Overview

Comprehensive Description

Brief

Flowering class: Monocot Habit: Herb
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Distribution

"
Global Distribution

India, Sri Lanka and Malesia

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
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Distributed in Malaysia, the Ryukyus and South China
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Nepal, India, Ceylon, Burma.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Tall reed; culm solid, up to 1 cm across, more than 2 m tall. Blade about 2 cm wide, margins siliceous; ligule chartaceous, hispid on the back. Inflorescence a large panicle. Spikelets in threes, monomorphic; rachis articulating; lower spikelet about 4.S mm long, falling off together with the rachis-joint; lower glume chartaceous, lanceolate, 2-keeled, sericeous on the back, as long as the spikelet; upper glume chartaceous, lanceolate, with margins slightly inrolled, 5-nerved sericeous, pointed; lower lemma about 3.8 mm long, 3-nerved, upper margins: inrolled, fimbriate; upper lemma membranous, margins inrolled, upper half fimbriate, pointed, about 3 mm long; upper palea hyaline, ovate, about 2 mm long, ciliate at the apex. Caryopsis about 2 mm long, cylindrical; embryo 1/2 the length of the caryopsis.
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Description

Perennial, forming large clumps. Culms robust, (0.7–)1–6 m tall, 1–2 cm in diam., glabrous. Leaf sheaths glabrous or pubescent, ciliate at mouth and margins; leaf blades (60–)100–200 × 1–2 cm, abaxial surface glabrous, adaxial surface velvety with long soft hairs on broad lower midvein, margins serrate, base narrow, apex long attenuate; ligule 1–2 mm. Panicle (25–) 30–80 cm, much branched, axis glabrous; racemes 3–5.5 cm; rachis internodes 3–5 mm, pilose with long silky hairs. Spikelets 3–4 mm, straw-colored tinged purple upward; callus hairs ca. 1 mm, shorter than spikelet; lower glume thinly cartilaginous, back pilose with silky hairs twice length of spikelet, keels scabrid, apex acuminate; upper glume usually glabrous in sessile spikelet, rarely thinly pilose, clearly pilose in pedicelled spikelet; lower lemma subequal to glumes; upper lemma lanceolate, apex mucronate or with awn to 3 mm. Lodicules glabrous. Anthers 1.8–2 mm. Fl. and fr. Aug–Dec. 2n = 30, 40, 50, 60.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Shrubby perennials; culms solid, to 4 m tall or more, lower nodes 2 cm thick; leaf-sheaths overlapping, glabrous and smooth, fairly tight, as much as 40 cm long; blades generally 2-ranked, long and broad, up to 100 cm x 2.5-5 cm, gradually narrowed to the base, broadest below the middle and tapering into a long, acuminate, fairly smooth point, the midrib prominent, whitish; ligule a shallow membranous rim, bordered by dense stiff hairs. Inflorescence terminal panicle, 30-80 x 15 cm, the branches glabrous except the finer ones which may bear spreading silky hairs like those on the spikelets, forming successive whorls along the axis, each branch a raceme which breaks up into units consisting of a joint and its sessile spikelets together with the pedicels of the pedicelled spikelet, the ripe pedicelled spikelet falling away entire. Sessile spikelet from a short, common, short- haired callus, with the joint and pedicel which both carry long hairs; lower glume 2-nerved, the margins infolded along the nerves, narrowly ovate-attenuate, the nerves continued to the tip, scaberulous on the back of the nerves and carrying in addition long fine hairs, 2.8 mm long + hairs 5.4 mm long; upper glume hyaline, narrowly boat-shaped, 3-nerved, the midnerve forming the keel and a fine point, with scaberulae on the back of the keel and an occasional long hair, 2.6 mm long; lower lemma 2.6 mm long, 1-nerved, delicately hyaline, narrowly boat-shaped, 3-nerved, the midnerve forming the keel and a fine point, with scaberulous on the back of the keel and an occasional long hair, 2.6 mm long; lower lemma 2.6 mm long, 1-nerved, delicately hyaline, narrowly linear-acuminate, the margins fringed above; palea nil; upper lemma similar to the lower but more ponted, 2.6 mm long; palea a fimbriate, delicately hyaline scale, 1.2 mm long. Anthers purple, 1.2 mm long. Stigmata 2, plumose, purple. Pedicelled spikelet similar, but both glumes more heavily bearded and the lower glume only 1-nerved."
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Synonym

Saccharum arundinaceum Retz., Obs. Bot. 4: 14. 1786
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

Along streams and field boarders
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Habitat & Distribution

Hill slopes, riversides, dry stream beds, often on sandy soils. S Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: December-April
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Medicinal
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Wikipedia

Saccharum arundinaceum

Saccharum arundinaceum, commonly known as Hardy Sugar Cane, is a grass native to South Asia. In Tamil it is known as நாணல் (nāṇal). In Assamese it is known as মেগেলা কুঁহিয়াৰ meghela kuhiyaar, the word কুঁহিয়াৰ (kuhiyaar) meaning sugarcane. It is a species which is endemic to the grasslands of the famous Kaziranga National Park of Assam, India .[1]

References[edit]

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Notes

Comments

It is necessary to look carefully, preferably using a disarticulated spikelet, in order to distinguish the basal, short callus hairs from the long, silky hairs of the rachis internodes, pedicels, and glumes.

This species is used for forage in China.

Saccharum arundinaceum is similar to S. bengalense Retzius, from N India and Pakistan. The latter species is distinguished mainly by its rather narrow panicle and much narrower leaf blades, which are channeled and consist mostly of midrib.

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Comments

A tall reed growing along rivers.
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