Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Spanish (10) (learn more)

Overview

Brief Summary

History in the United States

Cogon grass was introduced to the United States both accidentally and intentionally. Cogon grass was first introduced to the U.S. at Mobile, Alabama, via shipping crates that contained cogon grass as a packing material. It was also brought in and distributed by the U.S.D.A. for use as a forage grass and for soil erosion control. Cogon grass is also sold by the nursery trade as an ornamental grass, valued for its attractive foliage and hardiness.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

U.S. National Park Service Weeds Gone Wild website

Source: U.S. National Park Service

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comprehensive Description

Description

A water loving creeping grass, spreading with long rhizomes and often forming dense stands. The inflorescences are silvery and narrow when young, opening up into broad cottonwool spikes later.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Derivation of specific name

cylindrica: cylindric
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Brief

Flowering class: Monocot Habit: Herb
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica, is a perrenial, rhizomatous grass that is somewhat variable n appearance. The species puts out extensive rhizomes that give rise to 3-10' long spreading stems and the leaf blade bunches that grow out of the stems. The leaf blades begin at ground level and leaves typically range from 1-4 feet in length. Blades range from 1/2-3/4 inches in width, possess finely serrate sharp margins, a white, off-center mid-vein, and are hairy at the base. The finely serrate leaf margins contribute to the undesirable forage qualities of this grass. Young leaves are light green while older leaves are orange-brown to brown in color. The ligules (membranous or hairy appendages at the junction between sheath and blade) are brown and paperyThis grass produces long, fluffy-white panicles (seedheads) (Langland and Burks 1998, MacDonald et al. 2006).
  • Bennett, D. 2006. Cogongrass, deep-rooted sedge in Mississippi Delta. Delta Farm Press Oct 19, 2006 news story. Available online.
  • Casini P., and V. Vecchio. 1998. Allelopathic interference of itchgrass and cogongrass: germination and early development of rice. Trop. Agric. Vol. 75 No. 4, 445-451.
  • Cavers P.B. 1983. Seed demography. Canadian Journal of Botany 61:3578-3590.
  • Dickens R., and G.M. Moore. 1974. Effects of light, temperature, KNOv3, and storage on germination of cogongrass. Agronomy Journal 66: 187-188.
  • FIPR. 1997. Ecology, Physiology, and management of Cogongrass (Imperata cylindriuca). Publication No. 03-107-140, prepared by University of Florida under a grant sponsored by Florida Institute of Phosphate Research (FIPR). 144 p.
  • Galveston Bay Estuary Program (GBEP). 2007. The Quiet Invasion: A Guide to Invasive Plants of the Galveston Bay Area. Available online.
  • Koger C.H., Bryson C.T., and J.D. Byrd, Jr. 2004. Response of Selected Grass and Broadleaf Species to Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) Residues. Weed Technology 18: 353-357.
  • Koger C.H., and C.T. Bryson. 2004. Effect of Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) Extracts on Germination and Seedling Growth of Selected Grass and Broadleaf Species. Weed Technology 18: 236-242.
  • Langeland K.A., and K.C. Burks (Eds.). 1998. Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas. UF/IFAS. 165 p.
  • MacDonald G.E. 2004. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica)-Biology, Ecology, and Management. Critical Reviews in Plant Science 23:367-380.
  • MacDonald G.E., Brecke B.J., Gaffney J.F., Langeland K.A., Ferrell J.A., and B.A. Sellers. 2006. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) biology, ecology and management in Florida. IFAS/UF document SS-AGR-52. Available online.
  • Sajise P.E. 1976. Evaluation of cogon (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) as a seral stage in Philippine vegetational succession. 1, The cogonal seral stage and plant succession. 2, Autecological studies on cogon. Dissertation Abstracts International B (1973) 3040-3041. From Weed Abstracts 1976, No. 1339.
  • Wilcut J.W., Truelove B., Davis D.E., and J.C. Williams. 1988. Temperature factors limiting the spread of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) and torpedograss (Panicum repens). Weed Science. 36:49-55.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Worldwide distribution

Throughout the Old World tropics, extending to the Mediterranean region, SW Asia and Chile
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

"
Global Distribution

Paleotropics

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Brazilian satintail is native to southern North America, Central America, and South America. Its native distribution extends from the Cape Region of Baja California Sur, Mexico, south to Brazil and Argentina [9,64,163,165]. Elsewhere in North America, it is present but nonnative in the Gulf Coast states from eastern Louisiana to South Carolina (excluding Georgia, where it does not occur) [3,9,25,72,173]. It is most common in coastal counties of the Southeast, although it has scattered inland occurrences [9]. Brazilian satintail also occurs in Puerto Rico and the West Indies [44,72]. Its distribution may overlap with cogon grass in Florida [64] and possibly elsewhere in the Southeast [57,133,165]; however, Hall [57] considered it eliminated in Florida in 1978.

Cogon grass is native to Korea, Japan, China, India, and tropical eastern Africa [37,64,105]. It is nonnative and invasive throughout other tropical regions of the world. In North America it occurs along the Gulf Coast from Mexico east to South Carolina [4,72]. In the United States it is most common in Mississippi, coastal Alabama, and Florida [9]. Hitchcock [61] listed cogon grass as present in Oregon in 1950, although it has not been collected in Oregon for decades. There were 2 known locations of cogon grass introduction in the United States: 1 from Japan to Alabama in 1912, as packing material in a shipment of Unshu orange (Citrus reticulata) trees; and another from the Philippines to Mississippi in 1921, as a possible forage grass [33,44,142,143]. More than 1,000 acres (400 ha) of cogon grass were planted for livestock forage and soil stabilization in Florida the late 1930s and 1940s [32,133].

Grass Manual on the Web provides distributional maps of Brazilian satintail and cogon grass. It is commonly assumed that cogon grass is the more common of the 2 species; however Brazilian satintail or Brazilian satintail × cogon grass hybrid swarms may be misidentified as cogon grass [86,142]. Distributions of Brazilian satintail and Brazilian satintail × cogon grass hybrids may be more extensive in the Southeast than is currently known [44]. The 2 species occur in similar habitats in the Southeast [37,64]. The following lists give biogeographic classifications where Brazilian satintail and cogon grass are known to be present or invasive. These lists may not be exhaustive.

Brazilian satintail and cogon grass:
  • 105. Ohwi, Jisaburo. 1965. Flora of Japan. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. 1067 p. [50787]
  • 133. Shilling, Donn G.; Bewick, T. A.; Gaffney, J. F.; McDonald, S. K.; Chase, C. A.; Johnson, E. R. R. L. 1997. Ecology, physiology, and management of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica). Publication No. 03-107-140. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 128 p. [52849]
  • 142. Tabor, Paul. 1949. Cogon grass, Imperata cylindrica (L) Beauv., in the southeastern United States. Agronomy Journal. 41: 270. [53285]
  • 143. Tabor, Paul. 1952. Comments on cogon and torpedo grasses: a challenge to weed workers. Weeds. 1: 374-375. [53279]
  • 163. Wiggins, Ira L. 1980. Flora of Baja California. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1025 p. [21993]
  • 165. Wilcut, John W.; Dute, Roland R.; Truelove, Bryan; Davis, Donald E. 1988. Factors limiting the distribution of cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica, and torpedograss, Panicum repens. Weed Science. 36(5): 577-582. [50911]
  • 173. Wunderlin, Richard P. 1998. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. 806 p. [28655]
  • 25. Clewell, Andre F. 1985. Guide to the vascular plants of the Florida Panhandle. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University Press. 605 p. [13124]
  • 3. Allen, Charles M.; Thomas, R. Dale. 1991. Brachiaria plantaginea, Imperata cylindrica, and Panicum maximum: three grasses (Poaceae) new to Louisiana and a range extension for Rottboellia cochinchinensis. SIDA. 14(4): 613. [53286]
  • 32. Dickens, Ray. 1974. Cogongrass in Alabama after sixty years. Weed Science. 22(2): 177-179. [53291]
  • 33. Dickens, Ray; Buchanan, G. A. 1975. Control of cogongrass with herbicides. Weed Science. 23(3): 194-197. [53289]
  • 37. Eussen, J. H. H. 1980. Biological and ecological aspects of alang-alang. In: In: Proceedings of Biotrop workshop on alang-alang; 1976 July 27-29; Bogor, Indonesia. Biotrop Special Publication No. 5. [Publisher location unknown]: [Publisher unknown]: 15-22. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. [53293]
  • 4. Allen, J. A.; Keeland, B. D.; Stanturf, J. A.; [and others]. 2001. A guide to bottomland hardwood restoration. Information and Technology Report USGS/BRD/ITR--2000-0011; Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-40. Reston, VA: U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey; Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 132 p. [40592]
  • 44. Gaffney, James Frank. 1996. Ecophysiological and technological factors influencing the management of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica). Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 114 p. Dissertation. [27540]
  • 57. Hall, David W. 1978. The grasses of Florida. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 498 p. Dissertation. [53560]
  • 61. Hitchcock, A. S. 1951. Manual of the grasses of the United States. Misc. Publ. No. 200. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration. 1051 p. [2nd edition revised by Agnes Chase in two volumes. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.]. [1165]
  • 64. Hubbard, C. E. 1944. Imperata cylindrica: Taxonomy, distribution, economic significance and control. Imperial Agricultural Bureaux Joint Publication No. 7. Oxford, UK: Imperial Forestry Bureau; Aberystwyth, UK: Imperial Bureau of Pastures and Forage Crops. 63 p. [51418]
  • 72. Kartesz, John T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 1st ed. In: Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Chapel Hill, NC: North Carolina Botanical Garden (Producer). In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service; U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. [36715]
  • 86. Lippincott, Carol L. 1997. Ecological consequences of Imperata cylindrica (cogongrass) invasion in Florida sandhill. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 165 p. Dissertation. [48904]
  • 9. Barkworth, Mary E.; Capels, Kathleen M.; Long, Sandy; Piep, Michael B., eds. 2003. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Volume 25: Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 2. New York: Oxford University Press. 783 p. Available online: http://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/. [68091]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Regional Distribution in the Western United States

More info on this topic.

This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS [11]:

None
  • 11. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

States or Provinces

(key to state/province abbreviations)
Brazilian satintail:
UNITED STATES
AL FL LA MS SC PR

Cogon grass:
UNITED STATES
AL FL GA LA MS SC TX

MEXICO

Brazilian satintail and cogon grass:

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution in the United States

Cogon grass is distributed throughout the south and southeastern United States as far west as eastern Texas. There have been reports of cogon grass surviving as far north as Virginia, West Virginia and Maryland.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

U.S. National Park Service Weeds Gone Wild website

Source: U.S. National Park Service

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Native Range

Southeast Asia, Philippines, China, and Japan
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

U.S. National Park Service Weeds Gone Wild website

Source: U.S. National Park Service

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution in Egypt

Nile region, oases, Mediterranean region, Egyptian desert, Res Sea coastal strip and Sinai (St.Katherine).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Distribution

Throughout the tropics, extending to the Mediterranean region, also in south America.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

SW Sichuan [N India].
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Cogongrass is native to southeast Asia, the Philippines, China, and Japan. This invasive plant that can now be found throughout tropical and subtropical regions on every continent except Antarctica. The species thrives in areas disturbed by human activities (MacDonald 2004).Imperata cylindrica was accidentally as well as intentionally introduced to the United States in the first half of the 20th century. The species has since spread across the southeastern United States, extending from Florida to eastern Texas (Bennett 2006). I. cylindrica also extends northward to Virginia and Maryland along the east coast and into Oregon on the west coast (MacDonald et al. 2006, GBEP 2007). In Florida, ogongrass now occurs from the panhandle region well into south Florida. Imperata cylindrica can be found within the India River Lagoon watershed from Volusia County south through Martin County. The USDA Plants Database currently shows the species absent from the southernost portion of the watershed in palm Beach County, but indicates that the species is again present to the south in Miami-Dade County.
  • Bennett, D. 2006. Cogongrass, deep-rooted sedge in Mississippi Delta. Delta Farm Press Oct 19, 2006 news story. Available online.
  • Casini P., and V. Vecchio. 1998. Allelopathic interference of itchgrass and cogongrass: germination and early development of rice. Trop. Agric. Vol. 75 No. 4, 445-451.
  • Cavers P.B. 1983. Seed demography. Canadian Journal of Botany 61:3578-3590.
  • Dickens R., and G.M. Moore. 1974. Effects of light, temperature, KNOv3, and storage on germination of cogongrass. Agronomy Journal 66: 187-188.
  • FIPR. 1997. Ecology, Physiology, and management of Cogongrass (Imperata cylindriuca). Publication No. 03-107-140, prepared by University of Florida under a grant sponsored by Florida Institute of Phosphate Research (FIPR). 144 p.
  • Galveston Bay Estuary Program (GBEP). 2007. The Quiet Invasion: A Guide to Invasive Plants of the Galveston Bay Area. Available online.
  • Koger C.H., Bryson C.T., and J.D. Byrd, Jr. 2004. Response of Selected Grass and Broadleaf Species to Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) Residues. Weed Technology 18: 353-357.
  • Koger C.H., and C.T. Bryson. 2004. Effect of Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) Extracts on Germination and Seedling Growth of Selected Grass and Broadleaf Species. Weed Technology 18: 236-242.
  • Langeland K.A., and K.C. Burks (Eds.). 1998. Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas. UF/IFAS. 165 p.
  • MacDonald G.E. 2004. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica)-Biology, Ecology, and Management. Critical Reviews in Plant Science 23:367-380.
  • MacDonald G.E., Brecke B.J., Gaffney J.F., Langeland K.A., Ferrell J.A., and B.A. Sellers. 2006. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) biology, ecology and management in Florida. IFAS/UF document SS-AGR-52. Available online.
  • Sajise P.E. 1976. Evaluation of cogon (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) as a seral stage in Philippine vegetational succession. 1, The cogonal seral stage and plant succession. 2, Autecological studies on cogon. Dissertation Abstracts International B (1973) 3040-3041. From Weed Abstracts 1976, No. 1339.
  • Wilcut J.W., Truelove B., Davis D.E., and J.C. Williams. 1988. Temperature factors limiting the spread of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) and torpedograss (Panicum repens). Weed Science. 36:49-55.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution: Pakistan (Sind, Baluchistan, Punjab, N.W.F.P., Gilgit & Kashmir); throughout the Old World tropics, extending to the Mediterranean and the Middle East; also in Chile.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the terms: caryopsis, culm, rhizome

This description provides characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology, and is not meant for identification. Keys for identification of Brazilian satintail and cogon grass are available (e.g., [25,43,64,163,173]). Gabel [43] and Hubbard [64] provide detailed morphological and cytological descriptions of Brazilian satintail, cogon grass, and other Imperata species.

Brazilian satintail is lesser known, and hence more poorly described, in the United States compared to cogon grass. It has slender, erect culms from 14 to 29 inches (36-74 cm) tall. Leaves are mostly basal and about 5 to 13 mm wide. The inflorescence is a 3- to 8-inch (7-20 cm), terminal panicle [163]; the fruit is a caryopsis. Brazilian satintail is rhizomatous, with a mat-like growth form [43,163].

Cogon grass grows to 3 feet (1 m) in height [25,105]. Leaves are mostly basal, growing from the rhizomes. Basal leaves are 0.4 to 0.8 inch (1-2 cm) wide [43]. A few small upper leaves occur on the pedestal [25,105]. The leaves have a characteristic white midrib that is set off-center. Being high in silica [26], cogon grass leaves are coarse in texture [26,160]. The inflorescence is a dense, 4- to 8-inch (10-20 cm) panicle of paired spikelets. Spikelets are unawned with long (~12 mm), silky hairs [25,105]. The seeds are small (1-1.3 mm long) [74,75].

The root system is fibrous. Cogon grass rhizomes are "tough and scaly," with short internodes forming a dense underground mat. Cogon grass rhizomes develop in 2 stages: primary seedling rhizomes, and secondary rhizomes that sprout from seedling rhizomes [43]. Rhizome and root depths vary with substrate. In central Florida, Gaffney [43] found cogon grass rhizomes were restricted to the top 4 to 6 inches (10-15 cm) of soil on a phosphate mine site, but grew down to 30 inches (80 cm) below ground on a clay settling pond site [43]. In Southeast Asia, rhizomes typically occur 4 to 20 inches (10-40 cm) below ground and form dense, extensive layers. Some rhizomes grow as deep as 3 feet (1 m) [8,100]. Cogon grass's growth habit is loose to clumped, compacted aerial stems arising from the dense rhizome mat [35,43]. Dense stands may form monocultures [43,87].

Brazilian satintail and cogon grass are both nonnative, rhizomatous perennial grasses that are similar in appearance. They are primarily distinguished between one another by stamen numbers: Brazilian satintail usually has 1 stamen/flower, and cogon grass has 2 stamens/flower [43,64,106]. Other distinguishing characteristics include Brazilian satintail's relatively shorter spikelets (<3.5 mm) and narrower culm leaves (<5 mm) compared to cogon grass's spikelets and leaves [3]. These characteristics overlap [43,86], however, and it is likely that the 2 grasses have been misidentified in the Southeast [86]. Identification is further confounded by Brazilian satintail × cogon grass hybridization in the Southeast, the extent of which is unknown [165].

  • 100. Murniati. 2002. From Imperata cylindrica grasslands to productive agroforestry. Aula, Wageningen: Wageningen University. 172 p. Dissertation. [51417]
  • 105. Ohwi, Jisaburo. 1965. Flora of Japan. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. 1067 p. [50787]
  • 106. Patterson, D. T.; Flint, E. P.; Dickens, Ray. 1980. Effects of temperature, photoperiod, and population source on the growth of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica). Weed Science. 28(5): 505-509. [53292]
  • 160. Walsh, S. R. 1954. Blady grass and its control by mowing on the Atherton Tableland. Queensland Agricultural Journal. 79: 325-333. [53288]
  • 163. Wiggins, Ira L. 1980. Flora of Baja California. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1025 p. [21993]
  • 165. Wilcut, John W.; Dute, Roland R.; Truelove, Bryan; Davis, Donald E. 1988. Factors limiting the distribution of cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica, and torpedograss, Panicum repens. Weed Science. 36(5): 577-582. [50911]
  • 173. Wunderlin, Richard P. 1998. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. 806 p. [28655]
  • 25. Clewell, Andre F. 1985. Guide to the vascular plants of the Florida Panhandle. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University Press. 605 p. [13124]
  • 26. Coile, Nancy C.; Shilling, Donn G. 1993. Cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.: a good grass gone bad! Botany Circular No. 28. Gainesville, FL: Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry. 3 p. [51840]
  • 3. Allen, Charles M.; Thomas, R. Dale. 1991. Brachiaria plantaginea, Imperata cylindrica, and Panicum maximum: three grasses (Poaceae) new to Louisiana and a range extension for Rottboellia cochinchinensis. SIDA. 14(4): 613. [53286]
  • 35. Dozier, Hallie; Gaffney, James F.; McDonald, Sandra K.; Johnson, Eric R. R. L.; Shilling, Donn G. 1998. Cogongrass in the United States: history, ecology, impacts, and management. Weed Technology. 12(4): 737-743. [50927]
  • 43. Gabel, Mark Lauren. 1982. A biosystematic study of the genus Imperata (Gramineae: Andropogoneae). Ames, IA: Iowa State University. 90 p. Dissertation. [53252]
  • 64. Hubbard, C. E. 1944. Imperata cylindrica: Taxonomy, distribution, economic significance and control. Imperial Agricultural Bureaux Joint Publication No. 7. Oxford, UK: Imperial Forestry Bureau; Aberystwyth, UK: Imperial Bureau of Pastures and Forage Crops. 63 p. [51418]
  • 74. King, Sharon E.; Grace, James B. 2000. The effects of gap size and disturbance type on invasion of wet pine savanna by cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica (Poaceae). American Journal of Botany. 87(9): 1279-1286. [50451]
  • 75. King, Sharon E.; Grace, James B. 2000. The effects of soil flooding on the establishment of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica), a nonindigenous invader of the southeastern United States. Wetlands. 20(2): 300-306. [50948]
  • 8. Ayeni, A. O.; Duke, W. B. 1985. The influence of rhizome features on subsequent regenerative capacity in speargrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.). Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 13(3/4): 309-317. [50933]
  • 86. Lippincott, Carol L. 1997. Ecological consequences of Imperata cylindrica (cogongrass) invasion in Florida sandhill. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 165 p. Dissertation. [48904]
  • 87. Lippincott, Carol L. 2000. Effects of Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. (Cogongrass) invasion on fire regime in Florida Sandhill (USA). Natural Areas Journal. 20(2): 140-149. [36153]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Cogon grass is a perennial, rhizomatous grass that grows from 2 to over 4 feet in height. The leaves are about an inch wide, have a prominent white midrib, and end in a sharp point. Leaf margins are finely toothed and are embedded with silica crystals. The upper surface of the leaf blade is hairy near the base; the undersurface is usually hairless. The flowers are arranged in a silvery, cylindrical, branching structure, or panicle, about 3-11 inches long and 1½ inches wide.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

U.S. National Park Service Weeds Gone Wild website

Source: U.S. National Park Service

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Perennials, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Rhizomes present, Rhizome elongate, creeping, stems distant, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem nodes bearded or hairy, Stem internodes solid or spongy, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 1-2 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly basal, below middle of stem, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loos e, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath hairy at summit, throat, or collar, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades 1-2 cm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blade margins folded, involute, or conduplicate, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades scabrous, roughened, or wrinkled, Ligule present, Ligule a fringed, ciliate, or lobed membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence a dense slender spike-like panicle or raceme, branches contracted, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence spike linear or cylindric, several times longer than wide, Inflorescence a panicle with narrowly racemose or spicate branches, Inflorescence single raceme, fascicle or spike, Peduncle or rachis scabrous or pubescent, often with long hairs, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets sessile or subsessile, Spikelets dorsally compressed or terete, Spikelet les s than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 1 fertile floret, Spikelets with 2 florets, Spikelet with 1 fertile floret and 1-2 sterile florets, Spikelets paired at rachis nodes, Spikelets in paired units, 1 sessile, 1 pedicellate, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating below the glumes, Spikelets conspicuously hairy , Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes equal or subequal, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Glume equal to or longer than spikelet, Glume surface hairy, villous or pilose, Glumes 3 nerved, Glumes 4-7 nerved, Glumes 8-15 nerved, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, or membranous, Lemma 1 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma apex acute or acuminate, Lemma awnless, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Callus or base of lemma evidently hairy, Callus hairs longer than lemma, Palea present, well developed, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea longer than lemma, Stamens 2, Styles 1, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Perennial, basal sheaths becoming fibrous; rhizomes widely spreading. Culms up to 2.8 m tall, 6–10 mm in diam., 3–8-noded, nodes glabrous. Leaf sheaths usually longer than internodes, crowded below, glabrous, bearded at mouth; leaf blades flat, up to 120 × 1.2–2.8 cm, adaxial surface with yellowish long soft hairs at base, otherwise glabrous, margins scabrid, base narrowed to midrib, apex long acuminate; ligule ca. 2 mm. Panicle cylindrical, copiously hairy with slight pinkish tinge, 40–50 cm. Spikelets 3–4.5 mm; callus with ca. 12 mm silky hairs; lower glume 5–7-veined, back pilose below middle with long silky hairs ca. 3 times glume length, apex ciliate; upper glume 3-veined in lower part, scabrid, margin ciliate; lower lemma ca. 2.5 mm, margin ciliate; upper lemma resembling lower, palea broadly ovate, subequal to lemma. Anthers 2, 2–2.5 mm. Stigmas red. Fl. and fr. summer to autumn.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Agressively rhizomatous perennial, forming tufts of leaves from a scaly rhizome; culms 10-120 cm high, erect. Leaf-blades basal, flat (in Southeast Asia), 3-100 cm or more long, 2-20 mm wide, stiffly erect. Panicle spiciform, cylindrical, sometimes with the lowermost branches loose, 3-22 cm long, obscured in copious silky white hairs. Spikelets 2.2-6 mm long; stamens 2.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Perennial, basal sheaths becoming fibrous; rhizomes widely spreading, tough, scaly. Culms solitary or tufted, 25–120 cm tall, 1.5–3 mm in diam., 1–4-noded, nodes glabrous or bearded. Leaf sheaths glabrous or pilose at margin and mouth; leaf blades flat or rolled, stiffly erect, 20–100 × 0.8–2 cm, culm blades 1–3 cm, adaxial surface puberulous, margins scabrid, base straight or narrowed, apex long acuminate; ligule 1–2 mm. Panicle cylindrical, copiously hairy, 6–20 cm, lowermost branches sometimes loose. Spikelets 2.5–6 mm; callus with 12–16 mm silky hairs; glumes 5–9-veined, back with long silky hairs ca. 3 times glume length, apex slightly obtuse or acuminate; lower lemma ovate-lanceolate, 2/3 length of glumes, ciliate, acute or denticulate; upper lemma ovate, 1/2 length of glumes, denticulate, ciliate, palea equal to lemma. Anthers 2, 2–4 mm. Stigmas purplish black. Fl. and fr. Apr–Aug. 2n = 20.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Perennials. Culms 40-120 cm high, rhizomatous; nodes bearded. Leaves 12-50 x 0.5-1.2 cm, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, base narrowed, mostly basal, glaucous; sheaths overlapping, to 8 cm long; ligule ovate, membranous. Panicles 4-18 cm long, spiciform, cylindrical, white silky hairy. Spikelets 2.5-4 mm long, lanceolate, similar, pedicelled, enveloped in long silky hairs. Lower glume 2-3 x 1 mm, lanceolate, long-pilose without. Upper glume similar. Lower floret empty. Upper floret bisexual. First lemma 1.5-2 x 1 mm, oblong-lanceolate, hyaline, apex ciliate. Second lemma 1-1.5 x 1 mm, elliptic-lanceolate, hyaline. Palea 0.5-1 mm long, obovate. Stamens 2; anthers c. 3 mm long, orange-yellow. Ovary oblong; stigmas 2-3 mm long."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Synonym

Imperata arundinacea var. latifolia J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 7: 106. 1896 ["1897"]; I. cylindrica var. latifolia (J. D. Hooker) C. E. Hubbard.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Look Alikes

General difficulties in grass species identification for the layperson notwithstanding, the Florida range of Imperata cylindrica overlaps with the range of another non-native congener, Brazilian satintail I. brasiliensis. These two species are morphologically and genetically very similar. Where they co-occur, they readily hybridize to yield hybrids capable of producing fertile offspring. Positive identification of the two species may require analysis of cytological, genetic and morphological attributes and some authorities consider the species to be synonymous (USDA FEIS).
  • Bennett, D. 2006. Cogongrass, deep-rooted sedge in Mississippi Delta. Delta Farm Press Oct 19, 2006 news story. Available online.
  • Casini P., and V. Vecchio. 1998. Allelopathic interference of itchgrass and cogongrass: germination and early development of rice. Trop. Agric. Vol. 75 No. 4, 445-451.
  • Cavers P.B. 1983. Seed demography. Canadian Journal of Botany 61:3578-3590.
  • Dickens R., and G.M. Moore. 1974. Effects of light, temperature, KNOv3, and storage on germination of cogongrass. Agronomy Journal 66: 187-188.
  • FIPR. 1997. Ecology, Physiology, and management of Cogongrass (Imperata cylindriuca). Publication No. 03-107-140, prepared by University of Florida under a grant sponsored by Florida Institute of Phosphate Research (FIPR). 144 p.
  • Galveston Bay Estuary Program (GBEP). 2007. The Quiet Invasion: A Guide to Invasive Plants of the Galveston Bay Area. Available online.
  • Koger C.H., Bryson C.T., and J.D. Byrd, Jr. 2004. Response of Selected Grass and Broadleaf Species to Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) Residues. Weed Technology 18: 353-357.
  • Koger C.H., and C.T. Bryson. 2004. Effect of Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) Extracts on Germination and Seedling Growth of Selected Grass and Broadleaf Species. Weed Technology 18: 236-242.
  • Langeland K.A., and K.C. Burks (Eds.). 1998. Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas. UF/IFAS. 165 p.
  • MacDonald G.E. 2004. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica)-Biology, Ecology, and Management. Critical Reviews in Plant Science 23:367-380.
  • MacDonald G.E., Brecke B.J., Gaffney J.F., Langeland K.A., Ferrell J.A., and B.A. Sellers. 2006. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) biology, ecology and management in Florida. IFAS/UF document SS-AGR-52. Available online.
  • Sajise P.E. 1976. Evaluation of cogon (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) as a seral stage in Philippine vegetational succession. 1, The cogonal seral stage and plant succession. 2, Autecological studies on cogon. Dissertation Abstracts International B (1973) 3040-3041. From Weed Abstracts 1976, No. 1339.
  • Wilcut J.W., Truelove B., Davis D.E., and J.C. Williams. 1988. Temperature factors limiting the spread of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) and torpedograss (Panicum repens). Weed Science. 36:49-55.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"Grasslands, banks of backwaters, forest clearings and fallow fields"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat characteristics

More info for the terms: cover, xeric

Brazilian satintail occurs on rocky pineland sites in Florida [173]. In its native Peru, Brazilian satintail grows on montane savannas that average 80 inches (2,000 mm) annual precipitation. The dry season lasts from June to September. Temperatures average 73 °F (23 °C) and vary little between seasons. Soils are reddish-brown Latosols on dry upper slopes and reddish-yellow Podosols on moister, low slopes. Brazilian satintail grasslands generally have acidic soils with poor infiltration and drainage [128].

Cogon grass tolerates a wide range of site conditions across its worldwide range. It is drought tolerant, and somewhat shade and salt tolerant [70]. In its native lands of Asia and Africa, it grows on arid desert sands, river margins, and swamps [134]. Describing cogon grass in Indonesia, Terry and others [146] wrote "unlike most other plants ... I. cylindrica can tolerate drought, waterlogging, fire, cultivation and short-term shade ... at a single site." Imperata cylindrica var. major, the variety in North America, commonly occupies a wide variety of habitats in Asia including grasslands, deforested areas, old fields, cultivated fields, riparian areas, and disturbed sites such as roadsides. Other varieties have narrower habitat requirements and are less ubiquitous in their native ranges [37]. Hubbard [64] speculated that when Southeast Asian lands were still pristine, cogon grass may have been restricted to arid, relatively sterile, or heavy clay soils. In the United States, cogon grass is common on disturbed sites such as roadsides, mine spoils, pastures, agricultural lands, plantations, and early seral pine forests [43,90,173]. It also occurs on relatively undisturbed sites including wet and dry bottomland [137] and old-growth longleaf pine forests [155].

Soils: Cogon grass is sometime mistaken as an indicator of "degraded" lands with nutrient-poor soils. Although common on nutrient-poor soils (Ultisols and Oxisols) that native southeastern grasses cannot tolerate, it also occurs on soils of moderate to high fertility (Inceptisols and Andisols) [43,46,100]. Cogon grass tolerates a wide range of soil textures from coarse sands to heavy clays [43]. Soils in cogon grass's native Asia are often highly leached, with low pH, fertility, and organic matter [124]; however, cogon grass is not limited to nutrient-poor soils in Asia [100]. About 65% of cogon grass in Asia grows on strongly acidic soils (pH≤5.0) with a topsoil layer of 4 to 6 inches (10-15 cm) [19]. Nigerian researchers report cogon grass growing on slightly acid to neutral soils [130]. Best growth in North America occurs on moist, very strongly acid (pH 3.0-4.7) clay soils  [43,64,124]; however, cogon grass often grows on clay soils of neutral pH in Florida [43,64]. On poor soils, cogon grass's ability to form monotypic stands in the southeastern United States is due in part to its ability to outcompete native herbs for space, light, water, and nutrients [12,26,38,48,86]. Cogon grass forms thick swards that cover thousands of hectares on abandoned phosphate mines dug in the heavy clay soils of  Polk County, Florida [86].

Elevation: Worldwide, cogon grass is most common at elevations from sea level to 3,000 feet (1,000 m) elevation [19]. Elevational ranges for cogon grass in the United States were not reported as of this writing (2005).

Climate: Cogon grass is native to regions of wet-tropical and subtropical Asia and Africa where annual rainfall averages between 40 to 100 inches (1,000-2,500 mm) ([100] and references therein),[134]. Worldwide, cogon grass is most invasive in wet tropical and subtropical areas receiving 30 to 200 inches (750-5,000 mm) of annual rainfall [17]. It tolerates hot temperatures but is sensitive to cold [164,165]. It is limited to latitudes below 45° in both hemispheres ([17] and references therein). Rhizomes cannot recover when subject to temperatures of approximately 14 °F (-10 °C). Cogon grass survived winter temperatures that dropped to 7 °F (-14 °C) in Alabama [165], but did not survive winter temperatures of 18 °F (-8 °C) in Mississippi [64].

Moisture regime: Cogon grass tolerates both xeric and flooded soils, but cannot tolerate soils that are waterlogged for long periods of time [116]. Along the Nile River in Egypt, cogon grass is associated with high-moisture, high-salinity sites [129]. It grows up to the edges of standing water in Florida [70], but does not invade continually flooded sites [28]. In a greenhouse experiment, cogon grass germinants were intolerant of soil inundation and became increasingly tolerant of saturated soils as the plants matured. The authors concluded that soil inundation in early spring could limit cogon grass seedling establishment [74].

  • 100. Murniati. 2002. From Imperata cylindrica grasslands to productive agroforestry. Aula, Wageningen: Wageningen University. 172 p. Dissertation. [51417]
  • 116. Pusat Penelitian Karet; Natural Resources Institute. 1996. Imperata management for smallholders: an extensionist's guide to rational Imperata management for smallholders. [Jakarta] Indonesia: Indonesian Rubber Research Institute, Sembawa Research Station; United Kingdom: Natural Resources Institute. 56 p. [51576]
  • 12. Boonitee, A.; Ritdhit, P. 1984. Allelopathic effects of some weeds on mungbean plants. In: Proceedings, 1st Pacific Weed Science Society conference; [Date of conference unknown]; Songkla, Thailand. 2: 401-406. [53559]
  • 124. Sajise, Percy Eres. 1972. Evaluation of cogon (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) as a seral stage in Philippine vegetational succession: I. The cogonal seral stage and plant succession; II. Autecological studies on cogon. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University. 152 p. Dissertation. [53134]
  • 128. Scott, Geoffrey A. J. 1977. The role of fire in the creation and maintenance of savanna in the Montana of Peru. Journal of Biogeography. 4: 143-167. [18844]
  • 129. Shaltout, K. H.; El-Sheikh, M. A. 1993. Vegetation-environment relations along water courses in the Nile Delta region. Journal of Vegetation Science. 4: 567-570. [50986]
  • 130. Sharma, Brij M.; Okafor, Augustine N. 1987. Contribution to the ecology of speargrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv.). Ekologia Polska. 35(3-4): 767-774. [51171]
  • 134. Singh, C. M.; Angiras, N. N.; Kumar, Suresh. 1993. Perennial weed management in non-cropped situations. In: Proceedings of the Indian Society of Weed Science international symposium; 1993 November 18-20; Hisar, India. In: Proceedings, Indian Society of Weed Science. Hisar, India: Indian Society of Weed Science; 1: 379-387. [51648]
  • 137. Stanturf, J. A.; Conner, W. H.; Gardiner, E. S.; Schweitzer, C. J.; Ezell, A. W. 2004. Recognizing and overcoming difficult site conditions for afforestation of bottomland hardwoods. Ecological Restoration. 22(3): 183-193. [51278]
  • 146. Terry, P. J.; Adjers, G.; Akobundu, I. O.; Anoka, A. U.; Drilling, M. E.; Tjitrosemito, S.; Utomo, M. 1997. Herbicides and mechanical control of Imperata cylindrica as a first step in grassland rehabilitation. Agroforestry Systems. 36(1-3): 151-179. [51414]
  • 155. Varner, J. Morgan, III; Kush, John S. 2004. Remnant old-growth longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) savannas and forests of the southeastern USA: status and threats. Natural Areas Journal. 24(2): 141-149. [50968]
  • 164. Wilcut, J. W.; Truelove, B.; Davis, D. E. 1985. Cogongrass and torpedograss troublesome in coastal area. Highlights of Agricultural Research. 32(3): 9. [51051]
  • 165. Wilcut, John W.; Dute, Roland R.; Truelove, Bryan; Davis, Donald E. 1988. Factors limiting the distribution of cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica, and torpedograss, Panicum repens. Weed Science. 36(5): 577-582. [50911]
  • 17. Bryson, Charles T.; Carter, Richard. 1993. Cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica, in the United States. Weed Technology. 7(4): 1005-1009. [50925]
  • 173. Wunderlin, Richard P. 1998. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. 806 p. [28655]
  • 19. Calub, A. D.; Anwarhan, H.; Roder, W. 1997. Livestock production systems for Imperata grasslands. Agroforestry Systems. 36(1-3): 121-128. [51408]
  • 26. Coile, Nancy C.; Shilling, Donn G. 1993. Cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.: a good grass gone bad! Botany Circular No. 28. Gainesville, FL: Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry. 3 p. [51840]
  • 28. Coster, Ir. Ch. 1932. Some observations on the growth of "alang-alang" (Imperata cylindrica Beauv) and its examination. Tectona: Forest Research Institute. No. 26. 23 p. [English translation prepared by: Saad Publications, Translation Division No. 31458, Karachi, Pakistan; 1982]. [51232]
  • 37. Eussen, J. H. H. 1980. Biological and ecological aspects of alang-alang. In: In: Proceedings of Biotrop workshop on alang-alang; 1976 July 27-29; Bogor, Indonesia. Biotrop Special Publication No. 5. [Publisher location unknown]: [Publisher unknown]: 15-22. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. [53293]
  • 38. Eussen, Jacobus H. H.; Wirjahardja, Soemantri. 1973. Studies of an alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) vegetation. Biotrop Bulletin. 6: 2-24. [53282]
  • 43. Gabel, Mark Lauren. 1982. A biosystematic study of the genus Imperata (Gramineae: Andropogoneae). Ames, IA: Iowa State University. 90 p. Dissertation. [53252]
  • 46. Garrity, D. P.; Soekardi, M.; van Noordwijk, M.; de la Cruz, R.; Pathak, P. S.; Gunasena, H. P. M.; So, N. van; Huijun, G.; Majid, N. M. 1997. The Imperata grasslands of tropical Asia: area, distribution, and typology. Agroforestry Systems. 36(1-3): 3-29. [51426]
  • 48. Ghosal, Shibnath; Kumar, Yatendra; Chakrabarti, Dilip K.; Lal, Jawahar; Singh, Sushil K. 1986. Parasitism of Imperata cylindrica on Pancratium biflorum and the concomitant chemical changes in the host species. Phytochemistry. 25(5): 1097-1102. [51162]
  • 64. Hubbard, C. E. 1944. Imperata cylindrica: Taxonomy, distribution, economic significance and control. Imperial Agricultural Bureaux Joint Publication No. 7. Oxford, UK: Imperial Forestry Bureau; Aberystwyth, UK: Imperial Bureau of Pastures and Forage Crops. 63 p. [51418]
  • 70. Johnson, Eric R. R. L.; Shilling, Donn G. 2004. Fact sheet: Cogon grass--Imperata cylindrica (L.) Palisot, [Online]. In: Weeds gone wild: Alien plant invaders of natural areas. Plant Conservation Alliance, Alien Plant Working Group (Producer). Available: http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/imcyl.htm [2005, March 28]. [53368]
  • 74. King, Sharon E.; Grace, James B. 2000. The effects of gap size and disturbance type on invasion of wet pine savanna by cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica (Poaceae). American Journal of Botany. 87(9): 1279-1286. [50451]
  • 86. Lippincott, Carol L. 1997. Ecological consequences of Imperata cylindrica (cogongrass) invasion in Florida sandhill. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 165 p. Dissertation. [48904]
  • 90. Matlack, Glenn R. 2002. Exotic plant species in Mississippi, USA: critical issues in management and research. Natural Areas Journal. 22(3): 241-247. [43236]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the terms: fern, mesic, shrub

Brazilian satintail occupies pine (Pinus spp.) and oak (Quercus
spp.)-pine communities of the Southeast. Descriptions of southeastern plant
communities infested with Brazilian satintail were not found in the literature.
Studies to determine if and how Brazilian satintail affects composition and
diversity of such plant communities are needed.

Details of Brazilian satintail communities of South America are also limited. In Peru,
Brazilian satintail dominates montane savannas. Copperleaf
(Acalypha spp.), muttonwood (Rapanea spp.), speedwell (Veronica
spp.), and false-willow (Baccharis spp.) are dominant woody genera; bracken
fern (Pteridium
aquilinum) often codominates on Brazilian satintail grassland areas. Scott [128] lists associated
plant species on
Brazilian satintail-dominated savannas of eastern Peru.

Cogon grass occurs in southeastern pine and oak-pine communities that
experience frequent fire
(see Cogon grass in North America
for further details). It is most common in the ground layer of mesic longleaf
pine (Pinus palustris) savannas [14]. Oaks including blackjack
oak (Q. marilandica), turkey oak (Q. laevis), and southern red oak (Q.
falcata) are often frequent in the overstory. Common shrub associates of
cogon grass include persimmon (Diospyros
virginiana), black highbush blueberry (Vaccinium fuscatum), dwarf huckleberry (Gaylussacia dumosa), and
bitter gallberry (Ilex glabra).
Common groundlayer associates include big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii),
paintbrush (A. tenerius), Beyrich threeawn (Aristida beyrichiana),
golden colicroot (Aletris aurea), and roundleaf thoroughroot (Eupatorium rotundifolium)
[109]. Cogon grass occurs in south Florida slash pine/firegrass (Pinus
elliottii var. densa/Andropogon cabanisii) savannas of Everglades
National Park. Brazilian peppertree (Schinus
terebinthifolius) and silkreed (Neyraudia reynaudiana) are other
nonnative invasive associates inventoried on Everglades savannas. Cogon grass
dominates some grassland sites in the Everglades [113].
In Puerto Rico, cogon grass occurs in early seral bracatinga (Mimosa
scabrella) forests. Leandra (Leandra australis) and cappel (Palicourea spp.)
also occur in the overstory. Groundlayer associates include hemlock-rosette
grass (Dichanthelium sabulorum) and flatsedge (Cyperus hermaphroditus) [54].
In Southeast Asia, cogon grass dominates extensive grassland areas. It also
dominates the ground layers of Khasia pine (Pinus kesiya), Chir pine (Pinus roxburghii),
and other pine forests that experience frequent surface fires [37,97].
Sticky snakeroot (Eupatorium adenophorum), which is native to Southeast Asia, is commonly associated with
cogon grass in both the Old and New Worlds [97]. Jack-in-the-bush (Eupatorium odoratum)
and broadleaf carpet grass (Axonopus compressus) are other common associates on Asian grasslands
subject to frequent fire that also co-occur with cogon grass in the southeastern
United States [80,82,103,144,172]. Cogon grasslands in Asia can become increasingly diverse with time
since last fire [37]. Eussen [37] and Tanimoto [144] provide further
descriptions of cogon grassland associations of Southeast Asia.

  • 103. Nykvist, Nils. 1996. Regrowth of secondary vegetation after the `Borneo fire' of 1982-1983. Journal of Tropical Ecology. 12(2): 307-312. [50963]
  • 109. Peet, Robert K.; Allard, Dorothy J. 1993. Longleaf pine vegetation of the southern Atlantic and Gulf Coast regions: a preliminary classification. In: Hermann, Sharon M., ed. The longleaf pine ecosystem: ecology, restoration and management: Proceedings, 18th Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1991 May 30 - June 2; Tallahassee, FL. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research, Inc: 45-81. [28325]
  • 113. Platt, William J.; Gottschalk, Robert M. 2001. Effects of exotic grasses on potential fine fuel loads in the groundcover of south Florida slash pine savannas. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 10: 155-159. [40879]
  • 128. Scott, Geoffrey A. J. 1977. The role of fire in the creation and maintenance of savanna in the Montana of Peru. Journal of Biogeography. 4: 143-167. [18844]
  • 14. Brewer, J. Stephen; Cralle, Sean P. 2003. Phosphorus addition reduces invasion of a longleaf pine savanna (southeastern USA) by a non-indigenous grass (Imperata cylindrica). Plant Ecology. 167(2): 237-245. [50943]
  • 144. Tanimoto, Takeo. 1981. Vegetation of the alang-alang grassland and its succession in the Benakat District of South Sumatra, Indonesia. Bulletin of the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute. 314: 11-19. [51198]
  • 172. Woods, Paul. 1989. Effects of logging, drought, and fire on structure and composition of tropical forests in Sabah, Malaysia. Biotropica. 21(4): 290-298. [50954]
  • 37. Eussen, J. H. H. 1980. Biological and ecological aspects of alang-alang. In: In: Proceedings of Biotrop workshop on alang-alang; 1976 July 27-29; Bogor, Indonesia. Biotrop Special Publication No. 5. [Publisher location unknown]: [Publisher unknown]: 15-22. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. [53293]
  • 54. Grodzki, Leocadio; Boeger, Maria Regina Torres. 2001. Characterization of the pioneer vegetation on the bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth.) agroforestry system in the Colombo municipality, PR. Floresta. 31(1-2): 93-98. [51078]
  • 80. Kushwaha, S. P. S.; Ramakrishnan, P. S.; Tripathi, R. S. 1981. Population dynamics of Eupatorium odoratum in successional environments following slash and burn agriculture. Journal of Applied Ecology. 18(2): 529-535. [19450]
  • 82. Kushwaha, S. P. S.; Ramakrishnan, P. S.; Tripathi, R. S. 1983. Population dynamics of Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. var. major related to slash and burn agriculture (jhum) in north eastern India. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences. 92(4): 313-321. [19451]
  • 97. Mishra, B. K.; Ramakrishnan, P. S. 1983. Secondary succession subsequent to slash and burn agriculture at higher elevations of north-east India. I. -- Species diversity, biomass and litter production. Acta Ecologica. 4(2): 95-107. [19453]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Rangeland Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following Rangeland Cover Types (as classified by the Society for Range Management, SRM):

More info for the terms: cover, hardwood

SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES [132]:

808 Sand pine scrub

809 Mixed hardwood and pine

810 Longleaf pine-turkey oak hills

811 South Florida flatwoods

812 North Florida flatwoods

813 Cutthroat seeps

814 Cabbage palm flatwoods

816 Cabbage palm hammocks

817 Oak hammocks

820 Everglades flatwoods
  • 132. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. [23362]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

More info for the term: cover

SAF COVER TYPES [39]:

69 Sand pine

70 Longleaf pine

71 Longleaf pine-scrub oak

74 Cabbage palmetto

75 Shortleaf pine

76 Shortleaf pine-oak

80 Loblolly pine-shortleaf pine

81 Loblolly pine

82 Loblolly pine-hardwood

83 Longleaf pine-slash pine

84 Slash pine

85 Slash pine-hardwood

98 Pond pine

111 South Florida slash pine
  • 39. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Plant Associations

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

KUCHLER [79] PLANT ASSOCIATIONS:

K111 Oak-hickory-pine

K112 Southern mixed forest

K114 Pocosin

K115 Sand pine scrub

K116 Subtropical pine forest
  • 79. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. United States [Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous United States]. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 1:3,168,000; colored. [3455]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Ecosystem

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

ECOSYSTEMS [45]:

FRES12 Longleaf-slash pine

FRES13 Loblolly-shortleaf pine

FRES14 Oak-pine
  • 45. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; Lewis, Mont E.; Smith, Dixie R. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat in the United States

Cogon grass is a hardy species, tolerant of shade, high salinity and drought. It can be found in virtually any ecosystem, especially those experiencing disturbance. Cogon grass has been found growing on sand dunes in the southeast, along roadsides, forests, open fields, and up to the edge of standing water.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

U.S. National Park Service Weeds Gone Wild website

Source: U.S. National Park Service

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat & Distribution

River and seashore sands, disturbed grassy places, cultivations. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Russia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Vietnam; Africa, SW Asia, Australia, S Europe].
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Swampy grasslands; ca. 800 m.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Autotrophic (photosynthetic).
  • Bennett, D. 2006. Cogongrass, deep-rooted sedge in Mississippi Delta. Delta Farm Press Oct 19, 2006 news story. Available online.
  • Casini P., and V. Vecchio. 1998. Allelopathic interference of itchgrass and cogongrass: germination and early development of rice. Trop. Agric. Vol. 75 No. 4, 445-451.
  • Cavers P.B. 1983. Seed demography. Canadian Journal of Botany 61:3578-3590.
  • Dickens R., and G.M. Moore. 1974. Effects of light, temperature, KNOv3, and storage on germination of cogongrass. Agronomy Journal 66: 187-188.
  • FIPR. 1997. Ecology, Physiology, and management of Cogongrass (Imperata cylindriuca). Publication No. 03-107-140, prepared by University of Florida under a grant sponsored by Florida Institute of Phosphate Research (FIPR). 144 p.
  • Galveston Bay Estuary Program (GBEP). 2007. The Quiet Invasion: A Guide to Invasive Plants of the Galveston Bay Area. Available online.
  • Koger C.H., Bryson C.T., and J.D. Byrd, Jr. 2004. Response of Selected Grass and Broadleaf Species to Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) Residues. Weed Technology 18: 353-357.
  • Koger C.H., and C.T. Bryson. 2004. Effect of Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) Extracts on Germination and Seedling Growth of Selected Grass and Broadleaf Species. Weed Technology 18: 236-242.
  • Langeland K.A., and K.C. Burks (Eds.). 1998. Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas. UF/IFAS. 165 p.
  • MacDonald G.E. 2004. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica)-Biology, Ecology, and Management. Critical Reviews in Plant Science 23:367-380.
  • MacDonald G.E., Brecke B.J., Gaffney J.F., Langeland K.A., Ferrell J.A., and B.A. Sellers. 2006. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) biology, ecology and management in Florida. IFAS/UF document SS-AGR-52. Available online.
  • Sajise P.E. 1976. Evaluation of cogon (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) as a seral stage in Philippine vegetational succession. 1, The cogonal seral stage and plant succession. 2, Autecological studies on cogon. Dissertation Abstracts International B (1973) 3040-3041. From Weed Abstracts 1976, No. 1339.
  • Wilcut J.W., Truelove B., Davis D.E., and J.C. Williams. 1988. Temperature factors limiting the spread of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) and torpedograss (Panicum repens). Weed Science. 36:49-55.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Imperata cylindrica thrives in disturbed and marginal habitats such as roadsides and rights-of-way, ditches and swales, pastureland, golf courses, and forest edges (capable of extending into the understory). MacDonald et al. (2006) note that cogongrass typically does not survive in actively cultivated lands.Invasion History: Imperata cylindrica was accidentally introduced to the United States in the first half of the 20th century. Originally it arrived in the U.S. as packing material. In 1912, live cogongrass was reported near Grand Bay Alabama, apparently derived from orange crate packing material originating from Satsuma, Japan. A decade later, cogongrass from the Philippines was intentionally planted in Mississippi as an experimental forage plant. In the 1930s and 1940s, cogongrass was also planted in Florida for use as livestock forage and for erosion control (MacDonald et al. 2006, Farm Press 2006).Cogongrass was soon revealed to be a poor forage material, and it was a marginal sediment stabilizer as well. Instead, the grass was found to be a noxious pest species and further intentional planting of the species was prohibited. Continued illegal planting and accidental dispersal through habitat disturbance, road construction, and forage transport furthered the spread of this invasive grass (MacDonald et al., 2006). Recent spread of cogongrass into some formerly uninfested areas may be the result of accidental downstream transport of viable vegetative material that was uprooted or cut down in upstream infested habitats (Bennett, 2006). Potential to Compete With Natives: Cogongrass has the potential to dominate disturbed and marginal areas. The thick rhizome mass allows dense monotypic stands to become established, and also confer an impressive ability to spread vegetatively. The underground rhizomes of a cogongrass stand may be contain 75-85% of the total biomass of the stand (Bennett 2006).Several authors (Casini et al. 1998, Koger and Bryson, 2004 Koger et al. 2004) also report that cogongrass rhizomes and foliage also produce and exude allelopathic (toxic, used in intraspecific competition) chemicals that further inhibit the success of co-occurring native plants. Possible Economic Consequences of Invasion: Cogongrass is utilized as a forage in its native southeast Asia. In large part, however, there is little choice in the matter as this species is the dominant plant species over some 300 million acres of land. Even so, studies demonstrate that only very young foliage lacking the serrate leaf margins of older plants is suitable for use as forage, and that crude protein content rarely reached the minimum level considered necessary to raise cattle (MacDonald et al. 2006).Several thousand hectares of native habitat have been degraded or lost to cogongrass invasion in the southeastern United States. Globally, the species has had serious negative impacts on the economy. It has greatly impeded reforestation efforts in southeast Asia and the primary agricultural weed in much of Africa (MacDonald 2004). Dense stands of cogongrass alter natural fire regimes and can increase both the intensity and frequency of wildfires.MacDonald (2004) indicates that cogongrass is now considered to be one of the ten most troublesome weeds in the world. Considerable effort is being made to manage and contain this species in Florida, but carelessness and unchecked growth in areas where it now occurs allow continued spread into non-infested areas.Despite increased vigilance in the southeastern U.S. in regard to cogongrass, varieties of the species such as "Japanese Blood Grass" (I. cylindrica var. koenigii) are still being cultivated and sold as ornamentals in other parts of the country.
  • Bennett, D. 2006. Cogongrass, deep-rooted sedge in Mississippi Delta. Delta Farm Press Oct 19, 2006 news story. Available online.
  • Casini P., and V. Vecchio. 1998. Allelopathic interference of itchgrass and cogongrass: germination and early development of rice. Trop. Agric. Vol. 75 No. 4, 445-451.
  • Cavers P.B. 1983. Seed demography. Canadian Journal of Botany 61:3578-3590.
  • Dickens R., and G.M. Moore. 1974. Effects of light, temperature, KNOv3, and storage on germination of cogongrass. Agronomy Journal 66: 187-188.
  • FIPR. 1997. Ecology, Physiology, and management of Cogongrass (Imperata cylindriuca). Publication No. 03-107-140, prepared by University of Florida under a grant sponsored by Florida Institute of Phosphate Research (FIPR). 144 p.
  • Galveston Bay Estuary Program (GBEP). 2007. The Quiet Invasion: A Guide to Invasive Plants of the Galveston Bay Area. Available online.
  • Koger C.H., Bryson C.T., and J.D. Byrd, Jr. 2004. Response of Selected Grass and Broadleaf Species to Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) Residues. Weed Technology 18: 353-357.
  • Koger C.H., and C.T. Bryson. 2004. Effect of Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) Extracts on Germination and Seedling Growth of Selected Grass and Broadleaf Species. Weed Technology 18: 236-242.
  • Langeland K.A., and K.C. Burks (Eds.). 1998. Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas. UF/IFAS. 165 p.
  • MacDonald G.E. 2004. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica)-Biology, Ecology, and Management. Critical Reviews in Plant Science 23:367-380.
  • MacDonald G.E., Brecke B.J., Gaffney J.F., Langeland K.A., Ferrell J.A., and B.A. Sellers. 2006. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) biology, ecology and management in Florida. IFAS/UF document SS-AGR-52. Available online.
  • Sajise P.E. 1976. Evaluation of cogon (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) as a seral stage in Philippine vegetational succession. 1, The cogonal seral stage and plant succession. 2, Autecological studies on cogon. Dissertation Abstracts International B (1973) 3040-3041. From Weed Abstracts 1976, No. 1339.
  • Wilcut J.W., Truelove B., Davis D.E., and J.C. Williams. 1988. Temperature factors limiting the spread of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) and torpedograss (Panicum repens). Weed Science. 36:49-55.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population Biology

Frequency

Common
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

MacDonald et al. (2006) estimate that worldwide, cogongrass infests around 200,000 ha of agricultural land. In Florida, hundreds of hectares of reclaimed phosphate mining land have been invaded by Imperata cylindrica monocultures. Established cogongrass stands can produce more than a ton per hectare of rhizome biomass (MacDonald et al. 2006).
  • Bennett, D. 2006. Cogongrass, deep-rooted sedge in Mississippi Delta. Delta Farm Press Oct 19, 2006 news story. Available online.
  • Casini P., and V. Vecchio. 1998. Allelopathic interference of itchgrass and cogongrass: germination and early development of rice. Trop. Agric. Vol. 75 No. 4, 445-451.
  • Cavers P.B. 1983. Seed demography. Canadian Journal of Botany 61:3578-3590.
  • Dickens R., and G.M. Moore. 1974. Effects of light, temperature, KNOv3, and storage on germination of cogongrass. Agronomy Journal 66: 187-188.
  • FIPR. 1997. Ecology, Physiology, and management of Cogongrass (Imperata cylindriuca). Publication No. 03-107-140, prepared by University of Florida under a grant sponsored by Florida Institute of Phosphate Research (FIPR). 144 p.
  • Galveston Bay Estuary Program (GBEP). 2007. The Quiet Invasion: A Guide to Invasive Plants of the Galveston Bay Area. Available online.
  • Koger C.H., Bryson C.T., and J.D. Byrd, Jr. 2004. Response of Selected Grass and Broadleaf Species to Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) Residues. Weed Technology 18: 353-357.
  • Koger C.H., and C.T. Bryson. 2004. Effect of Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) Extracts on Germination and Seedling Growth of Selected Grass and Broadleaf Species. Weed Technology 18: 236-242.
  • Langeland K.A., and K.C. Burks (Eds.). 1998. Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas. UF/IFAS. 165 p.
  • MacDonald G.E. 2004. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica)-Biology, Ecology, and Management. Critical Reviews in Plant Science 23:367-380.
  • MacDonald G.E., Brecke B.J., Gaffney J.F., Langeland K.A., Ferrell J.A., and B.A. Sellers. 2006. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) biology, ecology and management in Florida. IFAS/UF document SS-AGR-52. Available online.
  • Sajise P.E. 1976. Evaluation of cogon (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) as a seral stage in Philippine vegetational succession. 1, The cogonal seral stage and plant succession. 2, Autecological studies on cogon. Dissertation Abstracts International B (1973) 3040-3041. From Weed Abstracts 1976, No. 1339.
  • Wilcut J.W., Truelove B., Davis D.E., and J.C. Williams. 1988. Temperature factors limiting the spread of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) and torpedograss (Panicum repens). Weed Science. 36:49-55.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

General Ecology

Fire Ecology

More info for the terms: Holocene, cover, crown fire, fern, fire regime, fire severity, fuel, fuel loading, historical fire regime, litter, natural, severity, shrubs, stand-replacement fire, succession, surface fire, top-kill, underburn

Fire adaptations: Both Brazilian satintail and cogon grass are adapted to very frequent fires [55,63,93,97,128,160].

Brazilian satintail sprouts from rhizomes after top-kill [128]. Postfire seedling establishment is also likely. Mass flowering has been noted in Brazilian satintail following fires in Brazil [55,93].

Cogon grass sprouts from rhizomes after top-kill by fire [64,97,127,144]. It also establishes from seed, usually blown in from off-site [97]. Regrowth from rhizomes is rapid [8,124], and frequent fire favors cogon grass over associated species worldwide [15,97,100,160,161]. Fire is so important to cogon grass's ecology that relative response to fire is one of the characteristics used to distinguish between its varieties [64].

Fuels: Descriptions of fuel characteristics and fuel loads in Brazilian satintail grasslands were not available as of 2005.

Cogon grass invasion changes fuel properties in pinelands of the southeastern United States. As a tall, rhizomatous grass on sites historically dominated by bunchgrasses, cogon grass produces more standing biomass and litter than native bunchgrasses. Thus, it increases fuel loads and horizontal and vertical continuity of fuels [87].

Fuel load estimates are needed for cogon grass-dominated sites in the United States. Fuel load measurements in native cogon grasslands may serve as a first step for estimating fuel loads in the southeastern United States. Pickford and others [111] conducted fuel sampling in burned and unburned forest-mangrove (Acacia mangium)/cogon grass stands in Java. They noted a "significant quantity" of dead, cured fuels that were created by and remained after burning, even in areas where cogon grass was green before the fire. They provide fuel loading and fire behavior estimates (based upon the BEHAVE fire behavior prediction system) for that community. Wibowo and others [162] provide fire behavior and severity information for a forest-mangrove/cogon grass community in West Java, Indonesia.

Fine fuels are the most important factor in ignition and spread of fire in Florida longleaf pine ecosystems [159], and cogon grass contributes a large fine fuel load. Observational [111] and anecdotal [110] accounts from Indonesia indicate that live cogon grass plants ignite and burn easily while still relatively green, and researchers in Indonesia note that cogon grass becomes very dry and flammable during the dry season [100]. Cogon grass's fuel properties and abundant litter may alter fire behavior on invaded sites in Florida [86,87]. Cogon grass is high in silica content, so the litter decays relatively slowly. In an Australian study, cogon grass had the slowest decay rate of 3 grass species studied. Its half-life rate of decay exceeded the study period of 24 weeks [59].

On Florida sandhill longleaf pine savannas, Lippincott [86,87] compared fine fuel loads, fire behavior, and fire effects on uninvaded and cogon grass-invaded sites. Cogon grass produced significantly more persistent, standing dead biomass compared to sites with native understory vegetation (P<0.05), resulting in a greater fuel load on invaded sites. Fire mortality of young longleaf pines was greater on cogon grass sites, and postfire fuel accumulations were also greater on cogon grass sites. Average fire temperatures were higher on cogon grass sites and reached a maximum of 856 °F (458 °C) compared to a maximum of 604 °F (318 °C) on uninvaded sites [86]. Such fires are severe enough to kill longleaf pine seedlings and saplings [71]. See the Fire Case Study for additional details.

Even in frequently burned communities, cogon grass may alter fire characteristics by increasing fine fuel loads. Platt and Gottschalk [113] investigated the effects of cogon grass and silkreed (Neyraudia reynaudiana), another nonnative tropical grass, on fine fuel loads in south Florida slash pine savanna in Everglades National Park. The historical fire regime of the area is surface fires at 5- to 10-year intervals. Fuels are almost all fine: woody debris is rarely present except after hurricanes. Firegrass (Andropogon cabanisii) and other bunchgrasses native to the area tend to produce greatest biomass the first year following a fire; they also mass flower at that time. Productivity of native bunchgrasses decreases with time since fire. In contrast, cogon grass produces prodigious biomass nearly every year. Study plots were on prescribed underburn rotations of 10 years or less. Study design compared plots with a native ground cover of firegrass with areas that contained 1 of the 2 nonnative grasses. Total plant biomass (measured as g/484cm²) on plots with cogon grass was 1.7 times greater than on plots without cogon grass: a significant difference (P=0.03). Litter biomass was also significantly greater on plots with cogon grass (P=0.05) and was almost twice that on plots without cogon grass. Biomass of native plants was not different among plots with and without cogon grass [113]. 

FIRE REGIMES: Little information is available on FIRE REGIMES where Brazilian satintail is native. Scott [128] investigated its occurrence in mixed muttonwood-copperleaf-Brazilian satintail-bracken fern savannas of montane eastern Peru. The study site was a tropical-humid forest area inhabited by Native Campa. He noted that the Campa practiced annual, dry-season burning around their village to maintain Brazilian satintail grassland. Areas where burning was abandoned succeeded to either bunchgrasses (in areas without sprouting woody species) or tropical forest. The origin of South American tropical savannas is unclear. Anthropogenic burning may be responsible. Hardpan soils over high water tables, wet climate, and a combination of anthropogenic burning, edaphic, and climatic factors are also suggested (numerous references cited in [128]). All researchers concede that regardless of their origins, South American savannas are currently maintained by frequent, intentional burning [128]. For information on postfire succession on Brazilian satintail old fields of Peru, see Successional Status.

No information is currently available on how Brazilian satintail affects fire intervals and behavior in southeastern pinelands. Information is needed on the fire ecology of Brazilian satintail in the United States and elsewhere.

Worldwide, cogon grass is favored by frequent surface fire in pine (Pinus spp.) and other savannas and by very frequent (<10-year rotation) stand-replacement fire in grasslands. In its native Southeast Asia, cogon grass occurs in systems that experience frequent fire including farmlands, grasslands, and the understories of tropical and subtropical forests, especially pine forests [42,97,141]. Charcoal evidence of fires in Borneo date back to the Holocene (review by [114]), but knowledge of natural FIRE REGIMES where cogon grass is native is lacking. In Indonesia [141] and Australia [160] cogon grass can tolerate annual fires, and frequent fire maintains cogon grasslands, which are successionally replaced by shrubs and/or secondary tropical forest in the absence of fire [100,141,144,161]. Cogon grass fuels fires that help maintain subtropical and tropical savannas and forest-grassland mosaics in Southeast Asia [144,161]. Forest fires can result in the spread of cogon grass in these ecosystems [161]. After large-scale fires in East Kalimantan in 1983 the area covered by cogon grassland expanded dramatically [46]. Small-scale fires within subtropical and tropical forest of Nepal maintain uneven-aged forest-grassland mosaics [108]. In subtropical Chir pine forests of Nepal and Pakistan, frequently burned slopes support cogon grass, several other grass species, and a variety of shrubs (Shrestha and Joshi 1997, cited in [120]).

Both fire and logging can increase establishment and spread of cogon grass, but this effect is "greatly enhanced" when these disturbances are combined [172]. Fires in Borneo and other tropical areas tend to occur during El Niño-induced droughts, and cogon grasslands expand during these drought-fire cycles [114,172]. Logged areas tend to be more susceptible to fire, and when it occurs, fire is more severe in logged areas. In Borneo, logged forests showed less understory diversity after fire compared to unlogged forest. Logged and burned forests were mostly dominated by cogon grass and/or Jack-in-the-bush, whereas these species were present but not dominant after fire in unlogged forests [172].

Shifting agriculture (slash-and-burn) has shortened fire intervals in many tropical areas to the point that warm-wet-climate pines and other overstory trees can no longer regenerate, creating large-acreage swards of cogon grassland where cogon grass had formerly occupied only small patches within forest mosaics [122]. Its spread in its native range in Southeast Asia is largely due to human clearing of tropical rain forests followed by frequent burning [38,46]. In northeastern India intervals between fires in Khasia pine forests have been shortened from 20- to 30-year intervals to 5-year intervals due to shifting agriculture. This has resulted in cogon grass dominance in fallow fields and cogon grass invasion into crops on cultivated lands [97]. Cogon grass is successionally replaced by woody species in the absence of further fire [172,174]. Slashing and burning every 4 to 6 years tends to exclude species other than cogon grass and other herbaceous weeds, while succession to woody species occurs with 10- to 20-year slash-and-burn cycles [127]. Repeated short-interval fires on cogon grasslands in Indonesia increase cogon grass abundance, reduce soil fertility, and increase soil erosion, ultimately making reversion to forest more difficult [51,52,53]. In Australia cogon grass has spread in tropical and subtropical regions where frequent burning occurs [13,115]. For example, it is an important component in an eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) forests in northern Australia where Aborigines conduct frequent underburning [13].

Cogon grass in North America: There is potential for cogon grass to spread rapidly in warm-wet climate regions of the southeastern United States [90]. Cogon grass's rapid spread in peninsular Florida and edges of the northern Gulf of Mexico is thought to have increased fire hazard on invaded sites, and cogon grass populations are expected to continue to spread in the Gulf Coast region [4]. Cogon grass is well adapted to the subtropical pine ecosystems in that area (see Fire Adapations). Cogon grass may establish without or without fire [74,75], and can spread rapidly after fire [75,86,87].

Prior to the 20th Century, wildfires in the southeastern United States were most common in summer. Lightning strikes occur during the rainy season (May-October), with most lightning-ignited fires occurring in spring and summer [86,135]. Peninsular Florida's longleaf pine communities experienced frequent surface fires at 2- to 8-year intervals. These frequent fires maintained the savannas [24,101,123,140]. Southern Florida's slash pine forests probably had similar, but slightly longer (up to 15-year) intervals between surface fires. Reconstructing past FIRE REGIMES from fire scars has not been possible for southern Florida's pinelands [145]. Florida was inhabited by Aboriginals for thousands of years, and seasonality and extent of Aboriginal burning in the area is uncertain [135].

Fire behavior: Cogon grass invasion in pinelands of the southeastern United States may shorten fire-return intervals and increase fire severity over prehistoric conditions [16,86,87]. A report by the Mississippi Exotic Pest Plant Council identified cogon grass as 1 of the 4 most serious nonnative invasives in the Southeast, based, in part, upon its potential to alter natural FIRE REGIMES [90].

Cogon grass invasion may increase fire's rate of spread and intensity on invaded vs. uninvaded sites [86,87]. Compared to native bunchgrasses, cogon grass produces a more continuous bed of fine fuels that is highly flammable when dry. A study in southern Florida pine sandhills found that cogon grass fuelbeds were more evenly distributed than fuelbeds dominated by native grasses, resulting in more horizontally continuous burned areas [86]. On sites where cogon grass reaches maximum heights (see General Botanical Characteristics), it also increases vertical continuity of fuels, which may change the fire regime from surface to crown fire [16,87]. Observations in cogon grass sites in Mississippi indicated that flame heights were nearly twice those in sites dominated by wiregrass. Rates of fire spread were higher on cogon grass sites; however, maximum temperatures were lower (Grace, unpublished, cited by [50]). Ironically, cogon grass was once planted in firebreaks on the Withlacoochee State Forest, Florida [142].

The following table provides fire return intervals for plant communities and ecosystems where Brazilian satintail and cogon grass are important. For further information, see the FEIS review of the dominant species listed below. This list may not be inclusive for all plant communities in which Brazilian satintail and cogon grass occur. If you are interested in plant communities or ecosystems that are not listed below, see the complete FEIS fire regime table.

Community or Ecosystem Dominant Species Fire Return Interval Range (years)
shortleaf pine Pinus echinata 2-15
shortleaf pine-oak P. echinata-Quercus spp. <10
slash pine P. elliottii 3-8
slash pine-hardwood P. elliottii-variable <35
sand pine Pinus elliottii var. elliottii 25-45 [158]
South Florida slash pine P. elliottii var. densa 1-15 [102,135,158]
longleaf-slash pine P. palustris-P. elliottii 1-4 [102,158]
longleaf pine-scrub oak P. palustris-Quercus spp. 6-10
pocosin P. serotina 3-8
pond pine P. serotina 3-8
loblolly pine P. taeda 3-8
loblolly-shortleaf pine P. taeda-P. echinata 10 to <35 [158]
cabbage palmetto-slash pine Sabal palmetto-P. elliottii <10 [102,158]
  • 100. Murniati. 2002. From Imperata cylindrica grasslands to productive agroforestry. Aula, Wageningen: Wageningen University. 172 p. Dissertation. [51417]
  • 101. Myers, Ronald L. 1990. Scrub and high pine. In: Myers, Ronald L.; Ewel, John J., eds. Ecosystems of Florida. Orlando, FL: University of Central Florida Press: 150-193. [17389]
  • 102. Myers, Ronald L. 2000. Fire in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 161-173. [36985]
  • 108. Peet, Nicholas B.; Watkinson, Andrew R.; Bell, Diana J.; Sharma, Uday R. 1999. The conservation management of Imperata cylindrica grassland in Nepal with fire and cutting: an experimental approach. Journal of Applied Ecology. 36: 374-387. [50979]
  • 110. Pendleton, Robert L. 1948. Cogon grass, Imperata cylindrica, in the western hemisphere. Journal of the American Society of Agronomy. 40(11): 1047-1049. [50919]
  • 111. Pickford, Stewart; Suharti, Mieke; Wibowo, Ari. 1992. A note on fuelbeds and fire behavior in alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica). International Journal of Wildland Fire. 2(1): 41-46. [19635]
  • 113. Platt, William J.; Gottschalk, Robert M. 2001. Effects of exotic grasses on potential fine fuel loads in the groundcover of south Florida slash pine savannas. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 10: 155-159. [40879]
  • 114. Potter, Lesley M. 2002. Forests and grassland, drought and fire: the island of Borneo in the historical environmental record (post-1800). Advances in GeoEcology. 34: 339-356. [51170]
  • 115. Pressland, A. J. 1982. Fire in the management of grazing lands in Queensland. Tropical Grasslands. 16(3): 104-112. [19389]
  • 120. Rawat, Gopal S.; Wikramanayake, Eric D. 2001. Himalayan subtropical pine forests (IM0301), [Online]. In: Terrestrial ecoregions of the world. World Wildlife Fund (Producer). Available: http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/im/im0301_full.html [2005, March 28]. [53371]
  • 122. Riswan, Soedarsono; Hartanti, Lies. 1995. Human impacts on tropical forest dynamics. Vegetatio. 121: 41-52. [51199]
  • 123. Robbins, Louise E.; Myers, Ronald L. 1992. Seasonal effects of prescribed burning in Florida: a review. Misc. Publ. No. 8. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research, Inc. 96 p. [21094]
  • 124. Sajise, Percy Eres. 1972. Evaluation of cogon (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) as a seral stage in Philippine vegetational succession: I. The cogonal seral stage and plant succession; II. Autecological studies on cogon. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University. 152 p. Dissertation. [53134]
  • 127. Saxena, K. G.; Ramakrishnan, P. S. 1984. Herbaceous vegetation development and weed potential in slash and burn agriculture (Jhum) in N. E. India. Weed Research. 24: 135-142. [19386]
  • 128. Scott, Geoffrey A. J. 1977. The role of fire in the creation and maintenance of savanna in the Montana of Peru. Journal of Biogeography. 4: 143-167. [18844]
  • 13. Bowman, D. M. J. S. 1993. Evidence for gradual retreat of dry monsoon forests under a regime of aboriginal burning, Karslake Peninsula, Mellville Island, northern Australia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland. 102: 25-30. [51724]
  • 135. Snyder, James R.; Herndon, Alan; Robertson, William B., Jr. 1990. South Florida rockland. In: Myers, Ronald L.; Ewel, John J., eds. Ecosystems of Florida. Orlando, FL: University of Central Florida Press: 230-274. [17391]
  • 140. Streng, Donna R.; Glitzenstein, Jeff S.; Platt, William J. 1993. Evaluating effects of season of burn in longleaf pine forests: a critical literature review and some results from an ongoing long-term study. In: Hermann, Sharon M., ed. The longleaf pine ecosystem: ecology, restoration and management: Proceedings, 18th Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1991 May 30 - June 2; Tallahassee, FL. No. 18. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research, Inc: 227-263. [28372]
  • 141. Supriana, Nana; Ruswandy, Hamdan. 1986. Effect of forest fire on undergrowth species composition. A case study in the Simincak Forest Complex, South Tapanuli. Forestry Research Bulletin. 1(2): 1-8. [51725]
  • 142. Tabor, Paul. 1949. Cogon grass, Imperata cylindrica (L) Beauv., in the southeastern United States. Agronomy Journal. 41: 270. [53285]
  • 144. Tanimoto, Takeo. 1981. Vegetation of the alang-alang grassland and its succession in the Benakat District of South Sumatra, Indonesia. Bulletin of the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute. 314: 11-19. [51198]
  • 145. Taylor, Dale L. 1980. Fire history and man-induced fire problems in subtropical south Florida. In: Stokes, Marvin A.; Dieterich, John H., technical coordinators. Proceedings of the fire history workshop; 1980 October 20-24; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-81. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 63-68. [16044]
  • 15. Brook, R. M. 1989. Review of literature on Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeuschel with particular reference to South East Asia. Tropical Pest Management. 35(1): 12-25. [53280]
  • 158. Wade, Dale D.; Brock, Brent L.; Brose, Patrick H.; Grace, James B.; Hoch, Greg A.; Patterson, William A., III. 2000. Fire in eastern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 53-96. [36983]
  • 159. Wade, Dale D.; Lunsford, James D. 1989. A guide for prescribed fire in southern forests. Technical Publication R8-TP-11. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region. 56 p. [30314]
  • 16. Brooks, Matthew L.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Richardson, David M.; Grace, James B.; Keeley, Jon E.; DiTomaso, Joseph M.; Hobbs, Richard J.; Pellant, Mike; Pyke, David. 2004. Effects of invasive alien plants on FIRE REGIMES. BioScience. 54(7): 677-688. [50224]
  • 160. Walsh, S. R. 1954. Blady grass and its control by mowing on the Atherton Tableland. Queensland Agricultural Journal. 79: 325-333. [53288]
  • 161. Wibowo, A.; Suharti, M.; Sagala, A. P. S.; Hibani, H.; van Noordwijk, M. 1997. Fire management on Imperata grasslands as part of agroforestry development in Indonesia. Agroforestry Systems. 36(1-3): 203-217. [51421]
  • 162. Wibowo, Ari; Suharti, Mieke dan; Pickford, Stewart G. 1991. Fuel characteristics and fire behaviour in alang-alang under Acacia mangium plantation in Depok, West Java. Forestry Research Bulletin. 544: 1-7. [51410]
  • 172. Woods, Paul. 1989. Effects of logging, drought, and fire on structure and composition of tropical forests in Sabah, Malaysia. Biotropica. 21(4): 290-298. [50954]
  • 174. Wyatt-Smith, J. 1949. Natural plant succession. Malaysian Forester. 12(3): 148-152. [51200]
  • 24. Christensen, Norman L. 1981. FIRE REGIMES in southeastern ecosystems. In: Mooney, H. A.; Bonnicksen, T. M.; Christensen, N. L.; Lotan, J. E.; Reiners, W. A., technical coordinators. FIRE REGIMES and ecosystem properties: Proceedings of the conference; 1978 December 11-15; Honolulu, HI. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 112-136. [4391]
  • 38. Eussen, Jacobus H. H.; Wirjahardja, Soemantri. 1973. Studies of an alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) vegetation. Biotrop Bulletin. 6: 2-24. [53282]
  • 4. Allen, J. A.; Keeland, B. D.; Stanturf, J. A.; [and others]. 2001. A guide to bottomland hardwood restoration. Information and Technology Report USGS/BRD/ITR--2000-0011; Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-40. Reston, VA: U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey; Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 132 p. [40592]
  • 42. Florece, Leonardo M.; Espaldon, Ma. Victoria; Galang, Celerino. 1997. Fire management, fire tolerance and biodiversity enhancement of grassland ecosystem: the use of Gliricidia sepium stem cuttings as a reforestation species. Imperata Project Paper 1997/11. Canberra, Australia: Australian National University, Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies. 14 p. [51209]
  • 46. Garrity, D. P.; Soekardi, M.; van Noordwijk, M.; de la Cruz, R.; Pathak, P. S.; Gunasena, H. P. M.; So, N. van; Huijun, G.; Majid, N. M. 1997. The Imperata grasslands of tropical Asia: area, distribution, and typology. Agroforestry Systems. 36(1-3): 3-29. [51426]
  • 50. Grace, James B.; Smith, Melinda D.; Grace, Susan L.; Collins, Scott L.; Stohlgren, Thomas J. 2001. Interactions between fire and invasive plants in temperate grasslands of North America. In: Galley, Krista E. M.; Wilson, Tyrone P., eds. Proceedings of the invasive species workshop: The role of fire in the control and spread of invasive species; Fire conference 2000: the first national congress on fire ecology, prevention, and management; 2000 November 27 - December 1; San Diego, CA. Misc. Publ. No. 11. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 40-65. [40677]
  • 51. Grist, Peter; Menz, Ken. 1996. Burning in an Imperata fallow/upland rice farming system. Imperata Project Paper 1996/7. Canberra, Australia: Australian National University, Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies. 17 p. [51215]
  • 52. Grist, Peter; Menz, Ken. 1997. On-site effects of Imperata burning by Indonesian smallholders: a bioeconomic model. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies. 33(3): 79-96. [50930]
  • 53. Grist, Peter; Menz, Ken. 1999. Evaluation of fire versus non-fire methods for clearing Imperata fallow. In: Menz, K.; Magcale-Macandog, D.; Rusastra, I. W., eds. Improving smallholder farming systems in Imperata areas of southeast Asia: alternatives to shifting cultivation. ACIAR Monograph Series No. 52. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research: 25-34. [51208]
  • 55. Haddad, Claudia R. B.; Valio, I. F. M. 1993. Effect of fire on flowering of Lantana montevidensis Briq. Journal of Plant Physiology. 141: 704-707. [51172]
  • 59. Hartemink, Alfred E.; O'Sullivan, J. N. 2001. Leaf litter decomposition of Piper aduncum, Gliricidia sepium and Imperata cylindrica in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea. Plant and Soil. 230(1): 115-124. [50939]
  • 63. Holm, LeRoy G.; Plocknett, Donald L.; Pancho, Juan V.; Herberger, James P. 1977. The world's worst weeds: distribution and biology. Honolulu, HI: University Press of Hawaii. 609 p. [20702]
  • 64. Hubbard, C. E. 1944. Imperata cylindrica: Taxonomy, distribution, economic significance and control. Imperial Agricultural Bureaux Joint Publication No. 7. Oxford, UK: Imperial Forestry Bureau; Aberystwyth, UK: Imperial Bureau of Pastures and Forage Crops. 63 p. [51418]
  • 71. Jose, Shibu; Cox, Joseph; Miller, Deborah L.; [and others]. 2002. Alien plant invasion: The story of cogongrass in southeastern forests. Journal of Forestry. 100(1): 41-44. [40718]
  • 74. King, Sharon E.; Grace, James B. 2000. The effects of gap size and disturbance type on invasion of wet pine savanna by cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica (Poaceae). American Journal of Botany. 87(9): 1279-1286. [50451]
  • 75. King, Sharon E.; Grace, James B. 2000. The effects of soil flooding on the establishment of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica), a nonindigenous invader of the southeastern United States. Wetlands. 20(2): 300-306. [50948]
  • 8. Ayeni, A. O.; Duke, W. B. 1985. The influence of rhizome features on subsequent regenerative capacity in speargrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.). Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 13(3/4): 309-317. [50933]
  • 86. Lippincott, Carol L. 1997. Ecological consequences of Imperata cylindrica (cogongrass) invasion in Florida sandhill. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 165 p. Dissertation. [48904]
  • 87. Lippincott, Carol L. 2000. Effects of Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. (Cogongrass) invasion on fire regime in Florida Sandhill (USA). Natural Areas Journal. 20(2): 140-149. [36153]
  • 90. Matlack, Glenn R. 2002. Exotic plant species in Mississippi, USA: critical issues in management and research. Natural Areas Journal. 22(3): 241-247. [43236]
  • 93. Matsunaga, Kimihiro; Shibuya, Masaoki; Ohizumi, Yasushi. 1995. Imperanene, a novel phenolic compound with platelet aggregation inhibitory activity from Imperata cylindrica. Journal of Natural Products. 58(1): 138-139. [50973]
  • 97. Mishra, B. K.; Ramakrishnan, P. S. 1983. Secondary succession subsequent to slash and burn agriculture at higher elevations of north-east India. I. -- Species diversity, biomass and litter production. Acta Ecologica. 4(2): 95-107. [19453]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Fire Management Considerations

More info for the terms: fire management, fuel, litter, rhizome, succession

There is currently not enough information on Brazilian satintail to provide fire management summaries or recommendations. Because Brazilian satintail's and cogon grass's growth forms and postfire growth responses are similar, the following information may also apply to Brazilian satintail. If Brazilian satintail is found to be a serious threat to pineland ecosystems in the southeastern United States, fire and other studies are needed to determine how to best control it.

Cogon grass is extremely problematic for fire managers. It invades fire-adapted, warm-wet-climate ecosystems, reducing species diversity and ecosystem function. Cogon grass has the potential to shorten already short fire-return intervals to the point that native plant species cannot recover. Yet excluding fire from these fire-adapted ecosystems also results in loss of ecosystem diversity and function [29]. Rapid accumulation of dense cogon grass litter, along with its spreading rhizome mass, makes unassisted recruitment of native warm-climate plant species unlikely on infested sites [86,87].

Fire alone cannot control cogon grass; in fact, burning with no further treatments will promote it (see Plant Response to Fire). Burning can help control cogon grass when it is part of an integrated control plan, however [62,160]. By removing cogon grass top-growth, the rhizomes are forced to utilize stored carbohydrates to produce new growth, thereby weakening the rhizomes. Removing cogon grass litter and standing dead biomass prior to other treatment often improves the success of other control measures. For example, tillage is more effective, and herbicide application to growing tissues more precise, if biomass is first removed [70]. Johnson and Shilling [70] provide a contact list of managers and academics with experience using fire to control cogon grass.

Burning and allowing cogon grass regrowth, followed by tillage and herbicide treatment, is the most effective control measure for large, established infestations of cogon grass [35,133]. In a Florida study, burning was used to remove aboveground cogon grass biomass and prepare a bare soil study area on all plots. Postfire treatments were 2 herbicide sprayings, 2 diskings, or spraying/disking combinations. Imazapyr was applied 44 and 90 days after burning. Disking was done the day after burning and at postfire day 90. Measured 18 months after treatment, the most effective treatment was a 1st disking on postfire day 1, followed by spraying at postfire day 44, and a 2nd disking at postfire day 90. Compared to untreated plots, spraying alone provided 82% control, and disking alone provided 53% control. Disking followed by spraying without a 2nd disking resulted in 86% control [69].

After cogon grass suppression, establishment of native herbaceous species is needed for long-term control [170]. Shilling and others [133] stated "if a replacement species does not fill the niche occupied by cogon grass after suppression then cogon grass will simply refill the niche."

Studies in southeast Asia show that although slash-and-burn treatments reduce rhizome biomass, they also encourage sprouting and seedling establishment. Slashing alone may produce more sprouts than slashing and burning [124,136]. However, Woods [172] found that logging and burning in combination resulted in greater postfire establishment of cogon grass than either disturbance alone. A combination of prescribed burning and mowing reduced cogon grass in infested pastures in Australia. In heavily infested pastures, burning was followed by reseeding to pasture grasses, then mowed repeatedly [160]. A Malaysian manager reports that burning cogon grass early in the dry season reduces next-year fuel loads, while late dry-season fires tend to increase next-year fuel loads [121].

Extensive, fire-created cogon grasslands can lower habitat quality and diversity in southeastern pinelands. Frequent fire on cogon grasslands in tropical Asia has reduced soil nitrogen and increased run-off [49]. In Florida longleaf pine stands, gopher tortoise mounds provide fire refugia and disturbed seedbed sites for early seral herbs. Gopher tortoises have difficulty digging in cogon grass, preferring more open sites. Fewer gopher tortoise mounds in cogon grass-infested sites may affect postfire plant community succession [86].
  • 121. Raymond, Oliver. 1992. Letter to the editor. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 2(3): [Pages unknown]. [21326]
  • 124. Sajise, Percy Eres. 1972. Evaluation of cogon (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) as a seral stage in Philippine vegetational succession: I. The cogonal seral stage and plant succession; II. Autecological studies on cogon. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University. 152 p. Dissertation. [53134]
  • 133. Shilling, Donn G.; Bewick, T. A.; Gaffney, J. F.; McDonald, S. K.; Chase, C. A.; Johnson, E. R. R. L. 1997. Ecology, physiology, and management of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica). Publication No. 03-107-140. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 128 p. [52849]
  • 136. Soerjani, Mohamad. 1970. Alang-alang, Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. (1812), pattern of growth as related to its problem of control. Biotrop Bulletin. 1: 4-87. [51345]
  • 160. Walsh, S. R. 1954. Blady grass and its control by mowing on the Atherton Tableland. Queensland Agricultural Journal. 79: 325-333. [53288]
  • 170. Willard, Tommy Ray. 1988. Biology, ecology and management of cogongrass [Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.]. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 113 p. Dissertation. [53117]
  • 172. Woods, Paul. 1989. Effects of logging, drought, and fire on structure and composition of tropical forests in Sabah, Malaysia. Biotropica. 21(4): 290-298. [50954]
  • 29. D'Antonio, Carla M.; Vitousek, Peter M. 1992. Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass/fire cycle, and global change. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 23: 63-87. [20148]
  • 35. Dozier, Hallie; Gaffney, James F.; McDonald, Sandra K.; Johnson, Eric R. R. L.; Shilling, Donn G. 1998. Cogongrass in the United States: history, ecology, impacts, and management. Weed Technology. 12(4): 737-743. [50927]
  • 49. Goldammer, J. G.; Penafiel, S. R. 1990. Fire in the pine-grassland biomes of tropical and subtropical Asia. In: Goldammer, J. G., ed. Fire in the tropical biota: ecosystem processes and global challenges. Berlin: Springer-Verlag: 53-64. [53281]
  • 62. Hobbs, Richard J.; Huenneke, Laura F. 1992. Disturbance, diversity, and invasion: implications for conservation. Conservation Biology. 6(3): 324-337. [53364]
  • 69. Johnson, E. R. R. L.; Gaffney, J. F.; Shilling, D. G. 1999. The influence of discing on the efficacy of imazapyr for cogongrass [Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.] control. In: A glance to the past, a vision for the future: Proceedings of the 52nd annual meeting of the Southern Weed Science Society; 1999 January 25-27; Greensboro, NC. In: Proceedings, Southern Weed Science Society. Raleigh, NC: Southern Weed Science Society; 52: 165. Abstract. [51341]
  • 70. Johnson, Eric R. R. L.; Shilling, Donn G. 2004. Fact sheet: Cogon grass--Imperata cylindrica (L.) Palisot, [Online]. In: Weeds gone wild: Alien plant invaders of natural areas. Plant Conservation Alliance, Alien Plant Working Group (Producer). Available: http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/imcyl.htm [2005, March 28]. [53368]
  • 86. Lippincott, Carol L. 1997. Ecological consequences of Imperata cylindrica (cogongrass) invasion in Florida sandhill. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 165 p. Dissertation. [48904]
  • 87. Lippincott, Carol L. 2000. Effects of Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. (Cogongrass) invasion on fire regime in Florida Sandhill (USA). Natural Areas Journal. 20(2): 140-149. [36153]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: fire use, fuel, prescribed fire, rhizome

In central Florida, Lippincott [86] measured rates of cogon grass rhizome
spread in longleaf pine sandhill communities. Cogon grass spread differed
significantly by treatment (P<0.01) and was greatest in clearcuts and frequently burned
stands:

TreatmentTime since last fireRate of spread (±
SD)
No treatment in plug-planted stands5 years0.5 ± 0.4 m/year
Fire exclusion in self-established stands15 years0.5 ± 0.4 m/year
Uncut plantation, self-established stands4 years0.6 ± 0.1 m/year
Prescribed burning, self-established stands5 years1.9 ± 0.9 m/year
Prescribed burning, self-established stands1.5 years2.6 ± 0.9 m/year
Clear-cut plantation, self-established stands4 years2.7 ± 0.4 m/year

Cogon grass can establish in both large and small gaps,
growing best if gaps
are created by fire [86]. On the Grand Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Mississippi, six 10
× 10-m areas of
longleaf pine savanna were burned under prescription on 6 April 1998. Cogon grass
was transplanted onto transplant study plots 2 days after burning or seeded into
seed study plots 3 days after burning. Percentage photosynthetically active
radiation was 78% and 30% on burned and unburned plots, respectively. At
postfire month 2, survivorship did not differ between cogon grass transplants on burned and
unburned plots (P=0.72), but growth (mean shoot length) of transplants was
greater on burned vs. unburned plots (P=0.0007). For seedlings, emergence
did not differ between burned and unburned plots; however, survival of
germinants at postfire months 1 and 2 was significantly greater on burned vs.
unburned plots (P<0.05) [74].
Early in its postfire recovery, cogon grass may allocate most of its
biomass to rhizomes. Following mowing and prescribed burning in an old field in
India, cogon grass regenerated entirely from rhizome sprouts. At postfire year
1, aboveground:belowground biomass ratio of cogon grass was 1:4, which was the lowest
ratio of the 4 plant species studied on burned plots [126].
The Fire Case Study Imperata cylindrica in a Florida sandhill longleaf pine community
provides information on fuel loads, prescribed fire use, and postfire response
of juvenile longleaf pines on cogon grass-infested sites and uninfested sites.
  • 126. Saxena, K. G.; Ramakrishnan, P. S. 1983. Growth and allocation strategies of some perennial weeds of slash and burn agriculture (Jhum) in northeastern India. Canadian Journal of Botany. 61: 1300-1306. [19387]
  • 74. King, Sharon E.; Grace, James B. 2000. The effects of gap size and disturbance type on invasion of wet pine savanna by cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica (Poaceae). American Journal of Botany. 87(9): 1279-1286. [50451]
  • 86. Lippincott, Carol L. 1997. Ecological consequences of Imperata cylindrica (cogongrass) invasion in Florida sandhill. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 165 p. Dissertation. [48904]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Plant Response to Fire

More info for the term: succession

Brazilian satintail grows rapidly after dry-season fires [128]. There is also a postfire flowering response [9]. Brazilian satintail has shown mass flowering after fire in Brazil [55,93]. Mowing or clipping does not produce a similar mass flowering response [93]. Scott [128] found that under annual burning in Peru, Brazilian satintail usually produced seed the December following dry-season (Aug.-Sept.) fire. Snyder and others [135] report that in south Florida slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. densa) communities, Brazilian satintail rarely flowers except in early in postfire succession.

Cogon grass sprouts from the rhizomes soon after fire [64,144]. Studies in Asia [49,97,136] and observations in Australia [160] show that burning increases cogon grass sprouting. A study in Java notes that cogon grass sprouted from "charred but obviously viable tillers" that "extended 4 to 6 inches (10-15 cm) above the soil surface" soon after fire. Forty days after fire cogon grass stem height averaged 4 feet (1.3 m) [111]. Several reviews indicate that fire and other disturbances stimulate flowering in cogon grass (e.g., [43,64,133]). Postfire mass flowering has been noted in cogon grass in Thailand (Paisooksantivantana, cited in [43]).

Cogon grass also establishes from wind-blown, off-site seed after fire [97,136]. Since it has a short-term seed bank [50], seedling establishment from soil-stored seed is possible.

Cogon grass is favored by frequent fires [64,144,160,172]. Garrity and others [46] stated the "real distinguishing factor for its persistence is the intermittent occurrence of fire." Coster [28] called fire "the greatest help" to cogon grass spread in Asia. Reviews state that cogon grasslands remain stable [64] and become dense monocultures [160] when burned annually.

Fire increases nutritional value of cogon grass in the short term. For 3 months after fire in central Florida, cogon grass on burned sites had significantly higher nitrogen and phosphorus content, and lower fiber content, compared to unburned cogon grass [86].

In postfire succession in tropical forest ecosystems, cogon grass is more abundant on previously logged sites, where it is initially important, then declines as woody plants establish and assume dominance (e.g., [103,144,161]). A severe drought in Indonesia in 1982 and 1983 caused widespread wildfires across Borneo [103,172]. Woods [172] compared early postfire succession on logged and unlogged sites after a fire in Borneo in April and May 1983. Canopy losses were higher and postfire seedling regeneration was dominated by cogon grass and hilo grass on sites logged <2 years before fire, and by cogon grass and Jack-in-the-bush on sites logged 6 years before fire. Grasses and lianas were present but not dominant and canopy losses were less severe on sites that were not logged prior to the fire [172]. Nykvist [103] found that grass biomass decreased with time on these sites, and mean grass biomass was 20 kg/ha at postfire year 5 and 3 kg/ha at postfire year 8.

  • 103. Nykvist, Nils. 1996. Regrowth of secondary vegetation after the `Borneo fire' of 1982-1983. Journal of Tropical Ecology. 12(2): 307-312. [50963]
  • 111. Pickford, Stewart; Suharti, Mieke; Wibowo, Ari. 1992. A note on fuelbeds and fire behavior in alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica). International Journal of Wildland Fire. 2(1): 41-46. [19635]
  • 128. Scott, Geoffrey A. J. 1977. The role of fire in the creation and maintenance of savanna in the Montana of Peru. Journal of Biogeography. 4: 143-167. [18844]
  • 133. Shilling, Donn G.; Bewick, T. A.; Gaffney, J. F.; McDonald, S. K.; Chase, C. A.; Johnson, E. R. R. L. 1997. Ecology, physiology, and management of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica). Publication No. 03-107-140. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 128 p. [52849]
  • 135. Snyder, James R.; Herndon, Alan; Robertson, William B., Jr. 1990. South Florida rockland. In: Myers, Ronald L.; Ewel, John J., eds. Ecosystems of Florida. Orlando, FL: University of Central Florida Press: 230-274. [17391]
  • 136. Soerjani, Mohamad. 1970. Alang-alang, Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. (1812), pattern of growth as related to its problem of control. Biotrop Bulletin. 1: 4-87. [51345]
  • 144. Tanimoto, Takeo. 1981. Vegetation of the alang-alang grassland and its succession in the Benakat District of South Sumatra, Indonesia. Bulletin of the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute. 314: 11-19. [51198]
  • 160. Walsh, S. R. 1954. Blady grass and its control by mowing on the Atherton Tableland. Queensland Agricultural Journal. 79: 325-333. [53288]
  • 161. Wibowo, A.; Suharti, M.; Sagala, A. P. S.; Hibani, H.; van Noordwijk, M. 1997. Fire management on Imperata grasslands as part of agroforestry development in Indonesia. Agroforestry Systems. 36(1-3): 203-217. [51421]
  • 172. Woods, Paul. 1989. Effects of logging, drought, and fire on structure and composition of tropical forests in Sabah, Malaysia. Biotropica. 21(4): 290-298. [50954]
  • 28. Coster, Ir. Ch. 1932. Some observations on the growth of "alang-alang" (Imperata cylindrica Beauv) and its examination. Tectona: Forest Research Institute. No. 26. 23 p. [English translation prepared by: Saad Publications, Translation Division No. 31458, Karachi, Pakistan; 1982]. [51232]
  • 43. Gabel, Mark Lauren. 1982. A biosystematic study of the genus Imperata (Gramineae: Andropogoneae). Ames, IA: Iowa State University. 90 p. Dissertation. [53252]
  • 46. Garrity, D. P.; Soekardi, M.; van Noordwijk, M.; de la Cruz, R.; Pathak, P. S.; Gunasena, H. P. M.; So, N. van; Huijun, G.; Majid, N. M. 1997. The Imperata grasslands of tropical Asia: area, distribution, and typology. Agroforestry Systems. 36(1-3): 3-29. [51426]
  • 49. Goldammer, J. G.; Penafiel, S. R. 1990. Fire in the pine-grassland biomes of tropical and subtropical Asia. In: Goldammer, J. G., ed. Fire in the tropical biota: ecosystem processes and global challenges. Berlin: Springer-Verlag: 53-64. [53281]
  • 50. Grace, James B.; Smith, Melinda D.; Grace, Susan L.; Collins, Scott L.; Stohlgren, Thomas J. 2001. Interactions between fire and invasive plants in temperate grasslands of North America. In: Galley, Krista E. M.; Wilson, Tyrone P., eds. Proceedings of the invasive species workshop: The role of fire in the control and spread of invasive species; Fire conference 2000: the first national congress on fire ecology, prevention, and management; 2000 November 27 - December 1; San Diego, CA. Misc. Publ. No. 11. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 40-65. [40677]
  • 55. Haddad, Claudia R. B.; Valio, I. F. M. 1993. Effect of fire on flowering of Lantana montevidensis Briq. Journal of Plant Physiology. 141: 704-707. [51172]
  • 64. Hubbard, C. E. 1944. Imperata cylindrica: Taxonomy, distribution, economic significance and control. Imperial Agricultural Bureaux Joint Publication No. 7. Oxford, UK: Imperial Forestry Bureau; Aberystwyth, UK: Imperial Bureau of Pastures and Forage Crops. 63 p. [51418]
  • 86. Lippincott, Carol L. 1997. Ecological consequences of Imperata cylindrica (cogongrass) invasion in Florida sandhill. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 165 p. Dissertation. [48904]
  • 9. Barkworth, Mary E.; Capels, Kathleen M.; Long, Sandy; Piep, Michael B., eds. 2003. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Volume 25: Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 2. New York: Oxford University Press. 783 p. Available online: http://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/. [68091]
  • 93. Matsunaga, Kimihiro; Shibuya, Masaoki; Ohizumi, Yasushi. 1995. Imperanene, a novel phenolic compound with platelet aggregation inhibitory activity from Imperata cylindrica. Journal of Natural Products. 58(1): 138-139. [50973]
  • 97. Mishra, B. K.; Ramakrishnan, P. S. 1983. Secondary succession subsequent to slash and burn agriculture at higher elevations of north-east India. I. -- Species diversity, biomass and litter production. Acta Ecologica. 4(2): 95-107. [19453]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Immediate Effect of Fire

More info for the term: litter

Fire likely top-kills Brazilian satintail, while rhizomes likely survive.

Fire top-kills cogon grass and consumes much of its associated litter [64,111,133].

  • 111. Pickford, Stewart; Suharti, Mieke; Wibowo, Ari. 1992. A note on fuelbeds and fire behavior in alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica). International Journal of Wildland Fire. 2(1): 41-46. [19635]
  • 133. Shilling, Donn G.; Bewick, T. A.; Gaffney, J. F.; McDonald, S. K.; Chase, C. A.; Johnson, E. R. R. L. 1997. Ecology, physiology, and management of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica). Publication No. 03-107-140. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 128 p. [52849]
  • 64. Hubbard, C. E. 1944. Imperata cylindrica: Taxonomy, distribution, economic significance and control. Imperial Agricultural Bureaux Joint Publication No. 7. Oxford, UK: Imperial Forestry Bureau; Aberystwyth, UK: Imperial Bureau of Pastures and Forage Crops. 63 p. [51418]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the term: rhizome

POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY [138]:
Brazilian satintail and cogon grass:
Rhizomatous herbs, rhizome in soil
Ground residual colonizers (on site, initial community)
Initial off-site colonizers (off site, initial community)
Secondary colonizers (on- or off-site seed sources)
  • 138. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species comprising secondary plant succession in Northern Rocky Mountain forests. FEIS workshop: Postfire regeneration. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 10 p. [20090]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: eruption, fern, importance value, mesic, succession

Little information is available on the successional role of Brazilian satintail, either in North America or in its native South America. One report suggests that like cogon grass, it is adapted to frequent disturbance. Scott [128] described old-field succession in montane eastern Peru, where Native Campa practice frequent burning to maintain their croplands. There, Brazilian satintail occurs early in postfire succession (about postfire month 4). It becomes dominant on relatively dry sites within 2 to 3 postfire years. Bracken fern tends to dominate on wet sites; the 2 species may codominate on mesic sites. Bracken fern may shade Brazilian satintail out in the absence of further burning; however, Brazilian satintail becomes dominant on sites that are burned annually. Sprouting woody genera including muttonwood and copperleaf become important by postfire year 3. Woody species grow rapidly, reaching 20 feet (6 m) in less than 2 years. Brazilian satintail and other herbaceous species become shaded out in the absence of further disturbance. Sites without woody species may succeed to grasslands dominated by bluestems (Andropogon lanatum, A. leucostachyus) and other bunchgrasses. These bunchgrasslands can survive frequent fire, and Brazilian satintail becomes less important except under annual or other very frequent burning regimes [128].

Cogon grass is an early seral species. In both native and nonnative habitats, it depends on fire or other frequent disturbance to maintain dominance [37,82]. In tropical and subtropical ecosystems of Asia, cogon grass ordinarily declines and disappears with postdisturbance canopy closure [37,81,144]. It does best in full sun. Cogon grass cannot tolerate deep shade [15,100], but can survive in the moderate shade of savannas [63,64]. It establishes in forest gaps of all sizes. In longleaf pine/wiregrass (Aristida spp.) wet savannas of Grand Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Mississippi, cogon grass was experimentally seeded-in on small- (10 cm in diameter; 66% of full sunlight) to large-diameter (100 cm; 89% full sunlight) gaps created by herbicide spraying. Cogon grass germination averaged 40% across treatments. Seedling survivorship did not differ among gap sizes (P>0.05) [75]. For information on cogon grass succession in fire-created gaps, see Discussion and Qualification of Plant Response.

In its native Southeast Asia, cogon grasslands are an early successional stage that develops following a stand-replacement event, usually fire [37,104,114]. Cogon grass is common in tropical old-field succession, with or without fire, but shifting (slash-and-burn) agriculture has greatly increased its occurrence in Asia and Africa. In its native lands, cogon grass has formed extensive swards in areas that were once forested [85,174]. In Asia, cogon grasslands succeed to tropical forest if succession is not interrupted by slash-and-burn agriculture [10,42,104]. Postdisturbance tropical forest development can be blocked by lack of sprouting trees, seed bank depletion, lack of off-site seed dispersal, and/or depletion of soil nutrients [42,100]. Several cycles of sand-replacement disturbance are usually needed for tropical forest-to-grassland conversion [37,100]. In northeastern India, cogon grass colonized burned fields for up to 6 years after burning. Importance value of cogon grass peaked at 74.5 in study plots at postfire year 3, when cogon grass was the most important plant species present. After 6 postfire years, Kashia pine and broadleaved trees began establishing and shading out cogon grass, sticky snakeroot, and other early successional herbs [97]. Without frequent disturbances, cogon grass usually becomes less important as succession advances. On old fields in India, cogon grass was successionally eliminated on plots undisturbed for more than 5 years [82]

Cogon grass also occurs after nonanthropogenic disturbances. It was recorded as a pioneering species on Krakatau, Indonesia, 14 years after the 1883 volcanic eruption. The nearest point of possible seed dispersal was 25 miles (40 km) away (references in  [64]). On coastal Japan, cogon grass dominates stabilizing sand dunes, becoming less common on either unstable or stable dunes [89]. In Puerto Rico, cogon grass was 1 of the most frequent pioneering herbaceous species in bracatinga forests disturbed by hurricanes [54].

  • 10. Barnard, R. C. 1954. The control of lalang (Imperata arundinacea var. major) by fire protection and planting. Malaysian Forester. 17(3): 152-156. [51194]
  • 100. Murniati. 2002. From Imperata cylindrica grasslands to productive agroforestry. Aula, Wageningen: Wageningen University. 172 p. Dissertation. [51417]
  • 104. Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki. 1999. Early stages of secondary succession on abandoned cropland in north-east Borneo Island. Ecological Research. 14: 281-290. [51003]
  • 114. Potter, Lesley M. 2002. Forests and grassland, drought and fire: the island of Borneo in the historical environmental record (post-1800). Advances in GeoEcology. 34: 339-356. [51170]
  • 128. Scott, Geoffrey A. J. 1977. The role of fire in the creation and maintenance of savanna in the Montana of Peru. Journal of Biogeography. 4: 143-167. [18844]
  • 144. Tanimoto, Takeo. 1981. Vegetation of the alang-alang grassland and its succession in the Benakat District of South Sumatra, Indonesia. Bulletin of the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute. 314: 11-19. [51198]
  • 15. Brook, R. M. 1989. Review of literature on Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeuschel with particular reference to South East Asia. Tropical Pest Management. 35(1): 12-25. [53280]
  • 174. Wyatt-Smith, J. 1949. Natural plant succession. Malaysian Forester. 12(3): 148-152. [51200]
  • 37. Eussen, J. H. H. 1980. Biological and ecological aspects of alang-alang. In: In: Proceedings of Biotrop workshop on alang-alang; 1976 July 27-29; Bogor, Indonesia. Biotrop Special Publication No. 5. [Publisher location unknown]: [Publisher unknown]: 15-22. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. [53293]
  • 42. Florece, Leonardo M.; Espaldon, Ma. Victoria; Galang, Celerino. 1997. Fire management, fire tolerance and biodiversity enhancement of grassland ecosystem: the use of Gliricidia sepium stem cuttings as a reforestation species. Imperata Project Paper 1997/11. Canberra, Australia: Australian National University, Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies. 14 p. [51209]
  • 54. Grodzki, Leocadio; Boeger, Maria Regina Torres. 2001. Characterization of the pioneer vegetation on the bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth.) agroforestry system in the Colombo municipality, PR. Floresta. 31(1-2): 93-98. [51078]
  • 63. Holm, LeRoy G.; Plocknett, Donald L.; Pancho, Juan V.; Herberger, James P. 1977. The world's worst weeds: distribution and biology. Honolulu, HI: University Press of Hawaii. 609 p. [20702]
  • 64. Hubbard, C. E. 1944. Imperata cylindrica: Taxonomy, distribution, economic significance and control. Imperial Agricultural Bureaux Joint Publication No. 7. Oxford, UK: Imperial Forestry Bureau; Aberystwyth, UK: Imperial Bureau of Pastures and Forage Crops. 63 p. [51418]
  • 75. King, Sharon E.; Grace, James B. 2000. The effects of soil flooding on the establishment of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica), a nonindigenous invader of the southeastern United States. Wetlands. 20(2): 300-306. [50948]
  • 81. Kushwaha, S. P. S.; Ramakrishnan, P. S.; Tripathi, R. S. 1983. Competitive relationships of the plants of Imperata cylindrica established from rhizomes and from seeds. Tropical Plant Science Research. 1(1): 53-57. [51115]
  • 82. Kushwaha, S. P. S.; Ramakrishnan, P. S.; Tripathi, R. S. 1983. Population dynamics of Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. var. major related to slash and burn agriculture (jhum) in north eastern India. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences. 92(4): 313-321. [19451]
  • 85. Liangzhong, Zeng; Whelan, Robert J. 1993. Natural reforestation of abandoned farmland: the role of soils. Australian Geographer. 24(2): 14-25. [51239]
  • 89. Maruyama, K.; Miura, S. 1981. Studies on the soil-vegetation system in the west Niigata coastal sand dune, with special reference to the comparison of affected and controlled areas by wind blown sand. In: Bulletin of the Niigata University Forests. No. 14. Niigata, Japan: The Niigata University Forests: 43-78. [51427]
  • 97. Mishra, B. K.; Ramakrishnan, P. S. 1983. Secondary succession subsequent to slash and burn agriculture at higher elevations of north-east India. I. -- Species diversity, biomass and litter production. Acta Ecologica. 4(2): 95-107. [19453]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Regeneration Processes

More info for the terms: cover, density, ramet, rhizome

Brazilian satintail regenerates from rhizomes and seed [64]. It is pollinated by wind [133]. To date (2005), English-based literature does not provide many details on Brazilian satintail reproduction; such studies are needed for best Brazilian satintail management. Since they are closely related, the information given below for cogon grass may also apply to Brazilian satintail.

Cogon grass reproduces from seed, rhizome expansion, and rhizome fragments [43,86]. Both seed and rhizome regeneration are important in its spread. Seed reproduction allows for long-distance dispersal and colonization, whereas rhizome spread is the primary means of population expansion [56,64]. Transported rhizome fragments also contribute to its long-distance dispersal and colonization [86].

Breeding system: Cogon grass is outcrossing [43,50,125,133]. Clonal populations show low or no fertility [94]. Imperata cylindrica var. major shows considerable diversity in reproductive morphology and physiology in Asia ([15] and references therein),[124,146]. Studies in central and northern Florida suggested a high degree of genetic variability among cogon grass populations. Populations with low genetic diversity tended to have low seed viability, while populations with high genetic diversity had high seed viability. It is not known whether low seed viability was due to inability to outcross, poor environmental conditions, or other factors. The authors concluded that successful outcrossing was low in most cogon grass populations, but higher rates of genetic diversity and fecundity could be expected as southeastern populations expand and outcross [133].

Pollination: Cogon grass is pollinated by wind [94,133].

Flower production: Cogon grass flower production is highly variable. Some researchers report cogon grass as highly productive [43], but flowering is often sporadic, ranging from none to frequent flowering within and among populations [34,43,106,170]. In a common garden study using Malaysian collections, some cogon grass populations frequently produced flowers; others never produced flowers (but spread vegetatively); while most produced flowers only after mowing disturbance [125]. Disturbances including nitrogen amendment, slashing, burning, defoliation, and grazing may trigger cogon grass flowering [43,63]. However, Shilling and others [133] found consistent flowering in 11 Florida cogon grass populations, none of which were disturbed. Field and greenhouse studies suggest that cogon grass flowering is not photoperiod-dependent [133].

Seed production and seed viability likewise vary widely among populations. A Florida study found that geographically isolated cogon grass populations did not produce seed, but plants within the population produced fertile seeds when cross-pollinated with pollen from another population [94]. Saijise [124] found a mean of 700 seeds/panicle on cogon grass plants in the Philippines. A spikelet count in Florida showed a mean of 363 ± 47.5 spikelets/panicle. Actual production was higher because some spikelets had shattered prior to data collection [133]. A Malaysian study found heavy flower production followed by low seed set [125]. Preliminary investigations in Florida found flowers growing under stressful conditions rarely produced seed, so cogon grass has sometimes been labeled as a poor seed  producer [37,124]. However, later research showed cogon grass can produce seed prolifically, even after disturbance [94,133]. Fire, tillage, mowing, and cold stress may stimulate cogon grass flower and seed production [124].

Seed/rhizome dispersal: Cogon grass seed is spread by wind. The seeds are small and light weight, with long, hairy plumes aiding wind carriage [43,94,133,164]. Cogon grass seeds may drift 15 miles (20 km) in open country [64]. Shilling and others [133] showed that wind can disperse cogon grass spikelets up to 360 feet (110 m) from the parent plant. Cogon grass spread in Alabama from 1973 to 1985 was apparently due to northeasterly prevailing winds from the Gulf of Mexico blowing seeds up Interstate 65 [164,165].

Roads and road construction are important corridors for cogon grass dispersal [17,169]. Rhizomes are transported by machinery and fill dirt during construction [43,107]. Most long-distance dispersal of cogon grass is probably from inadvertent human transport of rhizomes and seeds [86]. Willard and others [169,170] speculated that cogon grass spread in Florida was mostly from transporting soil contaminated with cogon grass propagules.

Seed banking: Cogon grass seed is short lived, generally remaining viable in the soil for about 1 year [50]. Viability of seeds stored in a laboratory steadily decreased over 13 months [34]. Field studies in Asia show a maximum seed life of 16 months [124,125].

Germination: Cogon grass seeds are not dormant and do not require stratification. They germinate 1 to 4 weeks after ripening [8,34,124,125,133]. Shilling and others [133] found that with 11 Florida cogon grass populations, seeds began germinating within 7 days of harvest, with 94% germination by day 14. Seed viability is variable. Seed collected from 9 sites in central Florida showed high variability in germination rate between sites, with viability ranging from 0% to 100% [133]. An Alabama study found 80% to 95% seed viability [34]; another study found 0% germination in Mississippi and 20% in Florida in the same year [64]. Across years in a single population, an Alabama study found 4% germination in 1970 and 70% germination in 1972 [32].

In the laboratory, cogon grass seed collected in Alabama germinated at temperatures from 77 °F to 95 °F (25 °C-35 °C), with best germination at 86 °F (30 °C). Light increased germination time and rate [34]. A Philippine study also found high germination (>80%) in open areas [124]. Light and soil fertility interactions may affect germination. In Florida, seeds germinated with light did not show an increased germination rate when fertilized with potassium nitrate solution; however, seed germinated in the dark had highest germination rate with addition of potassium nitrate [34].

Seedling establishment: Seedlings establish best on open, disturbed areas [8]. In a greenhouse study conducted on seed bank samples collected over 2 years in Polk County, Florida, cogon grass seed emerged over a 3-month period. Seedling density averaged 1.9 ± 0.48 seedlings/m². There was no significant difference (P=0.78) in seedling emergence between collection years, but emergence differed significantly (P=0.001) with month of soil collection. Best emergence occurred in samples collected from April to June, particularly samples collected in May. Another emergence spike occurred in samples collected in December and January. Seedlings did not emerge from soil samples collected in other months [133]. Cogon grass seedlings tend to emerge in clumps, reflecting the tendency of spikelets to disperse in clumps [35]. Seedling mortality is generally high, with about 20% of emergents surviving to produce seed. Risk of mortality probably lessens when seedlings sprout rhizomes [133].

For established populations, asexual regeneration from rhizomes is cogon grass's primary method of expansion [7,43]. Kushwaha and others [82] reported that on old fields in India, cogon grass regenerated from mostly seed on recently burned, clipped, or abandoned plots, but regenerated only from rhizomes on 3- to 5-year-old fallows. On 2 study sites in Mississippi, cogon grass spread into longleaf pine savannas from infested roadsides. Spread was almost entirely from rhizomes. Rhizome spread slowed, but did not stop, as the populations expanded into interior savannas [165]. Eussen [37] reported that cogon grass can produce 350 rhizomes in 6 weeks, and cover 4 m² in 11 weeks.

Regenerative capacity of cogon grass rhizomes is linked to stem age, length, thickness, and number of large buds. Only old ("2nd generation" or rhizomes arising from rhizome buds) rhizomes can sprout and grow roots [43]. Rhizomes sprout readily after mowing, grazing, or burning removes top-growth [8]. A low root:rhizome ratio aids in rapid regrowth after fire or mowing [124]. In a growth chamber study, Ayeni and Duke [8] found old, large rhizome segments showed best stem sprouting and biomass gain compared to small, younger rhizome segments. Soerjani [136] found rhizome sprouting ability was not restricted by bud size, position on the node, internode length, or node diameter. In greenhouse and laboratory experiments, potted rhizomes buried deeper than 3 to 8 inches (8-20 cm) below the soil surface show poor sprouting ability [37,165].

Possibly because of low intrapopulation genetic diversity and inability to outcross, isolated cogon grass populations reproduce mostly or entirely by clonal expansion from rhizomes. Although rhizome growth is rapid, populations that reproduce mostly by cloning probably have lower overall rates of expansion compared to populations that reproduce from both seed and rhizomes. Overall rates of invasion probably increase when seed-reproducing cogon grass populations expand into and cross-pollinate with previously rhizome-expanding populations [86].

Growth: Ramet growth is considerably faster than seedling growth. In the greenhouse, Shilling and others [133] found plant height, leaf number, and biomass were significantly greater (P<0.001) in plants grown from broken rhizome fragments compared to seedlings. Rhizome fragments produced new secondary rhizomes within 4 weeks, while seedlings took 12 weeks to produce primary rhizomes. Cogon grass rhizomes can produce 350 shoots in 6 weeks and cover 4 m² in 11 weeks [37]. In the greenhouse, cogon grass seedlings produced primary rhizomes 4 weeks after emergence [125]. In Marion County, Florida, 3- to 4-month-old, wild seedlings were observed in the 5-leaf stage in October, and seedlings had formed roots and primary rhizomes. Secondary rhizomes were not yet present [133].

Growth may vary among cogon grass populations. In a greenhouse experiment, plants grown from rhizomes collected in Mississippi (2 populations of Philippine origin) were significantly smaller (P<0.05) than plants grown from Alabama rhizomes (2 populations of Japanese origin). In the growth chamber, ideal day/night temperatures and photoperiod across cogon grass populations were 84/73 °F (29/22 °C) and 16 hours, respectively [106].

Biomass of fully developed cogon grass stands is considerable. A New Guinea study found cogon grass's annual dry-matter production averaged 23 Mg/ha [58]. In a Java field study, Soerjani [136] determined that undisturbed cogon grasslands contained approximately 3 to 6 million shoots/ha, 7 to 18 tonnes of leaves/ha, and 3 to 11 tonnes of rhizomes/ha.

  • 106. Patterson, D. T.; Flint, E. P.; Dickens, Ray. 1980. Effects of temperature, photoperiod, and population source on the growth of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica). Weed Science. 28(5): 505-509. [53292]
  • 107. Patterson, D. T.; McWhorter, C. G. 1980. Distribution and control of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) in Mississippi. In: In: Proceedings, 33rd annual meeting of the Southern Weed Science Society; 1980 January 15-17; Hot Springs, AR. [Champaign, IL]: Southern Weed Science Society: [Page unknown]. Abstract. [53283]
  • 124. Sajise, Percy Eres. 1972. Evaluation of cogon (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) as a seral stage in Philippine vegetational succession: I. The cogonal seral stage and plant succession; II. Autecological studies on cogon. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University. 152 p. Dissertation. [53134]
  • 125. Santiago, A. 1966. Studies in the autecology of Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. In: Proceedings of the 9th international grassland conference; [Meeting date unknown]; Sao Paulo, Brazil. Sao Paulo, Brazil: [Agricultural Secretariat]: 499-502. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [53278]
  • 133. Shilling, Donn G.; Bewick, T. A.; Gaffney, J. F.; McDonald, S. K.; Chase, C. A.; Johnson, E. R. R. L. 1997. Ecology, physiology, and management of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica). Publication No. 03-107-140. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 128 p. [52849]
  • 136. Soerjani, Mohamad. 1970. Alang-alang, Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. (1812), pattern of growth as related to its problem of control. Biotrop Bulletin. 1: 4-87. [51345]
  • 146. Terry, P. J.; Adjers, G.; Akobundu, I. O.; Anoka, A. U.; Drilling, M. E.; Tjitrosemito, S.; Utomo, M. 1997. Herbicides and mechanical control of Imperata cylindrica as a first step in grassland rehabilitation. Agroforestry Systems. 36(1-3): 151-179. [51414]
  • 15. Brook, R. M. 1989. Review of literature on Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeuschel with particular reference to South East Asia. Tropical Pest Management. 35(1): 12-25. [53280]
  • 164. Wilcut, J. W.; Truelove, B.; Davis, D. E. 1985. Cogongrass and torpedograss troublesome in coastal area. Highlights of Agricultural Research. 32(3): 9. [51051]
  • 165. Wilcut, John W.; Dute, Roland R.; Truelove, Bryan; Davis, Donald E. 1988. Factors limiting the distribution of cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica, and torpedograss, Panicum repens. Weed Science. 36(5): 577-582. [50911]
  • 169. Willard, Tommy R.; Hall, David W.; Shilling, Donn G.; Lewis, James A.; Currey, Wayne L. 1990. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) distribution on Florida highway rights-of-way. Weed Technology. 4(3): 658-660. [50926]
  • 17. Bryson, Charles T.; Carter, Richard. 1993. Cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica, in the United States. Weed Technology. 7(4): 1005-1009. [50925]
  • 170. Willard, Tommy Ray. 1988. Biology, ecology and management of cogongrass [Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.]. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 113 p. Dissertation. [53117]
  • 32. Dickens, Ray. 1974. Cogongrass in Alabama after sixty years. Weed Science. 22(2): 177-179. [53291]
  • 34. Dickens, Ray; Moore, G. M. 1974. Effects of light, temperature, KNO3, and storage on germination of cogongrass. Agronomy Journal. 66(2): 187-188. [53284]
  • 35. Dozier, Hallie; Gaffney, James F.; McDonald, Sandra K.; Johnson, Eric R. R. L.; Shilling, Donn G. 1998. Cogongrass in the United States: history, ecology, impacts, and management. Weed Technology. 12(4): 737-743. [50927]
  • 37. Eussen, J. H. H. 1980. Biological and ecological aspects of alang-alang. In: In: Proceedings of Biotrop workshop on alang-alang; 1976 July 27-29; Bogor, Indonesia. Biotrop Special Publication No. 5. [Publisher location unknown]: [Publisher unknown]: 15-22. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. [53293]
  • 43. Gabel, Mark Lauren. 1982. A biosystematic study of the genus Imperata (Gramineae: Andropogoneae). Ames, IA: Iowa State University. 90 p. Dissertation. [53252]
  • 50. Grace, James B.; Smith, Melinda D.; Grace, Susan L.; Collins, Scott L.; Stohlgren, Thomas J. 2001. Interactions between fire and invasive plants in temperate grasslands of North America. In: Galley, Krista E. M.; Wilson, Tyrone P., eds. Proceedings of the invasive species workshop: The role of fire in the control and spread of invasive species; Fire conference 2000: the first national congress on fire ecology, prevention, and management; 2000 November 27 - December 1; San Diego, CA. Misc. Publ. No. 11. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 40-65. [40677]
  • 56. Hakansson, Sigurd. 1982. Multiplication, growth and persistence of perennial weeds. In: Holzner, W.; Numata, M., eds. Biology and ecology of weeds. The Hague: Dr. W. Junk: 123-135. [47816]
  • 58. Hartemink, Alfred E. 2001. Biomass and nutrient accumulation of Piper aduncum and Imperata cylindrica fallows in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea. Forest Ecology and Management. 144: 19-32. [50977]
  • 63. Holm, LeRoy G.; Plocknett, Donald L.; Pancho, Juan V.; Herberger, James P. 1977. The world's worst weeds: distribution and biology. Honolulu, HI: University Press of Hawaii. 609 p. [20702]
  • 64. Hubbard, C. E. 1944. Imperata cylindrica: Taxonomy, distribution, economic significance and control. Imperial Agricultural Bureaux Joint Publication No. 7. Oxford, UK: Imperial Forestry Bureau; Aberystwyth, UK: Imperial Bureau of Pastures and Forage Crops. 63 p. [51418]
  • 7. Ayeni, A. O. 1985. Observations on the vegetative growth pattern of speargrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.). Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 13(3/4): 301-307. [50935]
  • 8. Ayeni, A. O.; Duke, W. B. 1985. The influence of rhizome features on subsequent regenerative capacity in speargrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.). Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 13(3/4): 309-317. [50933]
  • 82. Kushwaha, S. P. S.; Ramakrishnan, P. S.; Tripathi, R. S. 1983. Population dynamics of Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. var. major related to slash and burn agriculture (jhum) in north eastern India. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences. 92(4): 313-321. [19451]
  • 86. Lippincott, Carol L. 1997. Ecological consequences of Imperata cylindrica (cogongrass) invasion in Florida sandhill. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 165 p. Dissertation. [48904]
  • 94. McDonald, S. K.; Shilling, D. G.; Okoli, C. A. N.; Bewick, T. A.; Gordon, D.; Hall, D.; Smith, R. 1996. Population dynamics of cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica. In: In: Weed science meets the press; 1996 January 15-17; Charlotte, NC. In: Proceedings, Southern Weed Science Society. Champagne, IL: Southern Weed Science Society: 49: 156. Abstract. [53366]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: geophyte

RAUNKIAER [119] LIFE FORM:
Both species are geophytes.
  • 119. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Form

More info for the term: graminoid

Graminoid

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Broad-scale Impacts of Fire

After a July fire in cogon grassland in Java, dense clumps of cogon grass were dried but not consumed. The investigators suggested that before the fire these clumps may have been patches of green cogon grass that were compacted by animals or weather [111].
  • 111. Pickford, Stewart; Suharti, Mieke; Wibowo, Ari. 1992. A note on fuelbeds and fire behavior in alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica). International Journal of Wildland Fire. 2(1): 41-46. [19635]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: March-July
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Phenology

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: phenology

Little information is available on Brazilian satintail phenology. In Florida, Brazilian satintail flowers from late winter to spring (March-May) [25,173].

Worldwide, cogon grass shows variable phenological development depending upon climate and population genetics. Cogon grass flowers from May to June in its native Japan [105]. Generally, populations growing in mediterranean climates tend to flower in spring and summer, while populations in tropical and subtropical areas (including Florida) tend to flower year-round [17]. On foothill slopes of the western Himalayas in India, cogon grass germinated in March to April; grew vegetatively from May to June; flowered from July to mid-August; fruited from late August to early September; produced ripe fruit through September; and was dormant from October through December [1].

In Florida, cogon grass flowering peaks in late winter to spring (March-May) [25,173]. In a Polk County study, cogon grass flowered in November and December and again in March and April in both years of a 2-year study. Flowering time was consistent within a population, but varied across populations [133].

Cogon grass rhizomes develop in spring at about 4 weeks of age, or the 3rd or 4th leaf stage of seedlings. Seedling rhizomes are initially vertical, growing horizontally by the 5th leaf stage [17,43].
  • 1. Agrawal, Arun K. 1990. Floristic composition and phenology of temperate grasslands of western Himalaya as affected by scraping, fire and heavy grazing. Vegetatio. 88: 177-187. [19452]
  • 105. Ohwi, Jisaburo. 1965. Flora of Japan. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. 1067 p. [50787]
  • 133. Shilling, Donn G.; Bewick, T. A.; Gaffney, J. F.; McDonald, S. K.; Chase, C. A.; Johnson, E. R. R. L. 1997. Ecology, physiology, and management of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica). Publication No. 03-107-140. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 128 p. [52849]
  • 17. Bryson, Charles T.; Carter, Richard. 1993. Cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica, in the United States. Weed Technology. 7(4): 1005-1009. [50925]
  • 173. Wunderlin, Richard P. 1998. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. 806 p. [28655]
  • 25. Clewell, Andre F. 1985. Guide to the vascular plants of the Florida Panhandle. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University Press. 605 p. [13124]
  • 43. Gabel, Mark Lauren. 1982. A biosystematic study of the genus Imperata (Gramineae: Andropogoneae). Ames, IA: Iowa State University. 90 p. Dissertation. [53252]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Flower/Fruit

Fl. & Fr. Per.: April-June.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

Biology and Spread

Cogon grass reproduces both vegetatively and from seed. A single plant can produce several thousand very small seeds that may be carried great distances by the wind. Vegetative spread of cogon grass is aided by its tough and massive rhizomes that may remain dormant for extended periods of time before sprouting. Rhizomes of cogon grass may be transported to new sites in contaminated fill dirt or by equipment used in infested areas.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

U.S. National Park Service Weeds Gone Wild website

Source: U.S. National Park Service

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Cogongrass reproduces both asexually through the production of clonal individuals sent up from new rhizomes and also through sexual flowering and seed production. Flowering occurs primarily in the spring and also in response to stress events such as burning or mowing. Flowering is highly variable among plants and between stands and ranges from none to frequent (Sajise 1972).Cogongrass is monoecious (male and female reproductive organs on the same individual) and the flowers are complete (having a pair of female stamens and a pair of male stigma present in each flower), but the species is an obligate out-crosser.The small seeds are attached to plumes of long hairlike projections to facilitate wind dispersal and as many as 3,000 seeds are produced per plant (FIPR 1997, FloriData).
  • Bennett, D. 2006. Cogongrass, deep-rooted sedge in Mississippi Delta. Delta Farm Press Oct 19, 2006 news story. Available online.
  • Casini P., and V. Vecchio. 1998. Allelopathic interference of itchgrass and cogongrass: germination and early development of rice. Trop. Agric. Vol. 75 No. 4, 445-451.
  • Cavers P.B. 1983. Seed demography. Canadian Journal of Botany 61:3578-3590.
  • Dickens R., and G.M. Moore. 1974. Effects of light, temperature, KNOv3, and storage on germination of cogongrass. Agronomy Journal 66: 187-188.
  • FIPR. 1997. Ecology, Physiology, and management of Cogongrass (Imperata cylindriuca). Publication No. 03-107-140, prepared by University of Florida under a grant sponsored by Florida Institute of Phosphate Research (FIPR). 144 p.
  • Galveston Bay Estuary Program (GBEP). 2007. The Quiet Invasion: A Guide to Invasive Plants of the Galveston Bay Area. Available online.
  • Koger C.H., Bryson C.T., and J.D. Byrd, Jr. 2004. Response of Selected Grass and Broadleaf Species to Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) Residues. Weed Technology 18: 353-357.
  • Koger C.H., and C.T. Bryson. 2004. Effect of Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) Extracts on Germination and Seedling Growth of Selected Grass and Broadleaf Species. Weed Technology 18: 236-242.
  • Langeland K.A., and K.C. Burks (Eds.). 1998. Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas. UF/IFAS. 165 p.
  • MacDonald G.E. 2004. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica)-Biology, Ecology, and Management. Critical Reviews in Plant Science 23:367-380.
  • MacDonald G.E., Brecke B.J., Gaffney J.F., Langeland K.A., Ferrell J.A., and B.A. Sellers. 2006. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) biology, ecology and management in Florida. IFAS/UF document SS-AGR-52. Available online.
  • Sajise P.E. 1976. Evaluation of cogon (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) as a seral stage in Philippine vegetational succession. 1, The cogonal seral stage and plant succession. 2, Autecological studies on cogon. Dissertation Abstracts International B (1973) 3040-3041. From Weed Abstracts 1976, No. 1339.
  • Wilcut J.W., Truelove B., Davis D.E., and J.C. Williams. 1988. Temperature factors limiting the spread of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) and torpedograss (Panicum repens). Weed Science. 36:49-55.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Growth

Although large numbers of seeds may be produced by individual plants, only a small percentage of these successfully establish as seedlings, and obligate outcrossing leads to low overall spikelet fertilization success (Cavers 1983). Experimental evidence suggests that germination rates of fertilized caryopsis (the dry fruit, commonly called the grain) are high (> 90%), however.The species is slow to establish from seed and seedlings have been observed to emerge from soil taken from cogongrass infested areas for up to three months following flowering. Natural recruitment of seedlings was observed in disturbed areas where survivorship beyond eight months was less than 20% but remained steady thereafter (FIPR 1997).
  • Bennett, D. 2006. Cogongrass, deep-rooted sedge in Mississippi Delta. Delta Farm Press Oct 19, 2006 news story. Available online.
  • Casini P., and V. Vecchio. 1998. Allelopathic interference of itchgrass and cogongrass: germination and early development of rice. Trop. Agric. Vol. 75 No. 4, 445-451.
  • Cavers P.B. 1983. Seed demography. Canadian Journal of Botany 61:3578-3590.
  • Dickens R., and G.M. Moore. 1974. Effects of light, temperature, KNOv3, and storage on germination of cogongrass. Agronomy Journal 66: 187-188.
  • FIPR. 1997. Ecology, Physiology, and management of Cogongrass (Imperata cylindriuca). Publication No. 03-107-140, prepared by University of Florida under a grant sponsored by Florida Institute of Phosphate Research (FIPR). 144 p.
  • Galveston Bay Estuary Program (GBEP). 2007. The Quiet Invasion: A Guide to Invasive Plants of the Galveston Bay Area. Available online.
  • Koger C.H., Bryson C.T., and J.D. Byrd, Jr. 2004. Response of Selected Grass and Broadleaf Species to Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) Residues. Weed Technology 18: 353-357.
  • Koger C.H., and C.T. Bryson. 2004. Effect of Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) Extracts on Germination and Seedling Growth of Selected Grass and Broadleaf Species. Weed Technology 18: 236-242.
  • Langeland K.A., and K.C. Burks (Eds.). 1998. Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas. UF/IFAS. 165 p.
  • MacDonald G.E. 2004. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica)-Biology, Ecology, and Management. Critical Reviews in Plant Science 23:367-380.
  • MacDonald G.E., Brecke B.J., Gaffney J.F., Langeland K.A., Ferrell J.A., and B.A. Sellers. 2006. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) biology, ecology and management in Florida. IFAS/UF document SS-AGR-52. Available online.
  • Sajise P.E. 1976. Evaluation of cogon (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) as a seral stage in Philippine vegetational succession. 1, The cogonal seral stage and plant succession. 2, Autecological studies on cogon. Dissertation Abstracts International B (1973) 3040-3041. From Weed Abstracts 1976, No. 1339.
  • Wilcut J.W., Truelove B., Davis D.E., and J.C. Williams. 1988. Temperature factors limiting the spread of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) and torpedograss (Panicum repens). Weed Science. 36:49-55.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Imperata cylindrica

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Imperata cylindrica

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Brazilian satintail and cogon grass were on these state and Forest Service weed lists as of 2005:

Area

Rank

Brazilian satintail Cogon grass
Alabama Class A noxious weed Class A noxious weed
California Quarantined Quarantined
Florida Noxious weed Noxious weed
Georgia not listed Noxious weed
Hawaii not listed Noxious weed
Massachusetts Noxious weed not listed
Minnesota Prohibited noxious weed Prohibited noxious weed
North Carolina Class A noxious weed Class A noxious weed
Oregon Quarantined Quarantined
South Carolina Plant pest Plant pest
Vermont Class A noxious weed Class A noxious weed  [151]
Virginia not listed Highly invasive [157]
U.S. Forest Service, Southern Region Category 1 Category 1  [150]
  • 150. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region. 2001. Regional invasive exotic plant species list, [Online]. In: Regional Forester's list and ranking structure: invasive exotic plant species of management concern. In: Invasive plants of southern states list. Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council (Producer). Available: http://www.se-eppc.org/fslist.cfm [2003, August 25]. [44944]
  • 151. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2008. PLANTS Database, [Online]. Available: http://plants.usda.gov/. [34262]
  • 157. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. 2003. Invasive alien plant species of Virginia, [Online]. Virginia Native Plant Society (Producer). Available: http://www.dcr.state.va.us/dnh/invlist.pdf [2005, June 17]. [44942]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

U.S. Federal Legal Status

Noxious weeds [149]
  • 149. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. 2004. APHIS: Federal noxious weed list, [Online]. In: Pest detection and management programs: Noxious weeds. Plant Protection and Quarantine (Producer). Available: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/ppq/weeds [2005, September 14]. [50789]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Medicinal
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Other uses and values

Cogon grass is used as a forage plant, for short-term soil stabilization, and as roofing thatch in Asia and Africa [22,35,133]. It is occasionally used to make paper (references in reviews by [35,64,98]. The rhizomes were once used to make beer in Malaysia and Uganda [64].

In traditional Asian folk medicine, cogon grass is used as a tonic, an emollient, an anti-inflammitory, and a fever-reducing agent (references in reviews by [48,90,91,92]). Chemical and pharmacological studies are underway to assess potential uses of cogon grass in modern medicine [90,91,92,112]. A cogon grass extract shows anti-insecticide properties against mosquitoes [99].

'Red Baron,' a cultivar of cogon grass with red leaves, is commercially available and planted as an ornamental despite cogon grass's federal and state listings as a noxious weed [27,171] an laws against its use [149]. 'Red Baron' is usually described as infertile and nonspreading, but data are lacking to support the claim [26]. Greenhouse studies suggest 'Red Baron' is at least capable of vegetative spread. After 3 months in the greenhouse, 'Red Baron' rhizomes produced a similar number of secondary rhizomes compared to Brazilian satintail rhizomes (x=5.7 and 5.1 rhizomes for 'Red Baron' and Brazilian satintail, respectively), and significantly more secondary rhizomes than Imperata cylindrica var. major, the "wild type" cogon grass (x=3.9 I. c. var. m. secondary rhizomes, p=0.05). Growth rates of the 2 cogon grass types and Brazilian satintail were similar [133]. 'Red Baron' may be more shade tolerant than the wild type [27], and individual 'Red Baron' rhizomes may grow "aggressively" [9]. Use of 'Red Baron' is not recommended in the United States for ecological reasons [147].

  • 112. Pinilla, Veronique; Luu, Bang. 1999. Isolation and partial characterization of immunostimulating polysaccharides from Imperata cylindrica. Planta Medica. 65: 549-552. [51161]
  • 133. Shilling, Donn G.; Bewick, T. A.; Gaffney, J. F.; McDonald, S. K.; Chase, C. A.; Johnson, E. R. R. L. 1997. Ecology, physiology, and management of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica). Publication No. 03-107-140. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 128 p. [52849]
  • 147. Tu, Mandy. 2002. Weed notes: Imperata cylindrica `Red Baron' (Japanese blood grass), [Online]. In: The invasive species initiative--invasives news. The Nature Conservancy (Producer). Available: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/moredocs/impcyl01.pdf [2005, April 22]. [53373]
  • 149. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. 2004. APHIS: Federal noxious weed list, [Online]. In: Pest detection and management programs: Noxious weeds. Plant Protection and Quarantine (Producer). Available: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/ppq/weeds [2005, September 14]. [50789]
  • 171. Wolfe, June, III; Zajicek, J. M. 1998. Are ornamental grasses acceptable alternatives for low maintenance landscapes? Journal of Environmental Horticulture. 16(1): 8-11. [51012]
  • 22. Chikoye, D.; Manyong, V. M.; Ekeleme, F. 2000. Characteristics of speargrass (Imperata cylindrica) dominated fields in West Africa: crops, soil properties, farmer perceptions and management strategies. Crop Protection. 19: 481-487. [51004]
  • 26. Coile, Nancy C.; Shilling, Donn G. 1993. Cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.: a good grass gone bad! Botany Circular No. 28. Gainesville, FL: Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry. 3 p. [51840]
  • 27. Cole, James T.; Cole, Janet C. 2000. Ornamental grass growth response to three shade intensities. Journal of Environmental Horticulture. 18(1): 18-22. [50931]
  • 35. Dozier, Hallie; Gaffney, James F.; McDonald, Sandra K.; Johnson, Eric R. R. L.; Shilling, Donn G. 1998. Cogongrass in the United States: history, ecology, impacts, and management. Weed Technology. 12(4): 737-743. [50927]
  • 48. Ghosal, Shibnath; Kumar, Yatendra; Chakrabarti, Dilip K.; Lal, Jawahar; Singh, Sushil K. 1986. Parasitism of Imperata cylindrica on Pancratium biflorum and the concomitant chemical changes in the host species. Phytochemistry. 25(5): 1097-1102. [51162]
  • 64. Hubbard, C. E. 1944. Imperata cylindrica: Taxonomy, distribution, economic significance and control. Imperial Agricultural Bureaux Joint Publication No. 7. Oxford, UK: Imperial Forestry Bureau; Aberystwyth, UK: Imperial Bureau of Pastures and Forage Crops. 63 p. [51418]
  • 9. Barkworth, Mary E.; Capels, Kathleen M.; Long, Sandy; Piep, Michael B., eds. 2003. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Volume 25: Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 2. New York: Oxford University Press. 783 p. Available online: http://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/. [68091]
  • 90. Matlack, Glenn R. 2002. Exotic plant species in Mississippi, USA: critical issues in management and research. Natural Areas Journal. 22(3): 241-247. [43236]
  • 91. Matsunaga, Kimihiro; Ikeda, Masato; Shibuya, Masaoki; Ohizumi, Yasushi. 1994. Cylindol A, a novel biphenyl ether with 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity, and a related compound from Imperata cylindrica. Journal of Natural Products. 57(9): 1290-1293. [50972]
  • 92. Matsunaga, Kimihiro; Shibuya, Masaoki; Ohizumi, Yasushi. 1994. Cylindrene, a novel sesquiterpenoid from Imperata cylindrica with inhibitory activity on contractions of vascular smooth muscle. Journal of Natural Products. 57(8): 1183-1184. [50975]
  • 98. Mitchell, B. A. 1964. Periodical cropping of Imperata cylindrica for paper pulp. Malaysian Forester. 27(1): 22-45. [51201]
  • 99. Mohsen, Zohair H.; Jawad, Abdul-Latif M.; Al-Saadi, May; Al-Naib, Ala. 1995. Anti-oviposition and insecticidal activity of Imperata cylindrica (Gramineae). Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 9(4): 441-442. [51406]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

More info for the terms: cover, fire cycle, forbs, fuel, natural, presence, rhizome, swamp

As of 2005, management information on Brazilian satintail was lacking. In terms of stand structure and fuel characteristics, Brazilian satintail and cogon grass may be functional equivalents in southeastern ecosystems [86]. Although their impacts may be similar, that does not imply that their responses to control measures are identical. The following information discusses cogon grass. Information on Brazilian satintail palatability, nutritional value, cover value, control methods, and other pertinent management issues is needed.

Cogon grass is generally detrimental in wildlands and pastures in North America. It reduces habitat quality for wildlife that have evolved in pine/bunchgrass ecosystems [43,86]. It is little used as forage in the United States even though it was originally planted for that purpose. Pendleton [110] warned against cogon grass introduction in 1948:

Cogon grass "is anything but nutritious. Certainly its hazard as a potential weed for upland crops in the tropical and subtropical portions of the western hemisphere is a very much more serious threat to agriculture than the small amount of benefit it can possibly be as a forage. The writer feels very strongly that steps should be taken at once to completely eradicate this noxious weed from the western hemisphere" [110] (italics are Pendleton's).

Although cogon grass is weedy in wildlands where it is nonnative and in agricultural systems worldwide, it has a valuable ecological role as fuel and forage in grasslands where it is native. In Royal Bardia National Park, Nepal, for example, cured cogon grass helps fuel the natural fire cycle that maintains tropical forest-grassland mosaics. Live cogon grass provides cover for ground-nesting birds and forage for grazing animals. Cogon grass is an important component of the food web for threatened [152] animals in the Park including hispid hares, swamp deer, and tigers [108]. In Borneo, the Banjarese historically burned open fields with cogon grass to create deer habitat and forage [114]. Asian and African ranchers use cogon grass as cattle forage [30,35]. Cogon grass is expected to become less important forage in developing countries as it is replaced by plantings of more nutritious grass species [64].

Palatability: Cogon grass is relatively unpalatable and unnutritious for livestock and North American wildlife [40,41,43,58,86]. It is lower in nitrogen and higher in fiber and silica compared to native wiregrasses (Aristida spp.) of the Southeast [24,26,86]. The leaf blades are sharp and rough at the edges, discouraging animals from grazing [26]. New spring growth and postfire sprouts are palatable to livestock for 3 to 4 weeks; however, plants become coarse and fibrous after that [160]. In a rangeland study in subtropical Australia, cogon grass cover increased in response to cattle grazing at the expense of common carpet grass (Axonopus fissifolius), which is more palatable and nutritious [60]. Stober [139] described cogon grass as unpalatable to domestic sheep in Malaysia; however, domestic sheep can learn to graze cogon grass [156].

As it becomes more common in the Southeast, cogon grass will affect grazing wildlife. Gopher tortoises, a federally threatened species [152], prefer native grasses and forbs to cogon grass [86]. Three North American skipper butterflies graze cogon grass in the caterpillar stage [17].

Nutritional value: Nutritional studies of cogon grass in the Southeast are few. Lippencott [86] found that compared to native Florida sandhill herbs, cogon grass was higher in nitrogen and phosphorus and lower in fiber for the first 3 months after fire. By 6 postfire months, cogon grass provided less nitrogen and phosphorus, and by postfire month 14, it was higher in fiber compared to native herbs. Studies conducted on cogon grass in Asia are reported below.

Most sources claim that cogon grass forage quality declines quickly, is low in minerals (particularly phosphorus), and that cattle require nutritional supplements when grazing cogon grass ([19] and references therein, but see [40] for a contrasting viewpoint). In India, domestic goats on a native grassland mixture that included cogon grass showed poor weight gain [175]. Asian ranchers have successfully raised cattle on cogon grass-legume pastures [19]. Nutritional content of cogon grass from Asian sources (country not reported) was [73]:

  Dry matter (%) Crude protein (%) Digestible protein (%) Metabolizable energy (Mcal/kg)
1-14 days growth 27 10.4 6.7 2.36
85-98 days growth 35 8.5 5.1 2.18
Mature 61 4.9 2.0 1.99

Analysis of cogon grass in Malaysia showed (as cited in [64]):

  Dry matter Crude protein Crude fat Crude fiber N-free extract Ash
Composition (%) 25.3 3.7 0.5 8.7 10.8 1.6
Digestible nutrients (%) ---- 2.5 0.2 5.6 7.6 ----

A Thailand study suggests fire and repeated grazing reduce forage quality of cogon grass. A cogon grass sward was burned on 23 March 1978, then harvested every 3 weeks from April through October 1978. Mean dry-matter nitrogen content was 2.93% in April, declining to 0.56% in October. Phosphorus content declined from 0.90% to 0.37%, and in-vitro digestibility declined from 71% to 39% in the same time period. Nutrient values on an undisturbed 5-year-old cogon grass sward were generally lower: 0.66% nitrogen, 0.12% phosphorus, and 31.4% in-vitro digestibility [40].

Cover value: Cogon grass stands are poor habitat for most southeastern wildlife species [43]. Cogon grass is about 3 times the height of native Florida grasses. Its height probably impedes movement of small animals. Ground-dwelling species can be displaced by cogon grass's dense cover [70]. In central Florida, habitat quality of 2 keystone fossorial animals, gopher tortoises and scarab beetles, was reduced on cogon grass-invaded sites compared to uninvaded sites. Beetle populations were reduced approximately 76% on invaded sites. Threatened [152] gopher tortoise populations were too low to allow quantitative assessment; however, thick rhizome growth that deters burrowing, reduces the number of open areas for egg laying, and reduces herbaceous forage species, lowers gopher tortoise habitat quality. Southeastern pocket gophers, another keystone fossorial animal, were not affected by cogon grass presence [86].

  • 108. Peet, Nicholas B.; Watkinson, Andrew R.; Bell, Diana J.; Sharma, Uday R. 1999. The conservation management of Imperata cylindrica grassland in Nepal with fire and cutting: an experimental approach. Journal of Applied Ecology. 36: 374-387. [50979]
  • 110. Pendleton, Robert L. 1948. Cogon grass, Imperata cylindrica, in the western hemisphere. Journal of the American Society of Agronomy. 40(11): 1047-1049. [50919]
  • 114. Potter, Lesley M. 2002. Forests and grassland, drought and fire: the island of Borneo in the historical environmental record (post-1800). Advances in GeoEcology. 34: 339-356. [51170]
  • 139. Stober, S. 1993. Weed control by integration of sheep in permanent tree crops in West Malaysia. In: Thomas, J. M., ed. International federation of organic agriculture movements: International conference proceedings; 1993 July 5-9; Dijon, France. Quetigny Cedex, France: Association Colloque IFOAM: 213-218. [51349]
  • 152. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 2004. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; review of species that are candidates or proposed for listing as endangered or threatened; annual notice of findings on resubmitted petitions; annual description of progress on listed accounts: 50 CFR Part 117, [Online]. In: Federal Register 69(86): 24876-24904. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service (Producer). Available: http://endangered.fws.gov/candidates/2003_CNOR.pdf [2005, May 12]. [52918]
  • 156. Velayuthan, A.; Lim, Cheo Yu. 1986. Sheep farming--another tool for weed control under oil palm/rubber plantations by using a cheaper management technique. Planter. 62: 319-332. [51159]
  • 160. Walsh, S. R. 1954. Blady grass and its control by mowing on the Atherton Tableland. Queensland Agricultural Journal. 79: 325-333. [53288]
  • 17. Bryson, Charles T.; Carter, Richard. 1993. Cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica, in the United States. Weed Technology. 7(4): 1005-1009. [50925]
  • 175. Yadav, B. P. S.; Gupta, H. K.; Gupta, J. J. 1998. Growth pattern in goats on native pasture of northeastern India. Range Management and Agroforestry. 19(2): 133-138. [51160]
  • 19. Calub, A. D.; Anwarhan, H.; Roder, W. 1997. Livestock production systems for Imperata grasslands. Agroforestry Systems. 36(1-3): 121-128. [51408]
  • 24. Christensen, Norman L. 1981. FIRE REGIMES in southeastern ecosystems. In: Mooney, H. A.; Bonnicksen, T. M.; Christensen, N. L.; Lotan, J. E.; Reiners, W. A., technical coordinators. FIRE REGIMES and ecosystem properties: Proceedings of the conference; 1978 December 11-15; Honolulu, HI. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 112-136. [4391]
  • 26. Coile, Nancy C.; Shilling, Donn G. 1993. Cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.: a good grass gone bad! Botany Circular No. 28. Gainesville, FL: Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry. 3 p. [51840]
  • 30. Dano, Antonio M. 1990. Effect of burning and reforestation on grassland watersheds in the Philippines. In: Ziemar, R. R.; O'Loughlin, C. L.; Hamilton, L. S., eds. Research needs and applications to reduce erosion and sedimentation in tropical steepland: Proceedings of the Fiji symposium; 1990 June; [Meeting location unknown]. IAHS-AISH Publ. No. 192. [Publisher location unknown]: International Association of Hydrological Sciences: 53-61. [51344]
  • 35. Dozier, Hallie; Gaffney, James F.; McDonald, Sandra K.; Johnson, Eric R. R. L.; Shilling, Donn G. 1998. Cogongrass in the United States: history, ecology, impacts, and management. Weed Technology. 12(4): 737-743. [50927]
  • 40. Falvey, J. Lindsay; Hengmichai, Prakob; Pongpiachan, Puntipa. 1981. The productivity and nutritive value of Imperata cylindrica (L) Beauv. in the Thai highlands. Journal of Range Management. 34(4): 280-282. [53290]
  • 41. Flavey, J. L.; Gibson, T. A.; Andrews, A. C. 1984. Animal production from improved pastures in the Thai highlands. World Animal Review. 49: 13-18. [51651]
  • 43. Gabel, Mark Lauren. 1982. A biosystematic study of the genus Imperata (Gramineae: Andropogoneae). Ames, IA: Iowa State University. 90 p. Dissertation. [53252]
  • 58. Hartemink, Alfred E. 2001. Biomass and nutrient accumulation of Piper aduncum and Imperata cylindrica fallows in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea. Forest Ecology and Management. 144: 19-32. [50977]
  • 60. Hennessy, D. W.; McLennan, D. J.; Williamson, P. J.; Morris, S. G. 1998. Changes in characteristics of pastures in the coastal subtropics when grazed by cattle during years of low rainfall. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 38(8): 813-820. [50950]
  • 64. Hubbard, C. E. 1944. Imperata cylindrica: Taxonomy, distribution, economic significance and control. Imperial Agricultural Bureaux Joint Publication No. 7. Oxford, UK: Imperial Forestry Bureau; Aberystwyth, UK: Imperial Bureau of Pastures and Forage Crops. 63 p. [51418]
  • 70. Johnson, Eric R. R. L.; Shilling, Donn G. 2004. Fact sheet: Cogon grass--Imperata cylindrica (L.) Palisot, [Online]. In: Weeds gone wild: Alien plant invaders of natural areas. Plant Conservation Alliance, Alien Plant Working Group (Producer). Available: http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/imcyl.htm [2005, March 28]. [53368]
  • 73. Kearl, Leonard C. 1982. Nutrient requirements of ruminants in developing countries. Logan, UT: Utah State University, Agricultural Experiment Station, International Feedstuffs Institute. 381 p. [53465]
  • 86. Lippincott, Carol L. 1997. Ecological consequences of Imperata cylindrica (cogongrass) invasion in Florida sandhill. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 165 p. Dissertation. [48904]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Risks

Ecological Threat in the United States

Cogon grass can invade and overtake disturbed ecosystems, forming a dense mat of thatch and leaves that makes it nearly impossible for other plants to coexist. Large infestations of cogon grass can alter the normal fire regime of a fire-driven ecosystem by causing more frequent and intense fires that injure or destroy native plants. Cogon grass displaces a large variety of native plant species used by native animals (e.g., insects, mammals, and birds) as forage, host plants and shelter. Some ground-nesting species have also been known to be displaced due to the dense cover that cogon grass creates.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

U.S. National Park Service Weeds Gone Wild website

Source: U.S. National Park Service

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Imperata cylindrica

Imperata cylindrica, commonly known as blady grass, cogon grass /kˈɡn/, kunai grass /ˈkn/, or Japanese bloodgrass, is a species of grass in the genus Imperata. It is placed in the subfamily Panicoideae, supertribe Andropogonodae, tribe Andropogoneae.

It is a perennial rhizomatous grass native to east and southeast Asia, India, Micronesia, Melanesia, Australia, and eastern and southern Africa. It grows from 0.6–3 m (2–10 feet) tall. The leaves are about 2 cm wide near the base of the plant and narrow to a sharp point at the top; the margins are finely toothed and are embedded with sharp silica crystals. The main vein is a lighter colour than the rest of the leaf and tends to be nearer to one side of the leaf. The upper surface is hairy near the base of the plant while the underside is usually hairless. Roots are up to 1.2 meters deep, but 0.4 m is typical in sandy soil.

Cultivation and uses[edit]

It is used for thatching the roofs of traditional homes throughout south-east Asia.

Seeds

It is planted extensively for ground cover and soil stabilization near beach areas and other areas subject to erosion. Other uses include paper-making, thatching and weaving into mats and bags. It is used in traditional Chinese medicine.[1]

A number of cultivars have been selected for garden use as ornamental plants, including the red-leaved 'Red Baron', also known as Japanese blood grass.

Young inflorescences and shoots may be eaten cooked, and the roots contain starch and sugars and are therefore easy to chew.[2][3]

Weed problems[edit]

The plant has become naturalized in the Americas, Northern Asia, Europe and Africa in addition to many islands and is listed as an invasive weed in some areas. In the U.S. it survives best in the Southeast (and, according to a 2003 survey, has overtaken more acreage in that region than the notorious kudzu),[4] but has been reported to exist as far north as West Virginia and Oregon. Worldwide it has been observed from 45°N to 45°S. It grows on wet lands, dry lands, areas of high salinity, organic soils, clay soils and sandy soils of pH from 4.0 to 7.5. It prefers full sun but will tolerate some shade. In Florida I. cylindrica is found in areas where the soil has been disturbed, such as roadsides, building sites, timber harvesting areas, and burrow pits. It is able to invade both moist and dry upland pine forests. Once established it often forms dense monocultures.[5]

It spreads both through small seeds, which are easily carried by the wind, and rhizomes which can be transported by tilling equipment and in soil transport.

In the Southeastern United States, state governments have various eradication efforts in place, and deliberate propagation is prohibited by some authorities.[6] Control is typically by the use of herbicides. Burnoff is seldom successful since the grass burns at a high temperature causing heat damage to trees which would ordinarily be undamaged by a controlled burn and recovers from a burn quickly.

The legume vine Mucuna pruriens is used in the countries of Benin and Vietnam as a biological control for Imperata cylindrica.[7]

Flammability[edit]

Green kunai grass on fire in Papua New Guinea

Anecdotal and empirical evidence suggests that types of this grass are quite flammable even when apparently green,[8] particularly in Southeast Asian climates. It is not uncommon to see hillsides of cogon grass on fire.[9][10]

A common expression in the Philippines is ningas cogon ('cogon brush fire'). It is a figure of speech for procrastination, specifically people who show a fervent interest in a new project but lose interest quickly, in reference to the propensity of cogon grass to catch fire and burn out quickly.[11]

Phytochemistry[edit]

The plant contains the triterpenoids arundoin, cylindrin and fernenol.[12]

Taxonomy[edit]

Imperata cylindrica was first described by Linnaeus in 1759 under the basionym Lagurus cylindricus.[13] They were renamed by the French entomologist and botanist Palisot de Beauvois to the current accepted name of Imperata cylindrica.

Synonyms include:

Etymology[edit]

From Spanish cogón, from the Tagalog and Visayan kugon.[15]

Local names[edit]

Local English names:

Names in other languages:

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Imperata". Sen - traditional Chinese medicine (tcm). Retrieved 13 July 2011. [dead link]
  2. ^ Imperata cylindrica - Plants For A Future database report
  3. ^ Imperata cylindrica
  4. ^ Aggressive weed becoming a menace worse than kudzu, UF researcher says
  5. ^ "Cogon Grass". Invasive Non-native Plants. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Retrieved 2013-11-25. 
  6. ^ http://www.newsobserver.com/1565/story/1134380.html
  7. ^ "Factsheet - Mucuna pruriens". www.tropicalforages.info. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
  8. ^ Species Description: Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
  9. ^ 'Establishment of Stylo (Stylosanthes Guianensis) in Kunai (Imperata cylindrica) pastures and its Effect of Dry Matter Yield and Animal Production in the Markham Valley, Papua New Guinea by P.A. Chadhokar
  10. ^ Fire leaves 20 without shelter
  11. ^ Filipino Culture: What is Ningas Cogon
  12. ^ The structures of arundoin, cylindrin and fernenol : Triterpenoids of fernane and arborane groups of imperata cylindrica var. koenigii. K. Nishimoto, M. Ito and S. Natori, Tetrahedron, 1968, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 735–752, doi:10.1016/0040-4020(68)88023-8
  13. ^ Wunderlin, R. P., and B. F. Hansen. 2008. Imperata cylindrica. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants (http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/).[S. M. Landry and K. N. Campbell (application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research.] Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida, Tampa.
  14. ^ "Imperata cylindrica". Missouri Botanical Garden, http://www.tropicos.org/. Retrieved February 3, 2011. 
  15. ^ Merriam-Webster Dictionary: Cogon
  16. ^ http://assamplants.com/All%20Species/Imperata.htm
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Notes

Comments

Sword Grass or Blady Grass (Australia) is a common weed of cultivation and flourishes in grassland which is subject to annual burning, flowering just before the fires begin. The seeds remain enclosed in the glumes and lemmas and, surrounded by the long silky hairs, are carried long distances by strong winds which often. blow at these times. The rhizomes are tenacious of life and new plants will regenerate from even a small fragment, making the grass extremely difficult to eradicate. The plant itself is excellent for thatching, can be made into paper, and is also relished by grazing animals after the annual fires when the young shoots appear. It is seldom eaten when old.

Three varieties of Imperata cylindrical are commonly recognised:

var. cylindrica. Leaf-blades rolled. Mediterranean and Middle East.

var. africana. Leaf-blades flat; spikelets 3-5.7 mm long (mean 4.5). Africa.

var. major. Leaf-blades flat; spikelets 2.5-43 mm long (mean 33). Tropical Asia and Australasia; also possibly parts of tropical East Africa.

Although the differences can be demonstrated statistically the varieties inter-grade so much that individual specimens are often unidentifiable; the hairiness of the node, on which reliance has sometimes been placed, is extremely unreliable as a means of identification. It seems best to ignore the varietal classification with the understanding that there is a number of imperfectly separable geographical variants. Pakistani material appears to be assignable to var. major although specimens grading into var. cylindrical are not uncommon.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comments

This species is extremely polymorphic, but nevertheless easily recognizable by its dense, narrowly cylindrical, silky white inflorescence. The blackish stigmas are persistent and very obvious among the white hairs. The species has been classified into three varieties, which show some geographic separation. Two occur in China and a third is found in Africa. However, there is a great deal of intergradation and also variation within the varieties.

This widespread, noxious weed of disturbed ground and cultivation spreads vigorously by its rhizomes, which are almost impossible to eradicate, and may cover large areas of ground. It flourishes in grasslands that are frequently burned, and the young shoots provide good fodder. It is also used for medicine and fiber.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

More info for the term: introgression

The scientific name of Brazilian satintail is Imperata brasiliensis Trin.
(Poaceae) [9,25,43,64,173].

The scientific name of cogon grass is I. cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
(Poaceae) [9,25,43,64,72,105,173]. Some
authorities recognize 5 varieties of cogon grass; according to that treatment, I. c.
var. major (Nees) CE Hubb. is the entity found in North America [64,133].
Gabel (within [9]),[43] does not recognize varieties of cogon grass.

Brazilian satintail and
cogon grass are morphologically and genetically very similar, and their hybrids produce fertile
offspring [57,133,165]. Hybridization, introgression, and overlapping morphological
characters often cause taxonomic confusion between the 2 species, especially in North America.
Some systematists
consider the 2 species synonymous [25,57]. Hall [57] suggests that Brazilian satintail be
classified as an infrataxon within I.
cylindrica. Gabel [9,43] separates the taxa as 2 distinct species based upon
continents of origin and morphological, cytological, and genetic attributes.
This review treats Brazilian satintail and cogon grass as 2 distinct species.

Because there is little English-language literature currently available on Brazilian
satintail, this review provides information mostly on cogon grass. Pertinent information
on Brazilian satintail is included whenever possible. Given the taxonomic status
of Imperata in North America, information included in this review may
apply to both species; however, further research is needed to be certain
the 2 taxa respond similarly to fire and control treatments.

  • 105. Ohwi, Jisaburo. 1965. Flora of Japan. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. 1067 p. [50787]
  • 133. Shilling, Donn G.; Bewick, T. A.; Gaffney, J. F.; McDonald, S. K.; Chase, C. A.; Johnson, E. R. R. L. 1997. Ecology, physiology, and management of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica). Publication No. 03-107-140. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 128 p. [52849]
  • 165. Wilcut, John W.; Dute, Roland R.; Truelove, Bryan; Davis, Donald E. 1988. Factors limiting the distribution of cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica, and torpedograss, Panicum repens. Weed Science. 36(5): 577-582. [50911]
  • 173. Wunderlin, Richard P. 1998. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. 806 p. [28655]
  • 25. Clewell, Andre F. 1985. Guide to the vascular plants of the Florida Panhandle. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University Press. 605 p. [13124]
  • 43. Gabel, Mark Lauren. 1982. A biosystematic study of the genus Imperata (Gramineae: Andropogoneae). Ames, IA: Iowa State University. 90 p. Dissertation. [53252]
  • 57. Hall, David W. 1978. The grasses of Florida. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 498 p. Dissertation. [53560]
  • 64. Hubbard, C. E. 1944. Imperata cylindrica: Taxonomy, distribution, economic significance and control. Imperial Agricultural Bureaux Joint Publication No. 7. Oxford, UK: Imperial Forestry Bureau; Aberystwyth, UK: Imperial Bureau of Pastures and Forage Crops. 63 p. [51418]
  • 72. Kartesz, John T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 1st ed. In: Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Chapel Hill, NC: North Carolina Botanical Garden (Producer). In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service; U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. [36715]
  • 9. Barkworth, Mary E.; Capels, Kathleen M.; Long, Sandy; Piep, Michael B., eds. 2003. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Volume 25: Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 2. New York: Oxford University Press. 783 p. Available online: http://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/. [68091]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Common Names

Brazilian satintail

cogon grass

alang-alang

cogongrass

Japanese bloodgrass

spear grass

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Synonyms

Imparata brasiliensis Trin. [163]
  • 163. Wiggins, Ira L. 1980. Flora of Baja California. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1025 p. [21993]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!