheat.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf, Domestication of plants in the Old World, third edition (Oxford: University Press, 2000), p. 75
  2. ^ L. T. Evans; W. J. Peacock. Wheat Science - Today and Tomorrow. Cambridge University Press. p. 11. ISBN 9780521237932. 
  3. ^ Pliny the Elder with John Bostock and H.T. Riley, trans., The Natural History (London, England: Taylor and Francis, 1855), Book 18, Chapter 40.
  4. ^ a b "Major Food And Agricultural Commodities And Producers - Countries By Commodity". Fao.org. Retrieved 2010-09-17. 
  5. ^ a b George J. Wong (1951-08-12). "Ergot of Rye: History". Botany.hawaii.edu. Retrieved 2010-09-17. 
  6. ^ Structures of 5-alkylresorcinol-related analogues in rye. Yoshikatsu Suzuki, , Yasuaki Esumi, Isamu Yamaguchi, Phytochemistry, Volume 52, Issue 2, September 1999, Pages 281–289, doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(99)00196-X
  7. ^ 'Rye Control in Winter Wheat'. University of Nebraska Lincoln Extension. 2002, Revised 2007. Accessed 17 June 2013.

Further reading[edit]

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Notes

Comments

Largely cultivated in Europe as a cereal forming a staple food.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!