Overview

Comprehensive Description

Brief

Flowering class: Monocot Habit: Herb
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Description

Caucasian bluestem has dense blue-green leaves and thin stems with purple tinges at the nodes. It typically grows to 3-4 feet in height. The seed head is a terminal group of spike-like stalks that come from a common point. The most memorable characteristic is the sweet, distinctive odor of the foliage.

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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"
Global Distribution

Indo-Malesia, China and Tropical Africa

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Kozhikkode, Kollam

"
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Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Thailand, Vietnam; Africa, SW Asia, Australia; introduced in America].
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TAIPEI: Kuanyingshan, Chuang 2832. HSINCHU: Hsinchu, Shimada 395C. TAINAN; Tainan City, Hsu 536* Anping, Hsu s. n. June 29, 1960. PINGTUNG: Huangliao, Hsu 955; Kenting, Kuoh 2139.
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Nepal, India, Sino-Malaya.
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Distribution: Pakistan (Punjab, N. W. F. P, Gilgit & Kashmir); Old World tropics.
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Distributed in tropical Asia and Pacific Islands to Australia and and tropical Africa.
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Distribution and adaptation

This grass will grow on soils of moderate drainage or better. It will grow well on acid, droughty, and low fertility soils. The best use for this grass is on drastically disturbed sites such as strip mine RAMP sites in PA and South.

For a current distribution map, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Website.

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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Perennials, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems geniculate, decumbent, or lax, sometimes rooting at nodes, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem nodes bearded or hairy, Stem internodes solid or spongy, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 1-2 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base , Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath hairy at summit, throat, or collar, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades scabrous, roughened, or wrinkled, Ligule present, Ligule an unfringed eciliate membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence a dense slender spike-like panicle or raceme, branches contracted, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence a panicle with narrowly racemose or spicate branches, Inflorescence a panicle with digitately arranged spicate branches, Inflorescence with 2-10 branches, Inflorescence branches paired or digitate at a single node, Flowers bisexual, Flowers unisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets sessile or subsessile, Spikelets dorsally compressed or terete, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 2 florets, Spikelet with 1 fertile floret and 1-2 sterile florets, Spikelets paired at rachis nodes, Spikelets in paired units, 1 sessile, 1 pedicellate, Pedicellate spikelet rudimentary or absent, usually sterile, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets unisexual, Spikelets disarticulating below the glumes, Spikelets conspicuously hairy , Rachilla or pedicel hairy, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes equal or subequal, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Glumes awned, awn 1-5 mm or longer, Glume with rectangular pits, Glumes 1 nerved, Glumes 3 nerved, Glumes 4-7 nerved, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, or membranous, Lemma 1 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma apex acute or acuminate, Lemma mucronate, very shortly beaked or awned, less than 1-2 mm, Lemma distinctly awned, more than 2-3 mm, Lemma with 1 awn, Lemma awn less than 1 cm long, Lemma awned from tip, Lemma awn twisted, spirally coiled at base, like a corkscrew, Lemma awn once geniculate, bent once, Lemm a margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Callus or base of lemma evidently hairy, Callus hairs shorter than lemma, Lemma surface pilose, setose or bristly, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis, Caryopsis ellipsoid, longitudinally grooved, hilum long-linear.
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Physical Description

Perennials, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Rhizome short and compact, stems close, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stems branching above base or distally at nodes, Stem nodes bearded or hairy, Stem internodes solid or spongy, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 1-2 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades 1-2 cm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blade margins folded, involute, or conduplicate, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Ligule present, Ligule an unfringed eciliate membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence with 2 or more spikes, fascicles, glomerules, heads, or clusters per culm, Inflorescence a panicle with narrowly racemose or spicate branches, Inflorescence a panicle with digitately arranged spicate branches, Inflorescence branches more than 10 to numerous, Inflorescence branches paired or digitate at a single node, Inflorescence branches paired racemes, V-shaped, Peduncle or rachis scabrous or pubescent, often with long hairs, Rachis dilated, flat, central axis to which spikelets are attached, Rachis grooved, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets dorsally compressed or terete, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 1 fertile floret, Spikelets with 2 florets, Sp ikelets paired at rachis nodes, Spikelets in paired units, 1 sessile, 1 pedicellate, Pedicellate spikelet well developed, staminate, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating below the glumes, Spikelets disarticulating beneath or between the florets, Spikelets falling with parts of disarticulating rachis or pedicel, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes equal or subequal, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Glumes 3 nerved, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, or membranous, Lemma 1 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma apex acute or acuminate, Lemma distinctly awned, more than 2-3 mm, Lemma with 1 awn, Lemma awn 1-2 cm long, Lemma awned from tip, Lemma awn once geniculate, bent once, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis.
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Description

Culm stout, about 3 mm across. Blade linear, up to 20 cm long, basal part covered with long hairs; ligule rounded, hispid on the backside. Inflorescence a large panicle, about 15 cm long by 5 cm wide. Spikelets paired, dimorphic, the upper pedicellate, pedicel with a translucent longitudinal groove; the lower sessile, lower; glume lanceolate, acute, chartaceous, 3-nerved, margins inrolled, about 3.6 mm long; upper glume chartaceous, ?-nerved, lanceolate, margins inrolled, ciliate on backside and margins, decorated with a concave spot on the upper part; upper lemma aristate, the awn 6 times the length of the lemma, flexuous, 1-nerved; upper palea hyaline, linear-lanceolate, margins folded, about 2.2 mm long; anther about 1.2mm long.Distributed in India and Malaya.
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Elevation Range

500-1800 m
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Description

Tufted perennial; culms 50-150 cm high, erect from a shortly rhizomatous base, often robust. Leaf-blades 10-55 cm long, 2-12 mm wide. Inflorescence with a central axis 4-20 cm long, the racemes numerous and borne loosely or densely in irregular whorls upon simple or branched peduncles; racemes 2-5 cm long (the lowest shorter than the central axis), pubescent. Sessile spikelet narrowly elliptic, 3-4 mm long; lower glume chartaceous, ± hairy below the middle, usually not glossy, with or without a pit; awn 10-25 mm long. Pedicelled spikelet glabrous, with 0-3 pits.
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Description

Perennial, tufted. Culms erect or decumbent at base, fairly robust, up to 130 cm tall, many-noded, nodes glabrous or appressed bearded. Leaf sheaths glabrous; leaf blades linear, 10–40 × 0.2–1 cm, hairy with tubercle-based hairs on both surfaces or abaxial surface glabrous, apex finely acuminate; ligule 0.5–1.5 mm. Inflorescence 9–20 cm, composed of many racemes borne in loose whorls along an elongate central axis, axis usually longer than lowest raceme, sometimes paniculate with branchedpeduncles; racemes 2–5 cm, often purplish, not obviously hairy; rachis internodes and pedicels thinly ciliate, shortly bearded at apex. Sessile spikelet 3–4 mm; lower glume narrowly oblong-lanceolate, herbaceous or cartilaginous and glossy, 5–7-veined, back slightly concave, glabrous or pubescent below middle, sometimes with a pit, margins keeled and scabrid near apex; awn of upper lemma 1–2.5 cm. Pedicelled spikelet barren or rarely staminate, narrower than sessile spikelet, sometimes pitted. Fl. and fr. Jul–Oct. 2n = 40, 60, 80.
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Description

Culm stout, about 45 cm long and 3 mm across. Blade about 7 mm wide; ligule about 1 mm long, ciliate on upper part and backside. Inflorescence a narrow panicle, about 10 cm long. Spikelets paired, dimorphic; the upper pedicellate, pedicel with a translucent longitudinal groove; the lower sessile and fertile, about 3.4 mm long, excluding the long awn. Lower glume subcoriaceous, lanceolate, acute, 3-nerved, about 3.2 mm long, margins inrolled; upper glume subcoriaceous, lanceolate, as long as the lower, 5-7-nerved, upper margins 2-keeled, hispid; upper lemma aristate, the awn 5 times the length of the lemma, flexuous, linear, 1-nerved, about 1.5 mm long; upper palea chartaceous, lanceolate, about 2.5 mm long, 2-nerved; anther about 1.2 mm long.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Tufted perennial; culms 50-150 cm high, erect from a shortly rhizomatous base, often robust. Leaf-blades 10-55 cm long, 2-12 mm wide. Inflorescence with a central axis 4-20 cm long, the racemes numerous and borne loosely or densely in irregular whorls upon simple or branched peduncles; racemes 2-5 cm long (the lowest shorter than the central axis), pubescent. Sessile spikelet narrowly elliptic, 3-4 mm long; lower glume chartaceous, ± hairy below the middle, usually not glossy, with or without a pit; awn 10-25 mm long. Pedicelled spikelet glabrous, with 0-3 pits."
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Synonym

Andropogon glaber Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1: 271. 1820.
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Synonym

Bothriochloa intermedia (R. Br.) A. Camus in Ann. Soc. L. Lyon n. s. 76: 164.  1931; Hsu, Fl. Taiwan 5: 623. 1978; Koyama, Grass. Jap. Neighb. Reg. 441. 1987.
 Andropogon intermedius R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 202. 1810;Honda 1. c. 341. 1930.
 Andropogon intermedius var. punctatus sensu Honda, l. c. 342. 1930.
Bothriochloa haenkei (Presl) Ohwi, 1. c. 11: 168. 1942.
 Bothriochloa glabra (Roxb.) A. Camus var. perfectior (Hook. & Arn.) Ohwi, I. c. ll: 167. 1942.
 Bothriochloa intermedia var. punctata (Roxb.) Keng, Clav. Gram. Prim. Sin, 244. 1957.
 Bothriochloa blahdii var. punctata (Roxb.) Steward, Kew Bull. 29(2): 444. 1974.
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Type Information

Type fragment for Andropogon inundatus F. Muell.
Catalog Number: US 76246
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): Collector unknown
Locality: New Holland, Crystal Brook., Australia, Australasia
  • Type fragment: Mueller, F. J. H. 1852. Linnaea. 25: 444.
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Type fragment for Andropogon pertusus var. vegetior Hack. in A. DC.
Catalog Number: US 76203
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): G. A. Schweinfurth
Locality: Metamma / Gallabet., Ethiopia / Sudan, Africa
  • Type fragment: Hackel, E. 1889. Monogr. Phan. 6: 481.
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

Banks of rivers and streams
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Exposed slopes, waste ground; 400–1600 m.
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Dispersal

Establishment

Caucasian bluestem should be seeded as the soil warms in the spring. The germination is slow compared to cool season grasses and the two types of grass are almost never planted together. Native grass drills such as the Truax, Great Plains, or Tye are the best units for planting this seed as they have positive feed mechanisms for chaffy seed and double disk furrow openers. If a suitable drill is not available or cannot be used due to terrain, then broadcasting the seed and tracking it in with a bulldozer is also an excellent planting method. Hydroseeding without tracking is simply a waste of time, money, and effort. Mulches are avoided with warm season grass plantings unless absolutely necessary to control erosion--then use 1500 pounds per acre of straw as a maximum rate. No nitrogen fertilizer should be applied during the seeding year. Phosphorus and potassium should be at medium levels, and the pH should be 5.5 or better on forage fields and 5.0 or better on critical areas.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: August-December
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Bothriochloa glabra

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Bothriochloa bladhii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status (e.g. threatened or endangered species, state noxious status, and wetland indicator values).

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Management

Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

There are several hybrid cultivars from Oklahoma and Texas, but these are not recommended for used in the Northeast. Caucasian bluestem, sold under that name, is the best of the non-native bluestems.

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Once established, there is little management needed for this species. It does not respond as strongly to fire as do our native species.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Caucasian bluestem is sometimes used as a critical area cover plant due to its ability to grow on droughty, acid, sterile sites. It should be used in mixtures with native warm season grasses because it is not a particularly valuable wildlife plant. This plant is not reliably hardy north of the PA-NY border. Though used for forage in the southern Midwest, the quality is not high enough to use it in this way in the Northeast.

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Wikipedia

Bothriochloa bladhii

Bothriochloa bladhii (commonly called, variously, Australian bluestem, Caucasian bluestem, forest-bluegrass, plains bluestem, and purple plume grass)[2] is a neotropic grass in the Poaceae family, found primarily in tropical Africa, and tropical and temperate Asia, and Australia. The type specimen was collected from China by Finnish botanist Peter Johan Bladh.[3][4] The name of Bladh is honored in the specific epithet.

Distribution[edit]

Bothriochloa bladhii is native to northeast, west, west-central, and south tropical, and southern Africa (in Angola; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; the Democratic Republic of the Congo; Ethiopia; Ghana; Kenya; Malawi; Mozambique; Namibia; Nigeria; Senegal; the provinces of Eastern Cape, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West, and Northern Cape of South Africa; Swaziland; Tanzania (including the Zanzibar Archipelago); Uganda; Zambia; and Zimbabwe); much of temperate and tropical, southern and eastern Asia, eastern Eurasia, Malesia, and the Middle East (in Afghanistan; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bhutan; Burma; Cambodia; the provinces of Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, and Yunnan of China; India; Iran; Japan (including the Ryukyu Islands); southern Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Laos; Malaysia; Nepal; Pakistan; Papua New Guinea; Ciscaucasian Russia; Sri Lanka; Taiwan; Thailand; and Vietnam); and the states of New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia of Australia.[2]

B. bladhii has also become naturalized elsewhere in the neotropics.[2]

Uses[edit]

Bothriochloa bladhii is used as stored food for local livestock, and as a grazing plant by both livestock and wild ruminants.[2] It is sometimes planted as a revegetator, to restore disturbed land.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^  Under it treatment as Bothriochloa bladhii (from its basionym Andropogon bladhii), this plant name was first published in Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 80(6): 62–64. 1969. "Name - Bothriochloa bladhii (Retz.) S.T.Blake". Tropicos. Saint Louis, Missouri: Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved November 9, 2011. "Basionym: Andropogon bladhii Retz." 
  2. ^ a b c d e f GRIN (May 28, 2003). "Bothriochloa bladhii information from NPGS/GRIN". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Retrieved November 9, 2011. 
  3. ^ a b  Andropogon bladhii (the basionym of B. bladhii) was originally described and published in Observationes Botanicae 2: 27. 1781. "Name - Andropogon bladhii Retz.". Tropicos. Saint Louis, Missouri: Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved November 9, 2011. "Type-Protologue: Collector: Bladh; Distribution: China" 
  4. ^ "Entry for Peter Johan Bladh". Index of Botanists. Harvard University Herbarium. May 21, 2009. Retrieved November 9, 2011. 
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Notes

Comments

Much of the taxonomic difficulty in this genus arises from the promiscuous habits of Bothriochloa bladhii whose rapacious introgression has vastly increased its own variability, blurred the boundaries with adjacent species to the point of extinction, and led to the emergence of new races from among the introgression products (DeWet & Harlan in Am. J. Bot. 53: 94-98. 1966; and Faruqi in Phyton (Austria) 13:285-303. 1969). The species is here treated in a wide sense to include all specimens with an elongated inflorescence. The only exception is the hybrid with Dichanthium annulatum which is sufficiently distinct from Bothriochloa to warrant a hybrid formula.

In some accounts (e.g. Bor, Grasses Burma Ceyl. Ind. Pak. and in Fl. Iran; Rozhev & Shishkin in Fl. URSS) Bothriochloa caucasica is recognised at species level. Its ancestry is complicated, but according to DeWet & Harlan (in Taxon 19:339. 1970) it probably arose from tetraploid races of Bothriochloa intermedia and Capillipedium parviflorum hybridising and then backcrossing to Capillipedium parviflorum, Although it does form a small, reasonably compact subpopulation of Bothriochloa bladhii, with the lower lemma of the sessile spikelet only about half as long as the lower glume, the distinction is not sufficient for it to warrant species rank. It is a better species from the cytogeneticist’s point of view than it is from the morphologist’s. It is not in fact a caucasian endemic, but occurs at least as far east as Chitral and doubtless could arise spontaneously wherever its parents grow together.

The various hybrids of Bothriochloa intermedia, according to DeWet & Harlan (1970), are as follows:

Bothriochloa intermedia x Bothriochloa ischaemum = Bothriochloa taiwanensis (included in Bothriochloa bladhii)

Bothriochloa intermedia x Dichanthium annulatum = " Dichanthium grahamii” (here kept apart from Bothriochloa)

Bothriochloa intermedia x Capillipedium parviflorum = Bothriochloa glabra (included in Bothriochloa bladhii)

(Bothriochloa intermedia x Capillipedium praviflorum ) x Capillipedium parviflorum = Bothriochloa caucasica (included in Bothriochloa hladhii)

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Comments

Bothriochloa bladhii hybridizes easily and frequently with some other species of Bothriochloa, and also with Capillipedium parviflorum and Dichanthium annulatum, blurring the boundaries between these genera and leading to a host of intermediates. New, apomictic races have arisen from among these products of introgression, causing much taxonomic difficulty. The name B. glabra has been applied to hybrids between B. bladhii and C. parviflorum.

Bothriochloa bladhii is most practicably treated in a broad sense to include all forms with an elongate inflorescence axis. Additionally, the habit is usually not stoloniferous, and the racemes are less obviously hairy than in B. ischaemum and B. pertusa.

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Comments

One of the common grasses in Taiwan. This is a rather coarse grass but it is said to be an excellent fodder. It is much more common in southern Taiwan than, in the northern part.
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This is a good fodder grass.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Formerly classified as Bothriochloa intermedia; has also been placed in Andropogon (under either epithet) (Kartesz 1994).

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