The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • A Flora of the Northern and Middle Sections of the United States 1: 127. 1823. (Fl. N. Middle United States)
  • An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British possessions ... 1: 219. 1913. (Ill. Fl. N. U.S. (ed. 2))
  • Cody, W. J. 1996. Fl. Yukon Terr. i–xvii, 1–669. NRC Research Press, Ottawa.
  • Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 12(3): 156. 1908. (Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb.)
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Govaerts R. (ed). For a full list of reviewers see: (2015). WCSP: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (version Sep 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Hitchcock, A. S. 1951. Man. Grasses U.S. (ed. 2) 1–1051. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
  • Hitchcock, C. H., A.J. Cronquist, F. M. Ownbey & J. W. Thompson. 1969. Vascular Cryptogams, Gymnosperms, and Monocotyledons. 1: 1–914. In C. L. Hitchcock Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N.W. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
  • Hultén, E. 1968. Fl. Alaska i–xxi, 1–1008. Stanford University Press, Stanford.
  • Isotype: Fernald, M. L. 1905. Rhodora. 7: 244.
  • Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 18: 204. 1928. (J. Wash. Acad. Sci.)
  • Moss, E. H. 1983. Fl. Alberta (ed. 2) i–xii, 1–687. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
  • Porsild, A. E. & W. Cody. 1980. Vasc. Pl. Continental Northw. Terr. Canada i–viii, 1–607. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa.
  • Rhodora 21: 77. 1919. (Rhodora)
  • Rhodora 8(95): 211. 1906. (Rhodora)
  • Soreng, R. J. 2003. Schizachne. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 607–608.
  • Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Swallen. 1928. In: J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 18: 204
  • Type fragment: Michaux, A. 1803. Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1: 73.
  • Welsh, S. L. 1974. Anderson's Fl. Alaska Adj. Parts Canada i–xvi, 1–724. Brigham Young University Press, Provo.


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