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Overview

Distribution

Distribution in Egypt

Nile region, cultivated (sugar cane).

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Global Distribution

Thought to have arisen in New Guinea, now cultivated for sugar throughout the tropics and subtropics.

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Saccharum officinarum var. violaceum Pers.:
India (Asia)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Saccharum officinarum var. otaheitense Roem. & Schult.:
India (Asia)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Saccharum officinarum var. jamaicense Sickenb.:
Egypt (Africa & Madagascar)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Saccharum officinarum var. brevipedicellatum Hack.:
Brazil (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
  • Hackel, E. 1883. Gramineae IV. Andropogoneae, Tristegineae. 2(3C): 245–326, t. 59–74. In C. F. P. von Martius Fl. Bras. F. Fleischer, Monachii et Lipsiae.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/25889 External link.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Saccharum officinarum var. genuinum Hack.:
Brazil (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
  • Hackel, E. 1883. Gramineae IV. Andropogoneae, Tristegineae. 2(3C): 245–326, t. 59–74. In C. F. P. von Martius Fl. Bras. F. Fleischer, Monachii et Lipsiae.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/25889 External link.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Saccharum infirmum Steud. ex Lechler:
Peru (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Saccharum officinarum L.:
Argentina (South America)
Belize (Mesoamerica)
Bolivia (South America)
Chile (South America)
Costa Rica (Mesoamerica)
Brazil (South America)
China (Asia)
Colombia (South America)
Ecuador (South America)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
Honduras (Mesoamerica)
Guatemala (Mesoamerica)
El Salvador (Mesoamerica)
India (Asia)
Guyana (South America)
French Guiana (South America)
Caribbean (Caribbean)
Peru (South America)
United States (North America)
Panama (Mesoamerica)
New Guinea (Asia)
Uruguay (South America)
Taiwan (Asia)
Paraguay (South America)
Suriname (South America)
Nicaragua (Mesoamerica)
Venezuela (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Cultivated in many parts of the tropics.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Perennials, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem nodes bearded or hairy, Stem internodes solid or spongy, Stems with inflorescence 2-6 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 6 m or taller, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, g labrous, Leaf sheath hairy at summit, throat, or collar, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 1-2 cm wide, Leaf blades 2 or more cm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades scabrous, roughened, or wrinkled, Ligule present, Ligule a fringed, ciliate, or lobed membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence an open panicle, openly paniculate, branches spreading, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence branches more than 10 to numerous, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets sessile or subsessile, Spikelets dorsally compressed or terete, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 1 fertile floret, Spikelets with 2 florets, Spikelets paired at rachis nodes, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets in paired units, 1 sessile, 1 pedicellate, Spikelets bisexual, Inflorescence disarticulating between nodes or joints of rachis, rachis fr agmenting, Spikelets disarticulating below the glumes, Spikelets falling with parts of disarticulating rachis or pedicel, Inflorescence branches deciduous, falling intact, Spikelets conspicuously hairy , Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes equal or subequal, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Glumes 3 nerved, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, or membranous, Lemma 1 nerved, Lemma apex acute or acuminate, Lemma awnless, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Callus or base of lemma evidently hairy, Callus hairs longer than lemma, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Description

Perennial, forming tall clumps. Culms 3–6 m tall, 2–5 cm in diam., 20–40-noded, solid, nodes glabrous, glabrous below inflorescence. Leaf sheaths glabrous, pilose at mouth; leaf blades 70–150 × 4–6 cm, usually glabrous, midrib large, white, margins sharply serrate, base rounded, apex acuminate; ligule 2–3 mm, ciliate. Panicle 50–100 cm, axis glabrous but pilose at nodes; racemes 10–25 cm; rachis internodes 3–6 mm, glabrous. Spikelets 3.5–4 mm; callus hairs 2–3 times length of spikelet; lower glume oblong, uniformly firm throughout, buff-colored, back glabrous, margins membranous and ciliate above, apex acuminate; lower lemma oblong-lanceolate, subequal to glumes; upper lemma linear, awnless. Lodicules glabrous. Anthers 3. Fl. and fr. autumn. 2n = 80.
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Description

Rhizome stout. Culms solid, 3-5 m high, juicy inside, 2-3 cm in diameter, nodes numerous, the lower internodes shortened and swollen. Sheaths imbricate, lower ones falling off at the culm base; blade 4-6 cm wide, midrib prominent and broad, margins serrulate with siliceous bodies; ligule rounded, small. Panicle very large, up to 50 cm long; racemose branches more or less pendent, rachis-joint. easily falling off together with spikelets when mature. Spikelets paired monomorphic, the one pedicelled and the other sessile, about 3 mm long; callus covered with long silky hairs, the hairs 2-3 times as long as the spikelet; glumes oblong, coriaceous, margins membranous and long, ciliate; lower glume keeled along margins; upper glume boat-shaped, nearly as long as the lower glume; lower lemma oblong-lanceolate, obscurely one-nerved, membranous; upper lemma linear, membranous, about 2/3 as long as the spikelet.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat & Distribution

Cultivated. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan [SE Asia, Pacific Islands; widely cultivated elsewhere].
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Associations

Insects whose larvae eat this plant species

Melanitis leda helena (Common twilight brown)
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Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Saccharum officinarum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Saccharum officinarum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Saccharum officinarum

Saccharum officinarum, sugarcane, is a large, strong-growing species of grass in the genus Saccharum. It originated in southeast Asia[1] and is now cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries worldwide for the production of sugar and other products.

Description[edit]

Saccharum officinarum is a perennial plant that grows in clumps consisting of a number of strong unbranched stems. A network of rhizomes forms under the soil which send up secondary shoots near the parent plant. The stems vary in colour being green, pinkish or purple and can reach 5 metres (16 ft) in height. They are jointed, nodes being present at the bases of the alternate leaves. The internodes contain a fibrous white pith immersed in sugary sap. The elongated, linear, green leaves have thick midribs and saw-toothed edges and grow to a length of about 30 to 60 centimetres (12 to 24 in) and width of 5 centimetres (2.0 in). The terminal inflorescence is a panicle up to 60 centimetres (24 in) long, a pinkish plume that is broadest at the base and tapering towards the top. The spikelets are borne on side branches and are about 3 millimetres (0.12 in) long and are concealed in tufts of long, silky hair. The fruits are dry and each one contains a single seed.[2][3] When sugar cane is harvested, harvesting typically occurs before the plant flowers, as the flowering process causes a reduction in sugar content.[4]

Uses[edit]

Harvesting sugar cane by hand

Portions of the stem of this and several other species of sugar cane have been used from ancient times for chewing to extract the sweet juice. It was cultivated in New Guinea about eight thousand years ago for this purpose. Extraction of the juice by boiling was probably first done in India more than two thousand years ago.[2]

Saccharum officinarum and its hybrids are grown for the production of sugar, ethanol and other industrial uses in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. The stems and the by-products of the sugar industry are used for feeding to livestock. It has been found that pigs fed on sugar cane juice and a soy based protein supplement produced stronger piglets that grew faster than those on a more conventional diet.[5] As its specific name (officinarum, "of dispensaries") implies, it is also used in traditional medicine both internally and externally.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ In New Guinea, according to sources cited by Christian Daniels in Joseph Needham, Science and Civilisation in China, Volume 6.3, p. 129ff.
  2. ^ a b c "Saccharum officinarum". Kew Royal Botanic Gardens. Retrieved 2012-09-21. 
  3. ^ "Saccharum officinarum L.". FAO. Retrieved 2012-09-21. 
  4. ^ "The Biology and Ecology of Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) in Australia, Australian Government, Department of Health and Ageing, Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, 2004; p. 10.
  5. ^ "Sugar cane". Feeding pigs in the tropics. FAO. Retrieved 2012-09-21. 
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Notes

Comments

This is the commercial crop sugarcane, now widely cultivated in tropical regions of the world. Most present-day cultivars contain genes from Saccharum spontaneum. Sugar is extracted from the soft, central tissue of the culm. The dyed inflorescence is used as an ornament.
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Comments

Cultivated extensively in Taiwan.  The dyed inflorescence is often use as an ornament. The sugar is contained in the soft central tissues of the stem; the canes are cut before flowering and crushed between rollers to extract the juice; afterwards it is boiled down under reduced pressure to produce crystals.
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