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Overview

Brief Summary

History in the United States

Bamboos are woody reed-like grasses that have a shrubby growth habit. The three species featured here are popular ornamentals that were introduced and planted widely but other species and cultivars are also available in the nursery trade. These species have been reported by numerous sources as being invasive in natural areas (see below). Giant or switch cane (Arundinaria gigantea) is the only species of bamboo native to the U.S. It is found throughout the Southeast just into southern Maryland and is about the size of Pseudosasa.

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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution and Habitat in the United States

These species of bamboo have been reported to be invasive in the mid-Atlantic and Southeast as well as some sites in the western and southwestern U.S. Infestations are commonly associated with new and very old residences from which they’ve escaped.

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Origin

Asia

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description and Biology

  • Plant: woody stems varying from about ¼ in. (arrow) to 3-4 in. diameter (common and golden) with hollow centers and solid joints; grow to heights of 7-8 ft. (arrow) to 16-40 ft. (common and golden).
  • Leaves: strap-shaped and tapering with pointed tips, tough, somewhat papery or leathery, up to 10 in. long and 1-2 in. across.
  • Flowers, fruits and seeds: flowering is infrequent and unpredictable; flowers are grasslike and not especially showy.
  • Spreads: by vegetative means through vigorous rhizomatous growth.
  • Look-alikes: other bamboos, including native giant cane (Arundinaria gigantea) and some tall grasses.

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Physical Description

Perennials, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Rhizomes present, Rhizome elongate, creeping, stems distant, Stems woody, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stems branching above base or distally at nodes, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence 2-6 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves pseudo-petiolate, petiole attached to sheath, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath hairy, hispid or prickly, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaves borne on branches, Leaf blades lanceolate, Leaves with distinct crossveins, net-like transverse veins, Leaf blades 1-2 cm wide, Leaf blades 2 or more cm wide, Leaf blades mo stly flat, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades more or less hairy, Ligule present, Ligule an unfringed eciliate membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence an open panicle, openly paniculate, branches spreading, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence with 2-10 branches, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets laterally compressed, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 2 florets, Spikelets with 3-7 florets, Spikelets with 8-40 florets, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating above the glumes, glumes persistent, Spikelets disarticulating beneath or between the florets, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes distinctly unequal, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Glumes 4-7 nerved, Glumes 8-15 nerved, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilagi nous, or membranous, Lemma 8-15 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma apex acute or acuminate, Lemma awnless, Lemma mucronate, very shortly beaked or awned, less than 1-2 mm, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea about equal to lemma, Palea 2 nerved or 2 keeled, Palea keels winged, scabrous, or ciliate, Stamens 3, Stamens 4 (2 2), Styles 3 or 3-fid, deeply 3-branched, Stigmas 3, Fruit - caryopsis, Caryopsis ellipsoid, longitudinally grooved, hilum long-linear.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Description

Culms erect or nodding, 1–3(–5) m tall, to 1.5 cm thick; internodes long, finely ridged, finely mottled, with light ring of wax below each node; nodes slightly raised; sheath scar large. Branches usually 1 per node, without basal buds or branches on that branch, sometimes rebranching from distal branch nodes. Culm sheaths persistent, to 25 cm, basally glabrous, distally appressed hispid; auricles and oral setae absent; blade erect, 2–5 cm, abaxially glabrous. Leaf sheaths glabrous, margins membranous, not ciliate, auricles absent or small, erect; oral setae scarce, erect, or lacking; ligule oblique, long, slightly pubescent, eroded; abaxial ligule glabrous to finely ciliate;blade abaxially light green to glaucous, adaxially dark green, 15–37 × 1.5–5 cm, glabrous; pseudopetiole glabrous. Spikelets curving, narrowly terete, 3.5–10 cm; florets 5–20(–25). Lemma 1.2–1.5 cm, glabrous, often with fine mucro ca. 2 mm; palea nearly equal to lemma, glabrous, keels finely ciliate. Inflorescence not known.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Arundinaria japonica Siebold & Zuccarini ex Steudel, Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 334. 1854; A. usawae Hayata; Pleioblastus usawae (Hayata) Ohki; Pseudosasa usawae (Hayata) Makino & Nemoto; Yadakeya japonica (Siebold & Zuccarini ex Steudel) Makino.
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Type Information

Type fragment for Arundinaria japonica Siebold & Zucc. in Steud.
Catalog Number: US 2808850
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): P. F. von Siebold
Locality: Honshu, Japan, Asia-Temperate
  • Type fragment: Siebold, P. F. & Zuccarini, J. G. 1854. Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 334.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat & Distribution

Yangtze River to Guangdong, Taiwan [Japan, Korea].
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
hypophyllous telium of Puccinia longicornis parasitises live leaf of Arundinaria japonica

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Pseudosasa japonica

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pseudosasa japonica

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Management

Prevention and Control

Do not plant exotic bamboos. While manual control of bamboo through cutting and digging out of rhizomes is possible, it is extremely labor intensive and will need to be continued over a long time to ensure eradication. Control with herbicides is more practical and can be very effective.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Ecological Threat in the United States

Bamboos can form very dense single-species thickets that displace native plant species and create dense shade that makes it difficult for seedlings of native species to survive. Once established, they can be very difficult to eradicate.

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Wikipedia

Pseudosasa japonica

Pseudosasa japonica, common names Arrow bamboo and Green onion bamboo,[2] is a species of bamboo.

Common Name[edit]

Pseudosasa japonica's common name, "Arrow Bamboo" or "Japanese Arrow Bamboo" results from the Japanese Samurai using its hard and stiff canes for their arrows. [3]

Distribution[edit]

This species is native to Japan in Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku, as well as Korea.

In the United States it is found in USDA Plantzones 10 through 6, (ie: Florida to New York). [4]

Gardening Uses[edit]

This cold hardy bamboo species (tolerant to 0*F) grows well both in shade and also in full sun. The culms are typically yellow-brown and it has palmfont-like leaves. Pseudosasa japonica does very well in containers and salty air near the ocean. Because it tends to be more shade tolerant than other bamboo species it is often used by gardeners as an understory to a tree-lined living fence. [5]

Subspecies[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "ITIS Standard Report Page: Pseudosasa japonica". Itis.gov. 2009-11-24. Retrieved 2011-08-30. 
  2. ^ a b "PLANTS Profile for Pseudosasa japonica (arrow bamboo) | USDA PLANTS". Plants.usda.gov. Retrieved 2011-08-30. 
  3. ^ "Cape May Bamboo - Pseudosasa Japonica (Japanese Arrow Bamboo)". Retrieved 2012-03-11. 
  4. ^ "Cape May Bamboo - Pseudosasa Japonica (Japanese Arrow Bamboo)". Retrieved 2012-03-11. 
  5. ^ "Cape May Bamboo - Pseudosasa Japonica (Japanese Arrow Bamboo)". Retrieved 2012-03-11. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Encke, F. et al. 1984. Zander: Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, 13. Auflage.
  • Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening.
  • Ohrnberger, D. 1999. The bamboos of the world.
  • Ohwi, J. 1965. Flora of Japan (Engl. ed.).
  • Tai Hyun Chung. 1965. Illustrated encyclopedia of fauna & flora of Korea, vol. 5, Tracheophyta.
  • Wang Dajun & Shen Shao-Jin. 1987. Bamboos of China.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition).
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Notes

Comments

This species is cultivated as an ornamental. It is traditionally used for arrows in Japan.
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