Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Europe; introduced to CT and VT.

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Xinjiang [Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Russia, Tajikistan; SW Asia (Caucasus, Turkey), Europe; introduced in North America].
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Perennials, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Rhizomes present, Rhizome short and compact, stems close, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems geniculate, decumbent, or lax, sometimes rooting at nodes, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly basal, below middle of stem, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly closed, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blade margins folded, involute, or conduplicate, Leaf blades more or less hairy, Ligule presen t, Ligule an unfringed eciliate membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence an open panicle, openly paniculate, branches spreading, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence with 2-10 branches, Inflorescence branches more than 10 to numerous, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets laterally compressed, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 2 florets, Spikelets with 3-7 florets, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating beneath or between the florets, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes equal or subequal, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Glumes 3 nerved, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, or membranous, Lemma similar in texture to glumes, Lemma 5-7 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma rugose, with cross wrinkles, or roughened, Lemma apex truncate, rounded, or obtuse, Lemma distinctly awned, more than 2-3 mm, Lemma with 1 awn, Lemma awn 1-2 cm long, Lemma awn 2-4 cm long or longer, Lemma awn subapical or dorsal, Lemma awn twisted, spirally coiled at base, like a corkscrew, Lemma awn once geniculate, bent once, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Callus or base of lemma evidently hairy, Callus hairs shorter than lemma, Palea present, well developed, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea about equal to lemma, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis, Caryopsis hairy at apex.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Description

Perennial, shortly rhizomatous. Culms solitary or few, erect, 30–120 cm tall, 3–4-noded. Leaf sheaths of lower leaves pubescent, upper and infrequently also lower glabrous, closed to above middle; leaf blades linear-lanceolate, flat, 10–30 cm, 4–10 mm wide, usually pubescent on both surfaces, abaxial surface with thin midrib, margins only slightly thickened, apex subacute; ligule lanceolate, 3–6 mm. Panicle lax, oblong in outline, 8–15 cm or more; branches 4–6 per node, up to 5 cm, fine, scaberulous. Spikelets 1.2–1.7 cm, pale green or variegated purple, florets 2–4; rachilla hairs 4–6 mm; glumes hyaline, lower glume 10–11 mm, 1–3-veined, upper glume 13–17 mm, 3-veined; lemmas firmly herbaceous, hyaline above awn insertion, lowest 9–11 mm, scabrid, apex irregularly 2-denticulate; awn 1.5–2 cm, geniculate, column twisted, terete; palea subequal to lemma, keels close together, smooth, glabrous, hyaline between keels. Anthers 5–7 mm. Fl. and fr. Jun–Sep.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Avena pubescens Hudson, Fl. Angl. 42. 1762; Avenastrum pubescens (Hudson) Opiz; Avenula pubescens (Hudson) Dumortier.
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Waste places.

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Grassy mountain slopes, forest margins, among shrubs; 1000–2600 m.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Avenula pubescens

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Avenula pubescens

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Helictotrichon pubescens

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Helictotrichon pubescens

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Reasons: Introduced to VT and CT from Europe.

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Notes

Comments

This is a widespread, polymorphic species, varying especially in the degree of hairiness of the leaves and the width of the blades. The Chinese population probably corresponds to a broad-leaved, rather sparsely hairy form found in neighboring parts of Russia and C Asia, Helictotrichon pubescens var. latifolium (Printz) Tzvelev. The typical variety has hairy leaves usually up to 5 mm wide.

Helictotrichon pubescens is distinguished from all other species in the genus by its palea with close, smooth keels. Molecular studies place it close to the group of species including H. dahuricum (see the comment under that species). However, it differs morphologically from those species in several characters besides the palea, including unthickened leaf blade margins, an evenly bearded (vs. laterally bearded) callus, and a hilum as long as the caryopsis (vs. half as long).

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