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Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution in Egypt

Nile region, cultivated (sugar cane).

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Global Distribution

Thought to have arisen in New Guinea, now cultivated for sugar throughout the tropics and subtropics.

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Cultivated in many parts of the tropics.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Perennials, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem nodes bearded or hairy, Stem internodes solid or spongy, Stems with inflorescence 2-6 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 6 m or taller, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, g labrous, Leaf sheath hairy at summit, throat, or collar, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 1-2 cm wide, Leaf blades 2 or more cm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades scabrous, roughened, or wrinkled, Ligule present, Ligule a fringed, ciliate, or lobed membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence an open panicle, openly paniculate, branches spreading, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence branches more than 10 to numerous, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets sessile or subsessile, Spikelets dorsally compressed or terete, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 1 fertile floret, Spikelets with 2 florets, Spikelets paired at rachis nodes, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets in paired units, 1 sessile, 1 pedicellate, Spikelets bisexual, Inflorescence disarticulating between nodes or joints of rachis, rachis fr agmenting, Spikelets disarticulating below the glumes, Spikelets falling with parts of disarticulating rachis or pedicel, Inflorescence branches deciduous, falling intact, Spikelets conspicuously hairy , Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes equal or subequal, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Glumes 3 nerved, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, or membranous, Lemma 1 nerved, Lemma apex acute or acuminate, Lemma awnless, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Callus or base of lemma evidently hairy, Callus hairs longer than lemma, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Description

Perennial, forming tall clumps. Culms 3–6 m tall, 2–5 cm in diam., 20–40-noded, solid, nodes glabrous, glabrous below inflorescence. Leaf sheaths glabrous, pilose at mouth; leaf blades 70–150 × 4–6 cm, usually glabrous, midrib large, white, margins sharply serrate, base rounded, apex acuminate; ligule 2–3 mm, ciliate. Panicle 50–100 cm, axis glabrous but pilose at nodes; racemes 10–25 cm; rachis internodes 3–6 mm, glabrous. Spikelets 3.5–4 mm; callus hairs 2–3 times length of spikelet; lower glume oblong, uniformly firm throughout, buff-colored, back glabrous, margins membranous and ciliate above, apex acuminate; lower lemma oblong-lanceolate, subequal to glumes; upper lemma linear, awnless. Lodicules glabrous. Anthers 3. Fl. and fr. autumn. 2n = 80.
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Description

Rhizome stout. Culms solid, 3-5 m high, juicy inside, 2-3 cm in diameter, nodes numerous, the lower internodes shortened and swollen. Sheaths imbricate, lower ones falling off at the culm base; blade 4-6 cm wide, midrib prominent and broad, margins serrulate with siliceous bodies; ligule rounded, small. Panicle very large, up to 50 cm long; racemose branches more or less pendent, rachis-joint. easily falling off together with spikelets when mature. Spikelets paired monomorphic, the one pedicelled and the other sessile, about 3 mm long; callus covered with long silky hairs, the hairs 2-3 times as long as the spikelet; glumes oblong, coriaceous, margins membranous and long, ciliate; lower glume keeled along margins; upper glume boat-shaped, nearly as long as the lower glume; lower lemma oblong-lanceolate, obscurely one-nerved, membranous; upper lemma linear, membranous, about 2/3 as long as the spikelet.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat & Distribution

Cultivated. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan [SE Asia, Pacific Islands; widely cultivated elsewhere].
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Associations

Insects whose larvae eat this plant species

Melanitis leda helena (Common twilight brown)
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Saccharum officinarum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Saccharum officinarum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Stem: Juice used to treat snakebite and wounds from poison arrows. Juice mixed with infusion of "wallaba" (Eperua sp.) to treat urari (curare) poisoning by the Guyana Macusi. Yields sugar; finely ground sugar is used for eye diseases in French Guiana by blowing it into a leucoma of the cornea. Sugar in a mix rubbed onto rheumatism-afflicted areas. Whole sugar for vermifuge. Powdered sugar for a detersive. Sugar cane eaten for a blood-cleanser, digestive and to prevent dental cavities. In Guyana, granulated sugar is sometimes placed on a scald or burn for quick relief. Sap: Used for coughs and colds as well as to treat snakebite in NW Guyana. Leaf: Decoction of young leaves is used for urinary conditions.

  • Abraham, E.A.V. 1912. Materia Medica Guian. Britt. Timehri, ser. 3, 2: 179-196.
  • Heckel, E. 1897. Les Plantes Médicinales et Toxiques de la Guyane Francaise. 93 pp. Macon, France: Protat Freres.
  • Heyde, H. 1987. Surinaamse Medicijnplanten. Ed. 2. 112 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Westfort. (Followed by: Heyde, H. 1990. Medecijn Planten in Suriname (Den Dresi Wiwiri foe Sranan). 157 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Stichting Gezondheidsplanten Informatie).
  • Judziewicz, E. 1990. Family 187. Poaceae, 727 pp. In: Gorts- van Rijn, A.R.A., ed., Flora of the Guianas. Koenigstein, Germany: Koeltz Scientific Books.
  • May, A.F. 1982. Surinaams Kruidenboek (Sranan Oso Dresi). 80 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Vaco; and Zutphen, The Netherlands: De Walburg Pers.
  • Roth, W.E. 1922-1923. Richard Schomburgk's Travels in British Guiana 1840-1844. 2 vols. Georgetown, Guyana: Daily Chronicle.
  • van Andel, T. R. 2000. Non-timber Forest Products of the North-West District of Guyana. Part I: 326 pp., Part II: A Field Guide, 358 pp. Tropenbos-Guyana Series 8B. Georgetown, Guyana: Tropenbos-Guyana Programme.

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Wikipedia

Saccharum officinarum

Saccharum officinarum, sugarcane, is a large, strong-growing species of grass in the genus Saccharum. It originated in southeast Asia[1] and is now cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries worldwide for the production of sugar and other products.

Description[edit]

S. officinarum, a perennial plant, grows in clumps consisting of a number of strong unbranched stems. A network of rhizomes forms under the soil which sends up secondary shoots near the parent plant. The stems vary in colour, being green, pinkish, or purple and can reach 5 m (16 ft) in height. They are jointed, nodes being present at the bases of the alternate leaves. The internodes contain a fibrous white pith immersed in sugary sap. The elongated, linear, green leaves have thick midribs and saw-toothed edges and grow to a length of about 30 to 60 cm (12 to 24 in) and width of 5 cm (2.0 in). The terminal inflorescence is a panicle up to 60 cm (24 in) long, a pinkish plume that is broadest at the base and tapering towards the top. The spikelets are borne on side branches and are about 3 mm (0.12 in) long and are concealed in tufts of long, silky hair. The fruits are dry and each one contains a single seed.[2][3] Sugarcane harvest typically occurs before the plants flower, as the flowering process causes a reduction in sugar content.[4]

Uses[edit]

Harvesting sugarcane by hand

Portions of the stem of this and several other species of sugarcane have been used from ancient times for chewing to extract the sweet juice. It was cultivated in New Guinea about 8000 years ago for this purpose. Extraction of the juice by boiling was probably first done in India more than 2000 years ago.[2]

S. officinarum and its hybrids are grown for the production of sugar, ethanol, and other industrial uses in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. The stems and the byproducts of the sugar industry are used for feeding to livestock. Pigs fed on sugarcane juice and a soy-based protein supplement produced stronger piglets that grew faster than those on a more conventional diet.[5] As its specific name (officinarum, "of dispensaries") implies, it is also used in traditional medicine both internally and externally.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ In New Guinea, according to sources cited by Christian Daniels in Joseph Needham, Science and Civilisation in China, Volume 6.3, p. 129ff.
  2. ^ a b c "Saccharum officinarum". Kew Royal Botanic Gardens. Retrieved 2012-09-21. 
  3. ^ "Saccharum officinarum L.". FAO. Retrieved 2012-09-21. 
  4. ^ "The Biology and Ecology of Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) in Australia, Australian Government, Department of Health and Ageing, Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, 2004; p. 10.
  5. ^ "Sugar cane". Feeding pigs in the tropics. FAO. Retrieved 2012-09-21. 
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Notes

Common Names

French Guiana: canne a sucre. Guyana: sugar cane. Surinam: suikerriet, tjing, tjin tjing. Surinam Javan: teboe. Surinam Sranan: ken.

  • Abraham, E.A.V. 1912. Materia Medica Guian. Britt. Timehri, ser. 3, 2: 179-196.
  • Heckel, E. 1897. Les Plantes Médicinales et Toxiques de la Guyane Francaise. 93 pp. Macon, France: Protat Freres.
  • Heyde, H. 1987. Surinaamse Medicijnplanten. Ed. 2. 112 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Westfort. (Followed by: Heyde, H. 1990. Medecijn Planten in Suriname (Den Dresi Wiwiri foe Sranan). 157 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Stichting Gezondheidsplanten Informatie).
  • Judziewicz, E. 1990. Family 187. Poaceae, 727 pp. In: Gorts- van Rijn, A.R.A., ed., Flora of the Guianas. Koenigstein, Germany: Koeltz Scientific Books.
  • May, A.F. 1982. Surinaams Kruidenboek (Sranan Oso Dresi). 80 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Vaco; and Zutphen, The Netherlands: De Walburg Pers.
  • Roth, W.E. 1922-1923. Richard Schomburgk's Travels in British Guiana 1840-1844. 2 vols. Georgetown, Guyana: Daily Chronicle.
  • van Andel, T. R. 2000. Non-timber Forest Products of the North-West District of Guyana. Part I: 326 pp., Part II: A Field Guide, 358 pp. Tropenbos-Guyana Series 8B. Georgetown, Guyana: Tropenbos-Guyana Programme.

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Comments

This is the commercial crop sugarcane, now widely cultivated in tropical regions of the world. Most present-day cultivars contain genes from Saccharum spontaneum. Sugar is extracted from the soft, central tissue of the culm. The dyed inflorescence is used as an ornament.
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Comments

Cultivated extensively in Taiwan.  The dyed inflorescence is often use as an ornament. The sugar is contained in the soft central tissues of the stem; the canes are cut before flowering and crushed between rollers to extract the juice; afterwards it is boiled down under reduced pressure to produce crystals.
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