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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Derivation of specific name

virgata: twiggy
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Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution in Egypt

Nile region, oases and Gebel Elba.

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Global Distribution

Throughout the tropics.

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Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan [Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan; Africa, America, SW Asia, Australia, Pacific Islands].
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Distribution: Pakistan (Baluchistan); widely distributed throughout the tropics of both hemispheres.
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Widely distributed throughout the tropics of both hemispheres.
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Tropics of both hemispheres.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Annuals, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stolons or runners present, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems geniculate, decumbent, or lax, sometimes rooting at nodes, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem internodes solid or spongy, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 1-2 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath hairy, hispid or prickly, Leaf sheath hairy at summit, throat, or collar, Leaf sheath or blade keeled, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf sheath enlarged, inflated or distended, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blades more or less hairy, L igule present, Ligule a fringed, ciliate, or lobed membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence a panicle with narrowly racemose or spicate branches, Inflorescence a panicle with digitately arranged spicate branches, Inflorescence with 2-10 branches, Inflorescence branches more than 10 to numerous, Inflorescence branches 1-sided, Lower panicle branches whorled, Inflorescence branches paired or digitate at a single node, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets sessile or subsessile, Spikelets laterally compressed, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 1 fertile floret, Spikelets with 2 florets, Spikelets with 3-7 florets, Spikelet with 1 fertile floret and 1-2 sterile florets, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating above the glumes, glumes persistent, Spikelets disarticulating beneath or between the florets, R achilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes distinctly unequal, Glumes shorter than adjacent lemma, Glumes keeled or winged, Glumes 1 nerved, Lemma similar in texture to glumes, Lemma 3 nerved, Lemma apex truncate, rounded, or obtuse, Lemma apex dentate, 2-fid, Lemma distinctly awned, more than 2-3 mm, Lemma with 1 awn, Lemma awn less than 1 cm long, Lemma awn 1-2 cm long, Lemma awn subapical or dorsal, Lemma awns straight or curved to base, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma saccate or swollen, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea shorter than lemma, Palea 2 nerved or 2 keeled, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis, Caryopsis ellipsoid, longitudinally grooved, hilum long-linear.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Description

Annual; culms up to 1 m high, erect or geniculately ascending, occasionally rooting at the lower nodes, glabrous below the inflorescence. Leaf-blades flat, (5-) 10-30 cm long, 2.6 mm wide, tapering at the apex; basal sheaths strongly keeled and often flabellate. Inflorescence of 4-12 digitate, spreading, feathery spikes 2-10 cm long. Spikelets (2-)3-flowered, 2-awned; lower glume 1.5-2.5 mm long; upper glume 2.5-4.5 mm long including the short awn-point if present; lowest lemma obliquely obovate in side view, 254 mm long, pallid or dark, ciliate along the margins, keel and flanks, with a crown of hairs 1.5-4 mm long, the awn 5-15 mm long; callus rounded, ciliate; 2nd lemma slightly projecting from the side of the lowest lemma, oblong, 2-2.5 mm long, glabrous, with an awn 5-12 mm long; 3rd lemma an awnless clavate scale 0.5-1.2 mm long.
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Description

Annual. Culms tufted, erect or geniculately ascending, slightly flattened, 15–100 cm tall. Basal leaf sheaths strongly keeled, glabrous; leaf blades flat or folded, 5–30 cm, 2–7 mm wide, glabrous, adaxial surface scabrous, apex acuminate; ligule 0.5–1 mm, glabrous or ciliate. Racemes digitate, 5–12, erect or slightly slanting, 2–10 cm, silky, pale brown or tinged pink or purple; rachis scabrous or hispid. Spikelets with 2 or 3 florets, 2-awned; lower glume 1.8–2.2 mm; upper glume 3–4 mm, acuminate; lemma of fertile floret obovate-lanceolate in side view, 2.8–3.5 mm, keel gibbous, conspicuously bearded on upper margins with a spreading tuft of 2.5–3.5 mm silky hairs, margins, keel and flanks silky-ciliate or glabrous; awn 5–15 mm; second floret sterile, oblong, glabrous, awn 4–10 mm; third floret occasionally present, reduced to a small clavate scale, awnless. Fl. and fr. Jun–Oct. 2n = 14, 20, 26, 30, 40.
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Description

Culm procumbent, rooting at the basal node. Blade linear, 8-10 cm long; ligule about 0.5 mm long, fimbriate, pubescent on the back. Inflorescence of digitately arranged spikes. Spikelets 2-flowered, about 3-4 mm long (excluding awn), sessile; glumes lanceolate, hyaline, conspicuously 1-nerved; the lower glume 2/3 the length of the upper, about 1.5 mm long, acute or shortly awned; the upper about 2.2 mm long, conspicuously awned; lower floret fertile, lemma ovate-lanceolate, with a sinus at the apex, subcoriaceous, about 3 mm long, densely covered with silky hairs, especially along upper margin, 3-nerved, midrib prolonged into a long awn of about 7 mm long; palea subcoriaceous, as long as the lemma, 2-keeled, minutely 2-toothed; upper floret reduced to merely a lemma of about 2 mm long. Caryopsis elliptical, about 2 mm long; embryo 3/4 the length of the caryopsis.
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Elevation Range

2900 m
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Chloris caudata Trinius ex Bunge.
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Type Information

Type fragment for Chloris pubescens Lag.
Catalog Number: US 2830893
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): L. Née
Locality: Peru, South America
  • Type fragment: Lagasca y Segura, M. 1805. Varied. Ci. 4: 143.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Type fragment for Chloris madagascariensis Steud.
Catalog Number: US 80841
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): A. F. Le Jolis
Year Collected: 1849
Locality: Madagascar, Africa
  • Type fragment: Steudel, E. G. von. 1854. Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 206.
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Isotype for Chloris meccana Hochst. ex Steud.
Catalog Number: US 1127159
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): G. W. Schimper
Year Collected: 1836
Locality: At Unsert in the Fatima (Fatme) Valley near Mecca (Meccam)., Saudi Arabia, Asia-Temperate
  • Isotype: Steudel, E. G. von. 1854. Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 205.
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Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Type fragment for Chloris compressa DC.
Catalog Number: US 2830890
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): A. P. de Candolle
Year Collected: 1828
Locality: "South America", South America
  • Type fragment: Candolle, A. P. de. 1813. Cat. Pl. Horti Bot. Monspel. 94.
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Type fragment for Chloris compressa DC.
Catalog Number: US 80851
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): A. P. de Candolle
Year Collected: 1828
Locality: "South America", South America
  • Type fragment: Candolle, A. P. de. 1813. Cat. Pl. Horti Bot. Monspel. 94.
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Type fragment for Chloris alba J. Presl in C. Presl
Catalog Number: US 2830891
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): T. P. X. Haenke
Locality: E of Monserrat, Mexico, Central America
  • Type fragment: Presl, J. S. 1830. Reliq. Haenk. 1: 289.
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Type fragment for Chloris polydactyla P. Durand
Catalog Number: US 2830892
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): Collector unknown
Locality: "America", North America
  • Type fragment: Durand, P. 1808. Chlor. Sp. 14, 22.
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Ecology

Habitat

Sandy ground beside water and in areas of cultivation.

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Common on stony slopes, steppe, sandy riversides, roadsides, fields, plantations, frequent on walls and roofs; sea level to 3700 m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. & Fr. Per: April-November.
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Life Expectancy

Annual.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Chloris virgata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Chloris virgata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 16
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N2 - Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Chloris virgata

Chloris virgata is a species of grass known by the common names feather fingergrass and feather windmillgrass. It is native to many of the warmer temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions of the world, including parts of Eurasia, Africa, and the Americas, and it is present in many other areas as a naturalized species, including Hawaii, Australia, and the Canary Islands.[2]


Chloris virgata is a hardy grass which can grow in many types of habitat, including disturbed areas such as roadsides and railroad tracks, and cultivated farmland. It is known in some areas as a weed, for example, in alfalfa fields in the southwestern United States.[3] This is an annual grass growing up to about half a meter in maximum height. It sometimes forms tufts, and may or may not spread via stolons. The inflorescence is an array of 4 to 20 fingerlike branches up to 10 centimeters long. Each branch contains approximately 10 spikelets per centimeter. Each spikelet has one fertile floret and one or two sterile florets.

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Notes

Comments

From sea-level to 3500 m. According to Duthie this species, known in North America as Feather Finger-grass, is one of the characteristic grasses of the saline or usar tracts of Northwest India and Baluchistan and is reputed to be a good fodder grasses.
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Comments

This is a widespread and very variable, weedy annual, recognized by the conspicuous tufts of spreading, silky hairs on the upper lemma margins, together with a digitate inflorescence of erect racemes. It extends from the tropics well into temperate regions where the summers are hot.
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Comments

It is reputed to be a good fodder grass.
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