Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Spanish (1) (learn more)

Overview

Brief Summary

Avena sativa, the common oat (generally referred to as oats), is an annual member of grass family Poaceae and one of the eight major cereal crops of the world. (Cereals are a type of fruit called a caryopsis, composed of endosperm, germ, and bran; other major cereal crops are wheat [Triticum spp.], rice [Oryza sativa], barley [Hordeum vulgare], maize [Zea mays], and rye [Secale cereale].)

A. saliva grows up to 1 m (3 feet) tall and has large, drooping seed heads (spikelets), generally with two overlapping husks (glumes), although recently developed cultivars of "naked oats" have looser husks from which the grain can be more easily threshed. A. saliva no longer occurs in the wild, but related species of Avena occur in Europe and the Fertile Crescent region of the Near East. Cultivation appears to have started roughly 2,000 years ago during the Bronze Age in Celtic and Germanic regions of Europe, and emanated to other temperate and cold regions (Hedrick 1919). Oats appear to have originated as a weed in fields of other cultivated grains, including wheat and barley. Oats are grown in temperate regions worldwide, with a 2009 total harvest of 23.3 million tons produced on 10.2 million hectares; leading producers are the Russian Federation, Canada, and the U.S. (FAOSTAT 2011). Total area cultivated with oats has declined since 1950 (IndexMundi 2011), with a concurrent increase in soybeans (Glycine max).

Oats are used as food for humans, in oatmeal (porridge), cereals, and cookies. Oats were long considered an inferior food: Samuel Johnson is said to have written, in his dictionary definition, oats were "eaten by people in Scotland, but fit only for horses in England" (to which a Scotsman retorted, "That's why England has such good horses, and Scotland has such fine men!" [Gibson and Benson 2002]). However, oats have increased in popularity in recent decades with research on health benefits of soluble fiber and with increasing numbers of people intolerant to wheat. Oats are high in soluble fiber, carbohydrates, and protein, and are a good source of magnesium, iron, and panthothenic acid (Wikipedia 2011).

Notwithstanding the increasing popularity as a health food, oats are primarily used for animal feed and fodder. They are commonly fed to horses and cattle, and are used in chicken feed and dog food. Oats are also used for pasture, hay, and sileage, and the straw is used as animal bedding (Magness et al. 1971).

(FAOSTAT 2011, Gibson & Benson 2002, Hedrick 1919, IndexMundi 2011, Magness et al. 1971, van Wyk 2005, Wikipedia 2011)

  • FAOSTAT. 2011. Online statistics database of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Statistics on oats, retrieved 233 November 2011 from http://faostat.fao.org/site/291/default.aspx.
  • Gibson, L. & Benson, G. (2002). Origin, History, and Uses of Oat (Avena sativa) and Wheat (Triticum aestivum). Iowa State University, Department of Agronomy. Accessed 4/14/2006.
  • Hedrick, U.P. 1919. Sturtevant’s Notes on Edible Plants. State of New York, Dept. of Agriculture, 27th Annual Report, Vol 2., Part II. Albany, NY.
  • IndexMundi. 2011. United States Oat Production by Year. Accessed 28 November 2011 from http://www.indexmundi.com/agriculture/?country=us&commodity=oats&graph=production.
  • Magness, J.R., G.M. Markle, C.C. Compton. 1971. Food and feed crops of the United States. Interregional Research Project IR-4, IR Bul. 1 (Bul. 828 New Jersey Agr. Expt. Sta.). Accessed 25 November 2011 from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/crops/oats.html.
  • van Wyk, B.-E. 2005. Food Plants of the World: An Illustrated Guide. Portland, OR: Timber Press. p. 80.
  • Wikipedia. 2011. “Oats.” In Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 25 November 2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oat.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Jacqueline Courteau

Supplier: Jacqueline Courteau

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Comprehensive Description

Description

This grass is a spring annual that develops either individual or tufted leafy culms about 1½-3' tall. The hollow culms are light green, glabrous, and terete; they are largely hidden by the sheaths. A few alternate leaves occur along the entire length of each culm. The blades of these leaves are up to 15 mm. across and 12" long; both the blades and the sheaths are medium green to blue-green, glabrous, and sometimes glaucous. The ligules are white-membranous. Each culm terminates in a panicle of spikelets about 4-10" long. The lateral branches of the panicle occur in whorls of 2-5 along its central stalk (rachis). These lateral branches divide into whorls of pedicels that terminate in individual nodding spikelets. Some whorled pedicels are attached to the upper half of the central stalk. Each spikelet consists of a pair of glumes about ¾-1" in length, a pair of lemmas about ½-¾" in length, and their florets. Both the glumes and lemmas are light green, elliptic in shape, and convex along their outer surfaces. The glumes have 7-11 prominent longitudinal veins, while the veins of the lemmas are more obscure. Usually the lemmas are awnless, otherwise they have fairly straight awns up to 1¼" in length. In each spikelet, the lemmas are largely hidden by the glumes. Each floret has 3 anthers and a pair of feathery stigmata. The blooming period occurs from late spring to mid-summer and lasts 1-2 weeks. The florets are either cross-pollinated by the wind or self-fertile. The florets of the lemmas develop into ripened grains later in the summer or fall. These grains are narrowly ellipsoid and narrowly furrowed along one side; they are a little shorter than the lemmas. The root system is shallow and fibrous.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Derivation of specific name

sativa: cultivated, not wild
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

General Description

Annual. Culms solitary or tufted, erect, 40-180 cm tall, unbranched. Leaf sheaths usually glabrous; leaf blades 15-30 cm long, 4-10 mm wide, glabrous, margins sometimes scaberulous; ligule 3-6 mm. Panicle loose and open or contracted, 20-40 cm, nodding; branches spreading or contracted. Spikelets 2-3 cm, florets 2; rachilla straight, not disarticulating or fracturing irregularly at maturity, florets lacking a basal bearded callus, internodes short, less than 0.5 mm; glumes lanceolate, subequal, as long as spikelet, 7-9-veined; lemmas 1.2-2.5 cm, leathery in lower half, herbaceous and distinctly veined above, glabrous or nearly so, apex minutely and irregularly 2-4-denticulate; awn 2.5-3.5 cm, weakly geniculate or rudimentary or absent. Grain adherent to lemma and palea at maturity.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Wen, Jun

Source: Plants of Tibet

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range Description

Endemic to Central and Eastern European Russia (Valdés and Scholz; with contributions from Raab-Straube and Parolly 2009).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Range and Habitat in Illinois

 Oats naturalizes occasionally throughout Illinois, although it rarely persists for more than a few generations (see Distribution Map). This non-native grass was introduced from Europe into North America for agricultural purposes. Habitats consist of cropland, abandoned fields, roadsides, areas along railroads, and areas near grain elevators. Highly disturbed habitats with exposed open ground are preferred. Oats is still cultivated as a source of grain, forage, and straw. It is also used for erosion-control purposes along roadsides and others areas.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution in Egypt

Nile region, oases, Mediterranean region, Egyptian desert and Sinai.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Distribution

Cultivated in most temperate countries.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Avena sativa var. nigra Prov.:
Canada (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Avena × mutata Samp.:
Portugal (Europe)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Avena fatua var. sativa (L.) Hausskn.:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Avena sativa var. nigra Krause:
Argentina (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
  • Nicora, E. G., M. E. D. Paula, A. M. Faggi, M. d. Mariano, A. M. M. A., L. R. Parodi, C. A. Petetin, F. A. Roig & Z. R. Agrasar. 1978. Gramineae. 8(3): 1–583. In M. N. Correa Fl. Patagónica. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Buenos Aires.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/11289 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Avena sativa var. subuniflora (Thell.) Thell.:
Argentina (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
  • Fabris, H. A. 1970. Phyllostachys. In: A. L. Cabrera (ed.), Gramíneas. 4(2): 35. In A. L. Cabrera Fl. Prov. Buenos Aires. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Buenos Aires.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/20502 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Avena sativa var. chinensis Döll:
Argentina (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
  • Nicora, E. G., M. E. D. Paula, A. M. Faggi, M. d. Mariano, A. M. M. A., L. R. Parodi, C. A. Petetin, F. A. Roig & Z. R. Agrasar. 1978. Gramineae. 8(3): 1–583. In M. N. Correa Fl. Patagónica. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Buenos Aires.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/11289 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Avena sativa var. contracta Neilr.:
Argentina (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
  • Nicora, E. G., M. E. D. Paula, A. M. Faggi, M. d. Mariano, A. M. M. A., L. R. Parodi, C. A. Petetin, F. A. Roig & Z. R. Agrasar. 1978. Gramineae. 8(3): 1–583. In M. N. Correa Fl. Patagónica. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Buenos Aires.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/11289 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Avena sativa var. glaberrima (Thell.) Parodi:
Argentina (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
  • Nicora, E. G., M. E. D. Paula, A. M. Faggi, M. d. Mariano, A. M. M. A., L. R. Parodi, C. A. Petetin, F. A. Roig & Z. R. Agrasar. 1978. Gramineae. 8(3): 1–583. In M. N. Correa Fl. Patagónica. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Buenos Aires.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/11289 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Avena sativa var. setulosa (Thell.) Parodi:
Argentina (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
  • Nicora, E. G., M. E. D. Paula, A. M. Faggi, M. d. Mariano, A. M. M. A., L. R. Parodi, C. A. Petetin, F. A. Roig & Z. R. Agrasar. 1978. Gramineae. 8(3): 1–583. In M. N. Correa Fl. Patagónica. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Buenos Aires.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/11289 External link.
  • Zuloaga, F. O., E. G. Nicora, Z. E. R. Agrasar, O. Morrone, J. Pensiero & A. M. Cialdella. 1994. Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en la República Argentina. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 47: i–xi, 1–178.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/43109 External link.
  • Fabris, H. A. 1970. Phyllostachys. In: A. L. Cabrera (ed.), Gramíneas. 4(2): 35. In A. L. Cabrera Fl. Prov. Buenos Aires. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Buenos Aires.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/20502 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Avena sativa var. macrathera (Thell.) Parodi:
Argentina (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
  • Nicora, E. G., M. E. D. Paula, A. M. Faggi, M. d. Mariano, A. M. M. A., L. R. Parodi, C. A. Petetin, F. A. Roig & Z. R. Agrasar. 1978. Gramineae. 8(3): 1–583. In M. N. Correa Fl. Patagónica. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Buenos Aires.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/11289 External link.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Avena sativa L.:
Argentina (South America)
Australia (Oceania)
Brazil (South America)
Canada (North America)
Chile (South America)
Costa Rica (Mesoamerica)
Ecuador (South America)
Ethiopia (Africa & Madagascar)
Greenland (North America)
Guatemala (Mesoamerica)
Honduras (Mesoamerica)
Kenya (Africa & Madagascar)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
New Zealand (Oceania)
Peru (South America)
Bulgaria (Europe)
Uganda (Africa & Madagascar)
Uruguay (South America)
United States (North America)
South Africa (Africa & Madagascar)
Caribbean (Caribbean)
India (Asia)
Venezuela (South America)
Bolivia (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Growing in roadside, slopes; 1800-2800 m.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Wen, Jun

Source: Plants of Tibet

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Annuals, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 1-2 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades 1-2 cm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades scabrous, roughened, or wrinkled, Ligule present, Ligule an unfringed eciliate membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence an open panicle, openly paniculate, branches spreading, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence lax, widely spreading, branches drooping, pendulous, Inflorescence branches more than 10 to numerous, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets laterally compressed, Spikelet 3-10 mm wide, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 2 florets, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating above the glumes, glumes persistent, Spikelets disarticulating beneath or between the florets, Spikelets not disarticulating, or tardy, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes equal or subequal, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Glume equal to or longer than spikelet, Lemma similar in texture to glumes, Lemma coriaceous, firmer or thicker in texture than the glumes, Lemma 5-7 nerved, Lemma 8-15 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma apex dentate, 2-fid, Lemma awnless, Lemma distinctly awned, more than 2-3 mm, Lemma with 1 awn, Lemma awn 2-4 cm long or longer, Lemma awn subapical or dorsal, Lemma awns straight or curved to base, Lemma awn twisted, spirally coiled at base, like a corkscrew, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma margins inrolled, tightly covering palea and caryopsis, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea shorter than lemma, Palea 2 nerved or 2 keeled, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis, Caryopsis hairy all over.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Annual. Culms solitary or tufted, erect, 40–180 cm tall, unbranched. Leaf sheaths usually glabrous; leaf blades 15–30 cm, 4–10 mm wide, glabrous, margins sometimes scaberulous; ligule 3–6 mm. Panicle loose and open or contracted, 20–40 cm, nodding; branches spreading or contracted. Spikelets 2–3 cm, florets 2(or 3); rachilla ± glabrous, straight, not disarticulating or fracturing irregularly at maturity, florets lacking a basal bearded callus, internodes short, less than 0.5 mm; glumes lanceolate, subequal, as long as spikelet, 7–9-veined; lemmas 1.2–2.5 cm, leathery in lower half, herbaceous and distinctly veined above, glabrous or nearly so, apex minutely and irregularly 2–4-denticulate; awn 2.5–3.5 cm, weakly geniculate or rudimentary or absent. Grain adherent to lemma and palea at maturity. 2n = 42.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Culms 40-80 cm tall. Blades linear, 8-20 cm long by 4-15 mm wide; ligule chartceous, tongue-shaped, minutely hispid on backside, 2-3 mm long. Panicle open, usually no branch developing, about 10-20 cm long. Spikelets nodding, 1-2-florets, persistent , not falling off when mature, 2-2.5 cm long; glumes subequal, chartaceous, margin hyaline, rounded on the backside, 7-11-nerved, sometimes connected with tessellate nerves; lemma stiff, hairy on the lower half, 7-9-nerved, awnless or with a long straight awn arising from the backside; palea shorter than the lemma, minutely hairy on the two keels. Caryopsis hairy; tightly enclosed between the lemma and palea, hilum linear.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Type Information

Type fragment for Avena sativa var. macrantha Hack.
Catalog Number: US 865576A
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. H. Neumann
Year Collected: 1874
Locality: Prope Georgetown., Ascension Island, St. Helena Islands, Africa
  • Type fragment: Hackel, E. 1885. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 244.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It is found in agricultural land where it is a specialized weed of a local landrace of Triticum dicoccon.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Range and Habitat in Illinois

 Oats naturalizes occasionally throughout Illinois, although it rarely persists for more than a few generations (see Distribution Map). This non-native grass was introduced from Europe into North America for agricultural purposes. Habitats consist of cropland, abandoned fields, roadsides, areas along railroads, and areas near grain elevators. Highly disturbed habitats with exposed open ground are preferred. Oats is still cultivated as a source of grain, forage, and straw. It is also used for erosion-control purposes along roadsides and others areas.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Cultivated cereal (Oat) sometimes also found as an escape.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Growing in roadside, slopes; 1800-2800 m.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Wen, Jun

Source: Plants of Tibet

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat & Distribution

Widely cultivated in China [of cultivated origin].
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Faunal Associations

Various insects feed on oats (Avena sativa). These species include the caterpillars of such moths as Agrotis venerabilis (Venerable Dart), Apamea sordens (Rustic Shoulder-Knot), and Xestia c-nigrum (Lesser Black-Letter Dart). Other insect feeders include
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Foodplant / miner
larva of Agromyza ambigua mines leaf of Avena sativa
Other: major host/prey

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
Blumeria graminis parasitises live Avena sativa

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Cephus pygmeus feeds within stem of Avena sativa
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
Chytriomyces nodulatus is saprobic on submerged leaf of Avena sativa
Remarks: captive: in captivity, culture, or experimentally induced

Foodplant / saprobe
internal Diplophlyctis intestina is saprobic on stem of Avena sativa
Remarks: captive: in captivity, culture, or experimentally induced

Foodplant / parasite
internal Diplophlyctis laevis parasitises moribund leaf fragment of Avena sativa
Remarks: captive: in captivity, culture, or experimentally induced

Foodplant / pathogen
colony of Fusarium anamorph of Fusarium poae infects and damages pink-stained ear of Avena sativa

Foodplant / sap sucker
Macrosiphum avenae sucks sap of live Avena sativa

Foodplant / miner
larva of Oscinella frit mines live leaf of Avena sativa

Foodplant / feeds on
adult of Oulema melanopus/rufocyanea agg. feeds on leaf of Avena sativa
Remarks: season: 1-12
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
adult of Oulema septentrionis feeds on Avena sativa
Remarks: season: 4-6,8,10,12

Foodplant / spot causer
immersed pseudothecium of Phaeosphaeria avenaria f.sp. avenaria causes spots on live leaf of Avena sativa

Foodplant / pathogen
Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides var. acuformis infects and damages Avena sativa

Foodplant / parasite
hypophyllous telium of Puccinia coronata parasitises live leaf of Avena sativa
Remarks: season: mid 8-

Foodplant / parasite
linear telium of Puccinia graminis f.sp. avenae parasitises live sheath of Avena sativa

Foodplant / pathogen
perithecium of Pyrenophora seminiperda infects and damages seed of Avena sativa
Remarks: captive: in captivity, culture, or experimentally induced

Plant / resting place / on
male of Rhipidothrips gratiosus may be found on live Avena sativa
Remarks: season: 6-7

Foodplant / sap sucker
Rhopalosiphum padi sucks sap of Avena sativa

Foodplant / pathogen
sorus of Ustilago avenae infects and damages live ovary of Avena sativa
Other: minor host/prey

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Known predators

Avena sativa (oats (grass)) is prey of:
Lepus californicus
Eremophila alpestris
Calamospiza melanocorys

Based on studies in:
USA: California, Cabrillo Point (Grassland)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • L. D. Harris and L. Paur, A quantitative food web analysis of a shortgrass community, Technical Report No. 154, Grassland Biome. U.S. International Biological Program (1972), from p. 17.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© SPIRE project

Source: SPIRE

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Annual.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

The chromosomal number of Avena sativa is 2n = 42 (Jones et al., 1989; Guillin et al., 1995; Spies et al., 1999).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Wen, Jun

Source: Plants of Tibet

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Avena sativa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 12
Specimens with Barcodes: 23
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Smekalova, T. & Maslovky, O.

Reviewer/s
Bilz, M., Kell, S.P. & Nieto, A.

Contributor/s
Osborne, J. & Kell, S.P.

Justification

European regional assessment: Data Deficient (DD)
EU 27 regional assessment: Not Evaluated (NE)

Avena volgensis is a specialized weed of a local landrace of Triticum dicoccum. This landrace has been replaced with commercial varieties since the 1950s and the population of this weed has therefore declined dramatically. It is suspected that the species faces a high risk of extinction; however, in order to assess it, more information on the rate of decline in the last ten years or the actual area of occupancy is needed. It is therefore assessed as Data Deficient.

It does not occur within the EU 27.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
The population of this species is in severe decline. It has probably declined by 80% since 1950.

Population Trend
Decreasing
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
It is threatened by the replacement of landraces with commercial crops.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The genus Avena is listed in Annex I of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.

No germplasm accessions of A. volgensis are reported by EURISCO to be held in European genebanks (EURISCO Catalogue 2010). The ex situ conservation status of this species needs to be determined.

Information on the population size, distribution and trend in the last ten years is needed.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Info Flora (CRSF/ZDSF) & Autoren 2005

Supplier: Name It's Source (profile not public)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

Oats will adapt to full sun, moist to dry conditions, and either barren or fertile soil containing loam, clay, gravel, etc. It develops quickly during the cool moist weather of spring.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Uses

Avena sativa is used as food.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Wen, Jun

Source: Plants of Tibet

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Oat

The common oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other grains). While oats are suitable for human consumption as oatmeal and rolled oats, one of the most common uses is as livestock feed.

Origin[edit]

The wild ancestor of Avena sativa and the closely related minor crop, A. byzantina, is the hexaploid wild oat A. sterilis. Genetic evidence shows the ancestral forms of A. sterilis grew in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East. Domesticated oats appear relatively late, and far from the Near East, in Bronze Age Europe. Oats, like rye, are usually considered a secondary crop, i.e., derived from a weed of the primary cereal domesticates wheat and barley. As these cereals spread westwards into cooler, wetter areas, this may have favored the oat weed component, leading to its eventual domestication.[1]

Cultivation[edit]

Top Ten Oats Producers—2013
(Thousand Metric Tons)
 Russia4,027
 Canada2,680
 Poland1,439
 Finland1,159
 Australia1,050
 United States929
 Spain799
 United Kingdom784
 Sweden776
 Germany668
World Total20,732
Source:[2]

Oats are grown in temperate regions. They have a lower summer heat requirement and greater tolerance of rain than other cereals, such as wheat, rye or barley, so are particularly important in areas with cool, wet summers, such as Northwest Europe; they are even being grown in Iceland to help prolong the growing season.[3] Oats are an annual plant, and can be planted either in autumn (for late summer harvest) or in the spring (for early autumn harvest).

On the Indian subcontinent, oats (known locally in Hindi, Punjabi, Awadhi, Bhojpuri, and Nepali languages as "jaei" (जौ)) are grown on the foothills of Himalayas, such as in the Indian state of Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. References to its cultivation can be found in the epic Mahabharat.

Worldwide oat production


Uses[edit]

Closeup of oat florets (small flowers)

Oats have numerous uses in foods; most commonly, they are rolled or crushed into oatmeal, or ground into fine oat flour. Oatmeal is chiefly eaten as porridge, but may also be used in a variety of baked goods, such as oatcakes, oatmeal cookies, and oat bread. Oats are also an ingredient in many cold cereals, in particular muesli and granola.

Historical attitudes towards oats have varied. Oat bread was first manufactured in Britain, where the first oat bread factory was established in 1899. In Scotland, they were, and still are, held in high esteem, as a mainstay of the national diet.

In Scotland, a dish called cow pat was made by soaking the husks from oats for a week, so the fine, floury part of the meal remained as sediment to be strained off, boiled and eaten.[4] Oats are also widely used there as a thickener in soups, as barley or rice might be used in other countries.

Oats are also commonly used as feed for horses when extra carbohydrates, and the subsequent boost in energy, are required. The oat hull may be crushed ("rolled" or "crimped") for the horse to more easily digest the grain,[citation needed] or may be fed whole. They may be given alone or as part of a blended food pellet. Cattle are also fed oats, either whole, or ground into a coarse flour using a roller mill, burr mill, or hammer mill.

Winter oats may be grown as an off-season groundcover and ploughed under in the spring as a green fertilizer, or harvested in early summer. They also can be used for pasture; they can be grazed a while, then allowed to head out for grain production, or grazed continuously until other pastures are ready.[5]

Oat straw is prized by cattle and horse producers as bedding, due to its soft, relatively dust-free, and absorbent nature. The straw can also be used for making corn dollies. Tied in a muslin bag, oat straw was used to soften bath water.

Oats are also occasionally used in several different drinks. In Britain, they are sometimes used for brewing beer. Oatmeal stout is one variety brewed using a percentage of oats for the wort. The more rarely used oat malt is produced by the Thomas Fawcett & Sons Maltings, and was used in the Maclay Oat Malt Stout before Maclays Brewery ceased independent brewing operations. A cold, sweet drink called avena made of ground oats and milk is a popular refreshment throughout Latin America. Oatmeal caudle, made of ale and oatmeal with spices, was a traditional British drink and a favourite of Oliver Cromwell.[6][7]

Oat extract can also be used to soothe skin conditions.

Oat grass has been used traditionally for medicinal purposes, including to help balance the menstrual cycle, treat dysmenorrhoea, and for osteoporosis and urinary tract infections.[8]

Health[edit]

Oat grains in their husks

Oats are generally, considered "healthful", or a health food[citation needed], being touted commercially as nutritious[citation needed]. The discovery of their healthy cholesterol-lowering properties[9] has led to wider appreciation of oats as human food.

Soluble fiber[edit]

Oat bran is the outer casing of the oat. Its consumption is believed to lower LDL ("bad") cholesterol,[10] and possibly to reduce the risk of heart disease.[9]

Oats contain more soluble fibre than any other grain, resulting in slower digestion and an extended sensation of fullness.[11] One type of soluble fibre, beta-glucans, has been proven to help lower cholesterol.[9]

After reports of research finding that dietary oats can help lower cholesterol,[12] an "oat bran craze" swept the U.S. in the late 1980s, peaking in 1989, when potato chips with added oat bran were marketed. The food fad was short-lived and faded by the early 1990s. The popularity of oatmeal and other oat products again increased after a January 1998 decision by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), when it issued a final rule that allows food companies to make health claims on food labels of foods that contain soluble fibre from whole oats (oat bran, oat flour and rolled oats), noting that 3.0 grams of soluble fibre daily from these foods may reduce the risk of heart disease. To qualify for the health claim, the whole oat-containing food must provide at least 0.75 grams of soluble fibre per serving. A class of polysaccharides known as beta-D-glucans comprise the soluble fibre in whole oats.

Beta-D-glucans, usually referred to as beta-glucans, comprise a class of indigestible polysaccharides widely found in nature in sources such as grains, barley, yeast, bacteria, algae and mushrooms. In oats, barley and other cereal grains, they are located primarily in the endosperm cell wall.

Oat beta-glucan is a soluble fibre. It is a viscous polysaccharide made up of units of the monosaccharide D-glucose. Oat beta-glucan is composed of mixed-linkage polysaccharides. This means the bonds between the D-glucose or D-glucopyranosyl units are either beta-1, 3 linkages or beta-1, 4 linkages. This type of beta-glucan is also referred to as a mixed-linkage (1→3), (1→4)-beta-D-glucan. The (1→3)-linkages break up the uniform structure of the beta-D-glucan molecule and make it soluble and flexible. In comparison, the indigestible polysaccharide cellulose is also a beta-glucan, but is not soluble. The reason it is insoluble is cellulose consists only of (1→4)-beta-D-linkages. The percentages of beta-glucan in the various whole oat products are: oat bran, greater than 5.5% and up to 23.0%; rolled oats, about 4%; and whole oat flour about 4%.

Oats, after corn (maize), have the highest lipid content of any cereal, e.g., greater than 10% for oats and as high as 17% for some maize cultivars compared to about 2-3% for wheat and most other cereals. The polar lipid content of oats (about 8–17% glycolipid and 10–20% phospholipid or a total of about 33%) is greater than that of other cereals, since much of the lipid fraction is contained within the endosperm.

Protein[edit]

Oats
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy1,628 kJ (389 kcal)
Carbohydrates66.3 g
- Dietary fibre10.6 g
Fat6.9 g
Protein16.9 g
Thiamine (vit. B1)0.763 mg (66%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2)0.139 mg (12%)
Niacin (vit. B3)0.961 mg (6%)
Pantothenic acid (B5)1.349 mg (27%)
Folate (vit. B9)56 μg (14%)
Calcium54 mg (5%)
Iron5 mg (38%)
Magnesium177 mg (50%)
Manganese4.9 mg (233%)
Phosphorus523 mg (75%)
Potassium429 mg (9%)
Zinc4 mg (42%)
β-glucan (soluble fibre) 4 g
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Oats are the only cereal containing a globulin or legume-like protein, avenalin, as the major (80%) storage protein.[13] Globulins are characterised by solubility in dilute saline as opposed to the more typical cereal proteins, such as gluten and zein, are prolamines (prolamins). The minor protein of oat is a prolamine, avenin.

Oat protein is nearly equivalent in quality to soy protein, which World Health Organization research has shown to be equal to meat, milk, and egg protein.[14] The protein content of the hull-less oat kernel (groat) ranges from 12 to 24%, the highest among cereals.

Coeliac disease[edit]

Coeliac disease (celiac disease) is often associated with the ingestion of wheat, or more specifically, a group of proteins labelled prolamines, or more commonly, gluten. Oats lack many of the prolamines found in wheat; however, oats do contain avenin.[15] Avenin is toxic to the intestinal mucosa of avenin-sensitive individuals, and can trigger a reaction in these coeliacs.[16]

The most recent research indicates some cultivars of oat can be a safe part of a gluten-free diet, because different varieties of oats have different levels of toxicity.[17] Although oats do contain avenin, several studies suggest this may not be problematic for all coeliacs. The first such study was published in 1995.[18] A follow-up study indicated it is safe to use oats even in a longer period.[19]

Additionally, oats are frequently processed near wheat, barley and other grains, so become contaminated with other glutens. Because of this, the FAO's Codex Alimentarius Commission officially lists them as a gluten-containing crop. Oats from Ireland and Scotland, where less wheat is grown, are less likely to be contaminated in this way.[citation needed] Oats are part of a gluten-free diet in countries like Finland and Sweden. Suppliers in both those countries offer "pure oat" products.

Agronomy[edit]

« Noire d'Epinal » : an ancient oat variety.
Oats in Saskatchewan near harvest time

Oats are sown in the spring or early summer in colder areas, as soon as the soil can be worked. An early start is crucial to good yields, as oats go dormant in summer heat. In warmer areas, oats are sown in late summer or early fall. Oats are cold-tolerant and are unaffected by late frosts or snow.

Seeding rates[edit]

Typically, about 125 to 175 kg/ha (between 2.75 and 3.25 bushels per acre) are sown, either broadcast, drilled, or planted using an air seeder. Lower rates are used when interseeding with a legume. Somewhat higher rates can be used on the best soils, or where there are problems with weeds. Excessive sowing rates lead to problems with lodging, and may reduce yields.

Fertilizer requirements[edit]

Oats remove substantial amounts of nitrogen from the soil. They also remove phosphorus in the form of P2O5 at the rate of 0.25 pound per bushel per acre (1 bushel = 38 pounds at 12% moisture).[citation needed] Phosphate is thus applied at a rate of 30 to 40 kg/ha, or 30 to 40 lb/acre. Oats remove potash (K2O) at a rate of 0.19 pound per bushel per acre, which causes it to use 15–30 kg/ha, or 13–27 lb/acre. Usually, 50–100 kg/ha (45–90 lb/ac) of nitrogen in the form of urea or anhydrous ammonia is sufficient, as oats use about one pound per bushel per acre. A sufficient amount of nitrogen is particularly important for plant height, and hence, straw quality and yield. When the prior-year crop was a legume, or where ample manure is applied, nitrogen rates can be reduced somewhat.

Weed control[edit]

The vigorous growth of oats tends to choke out most weeds. A few tall broadleaf weeds, such as ragweed, goosegrass, wild mustard, and buttonweed (velvetleaf), occasionally create a problem, as they complicate harvest and reduce yields. These can be controlled with a modest application of a broadleaf herbicide, such as 2,4-D, while the weeds are still small.

Pests and diseases[edit]

Oats are relatively free from diseases and pests with the exception being leaf diseases, such as leaf rust and stem rust. A few lepidopteran caterpillars feed on the plants—e.g. rustic shoulder-knot and setaceous Hebrew character moths, but these rarely become a major pest. See also List of oat diseases.

Harvesting[edit]

Harvesting of oats in Jølster, Norway ca. 1890
(Photo: Axel Lindahl/Norwegian Museum of Cultural History)

Harvest techniques are a matter of available equipment, local tradition, and priorities. Farmers seeking the highest yield from their crops time their harvest so the kernels have reached 35% moisture, or when the greenest kernels are just turning cream-colour. They then harvest by swathing, cutting the plants at about 10 cm (4 inches) above ground, and putting the swathed plants into windrows with the grain all oriented the same way. They leave the windrows to dry in the sun for several days before combining them using a pickup header. Finally, they bale the straw.

Oats can also be left standing until completely ripe and then combined with a grain head. This causes greater field losses as the grain falls from the heads, and to harvesting losses, as the grain is threshed out by the reel. Without a draper head, there is also more damage to the straw, since it is not properly oriented as it enters the combine's throat. Overall yield loss is 10–15% compared to proper swathing.

Historical harvest methods involved cutting with a scythe or sickle, and threshing under the feet of cattle. Late 19th- and early 20th-century harvesting was performed using a binder. Oats were gathered into shocks, and then collected and run through a stationary threshing machine.

Storage[edit]

After combining, the oats are transported to the farmyard using a grain truck, semi, or road train, where they are augered or conveyed into a bin for storage. Sometimes, when there is not enough bin space, they are augered into portable grain rings, or piled on the ground. Oats can be safely stored at 12% moisture; at higher moisture levels, they must be aerated, or dried.

Yield and quality[edit]

In the United States, No.1 oats weigh 42 pounds per US bushel (541 kg/m3); No.3 oats must weigh at least 38 lb/US bu (489 kg/m3). If over 36 lb/US bu (463 kg/m3), they are graded as No.4, and oats under 36 lb/US bu (463 kg/m3) are graded as "light weight".

In Canada, No.1 oats weigh 42.64 lb/US bu (549 kg/m3); No.2 oats must weigh 40.18 lb/US bu (517 kg/m3); No.3 oats must weigh at least 38.54 lb/US bu (496 kg/m3) and if oats are lighter than 36.08 lb/US bu (464 kg/m3) they do not make No.4 oats and have no grade.[20]

Note, however, that oats are bought and sold, and yields are figured, on the basis of a bushel equal to 32 pounds (14.5 kg or 412 kg/m3) in the United States and a bushel equal to 34 pounds (15.4 kg or 438 kg/m3) in Canada. Yields range from 60 to 80 US bushels per acre (5.2–7.0 m3/ha) on marginal land, to 100 to 150 US bushels per acre (8.7–13.1 m3/ha) on high-producing land. The average production is 100 bushels per acre, or 3.5 tonnes per hectare.

Straw yields are variable, ranging from one to three tonnes per hectare, mainly due to available nutrients, and the variety used (some are short-strawed, meant specifically for straight combining).

Processing[edit]

Porridge oats before cooking

Oats processing is a relatively simple process:

Cleaning and sizing[edit]

Upon delivery to the milling plant, chaff, rocks, other grains, and other foreign material are removed from the oats.

Dehulling[edit]

Centrifugal acceleration is used to separate the outer hull from the inner oat groat. Oats are fed by gravity onto the centre of a horizontally spinning stone, which accelerates them towards the outer ring. Groats and hulls are separated on impact with this ring. The lighter oat hulls are then aspirated away, while the denser oat groats are taken to the next step of processing. Oat hulls can be used as feed, processed further into insoluble oat fibre, or used as a biomass fuel.

Kilning[edit]

The unsized oat groats pass through a heat and moisture treatment to balance moisture, but mainly to stabilize them. Oat groats are high in fat (lipids), and once removed from their protective hulls and exposed to air, enzymatic (lipase) activity begins to break down the fat into free fatty acids, ultimately causing an off-flavour or rancidity. Oats begin to show signs of enzymatic rancidity within four days of being dehulled if not stabilized. This process is primarily done in food-grade plants, not in feed-grade plants. Groats are not considered raw if they have gone through this process; the heat disrupts the germ, and they cannot sprout.

Sizing of groats[edit]

Many whole oat groats break during the dehulling process, leaving the following types of groats to be sized and separated for further processing: whole oat groats, coarse steel cut groats, steel cut groats, and fine steel cut groats. Groats are sized and separated using screens, shakers and indent screens. After the whole oat groats are separated, the remaining broken groats get sized again into the three groups (coarse, regular, fine), and then stored. "Steel cut" refers to all sized or cut groats. When not enough broken groats are available to size for further processing, whole oat groats are sent to a cutting unit with steel blades that evenly cut groats into the three sizes above.

Final processing[edit]

Three methods are used to make the finished product:

Flaking[edit]

This process uses two large smooth or corrugated rolls spinning at the same speed in opposite directions at a controlled distance. Oat flakes, also known as rolled oats, have many different sizes, thicknesses and other characteristics depending on the size of oat groats passed between the rolls. Typically, the three sizes of steel cut oats are used to make instant, baby and quick rolled oats, whereas whole oat groats are used to make regular, medium and thick rolled oats. Oat flakes range in thickness from 0.36 mm to 1.00 mm.

Oat bran milling[edit]

This process takes the oat groats through several roll stands to flatten and separate the bran from the flour (endosperm). The two separate products (flour and bran) get sifted through a gyrating sifter screen to further separate them. The final products are oat bran and debranned oat flour.

Whole flour milling[edit]

This process takes oat groats straight to a grinding unit (stone or hammer mill) and then over sifter screens to separate the coarse flour and final whole oat flour. The coarser flour is sent back to the grinding unit until it is ground fine enough to be whole oat flour. This method is used often in India and other countries. In India whole grain flour of oats (jai) used to make Indian bread known as jarobra in Himachal Pradesh.

Oat flour preparation at home[edit]

Oat flour can be purchased, but one can grind for small scale use by pulsing rolled oats or old-fashioned (not quick) oats in a food processor or spice mill.[21][22]

Naming[edit]

In Scottish English, oats may be referred to as corn.[23] (In the English language, the major staple grain of the local area is often referred to as "corn".[citation needed] In the US, corn refers to what others call "maize".)

Oats futures[edit]

Oats futures are traded on the Chicago Board of Trade, and have delivery dates in March (H), May (K), July (N), September (U) and December (Z).[24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Zhou, X.; Jellen, E.N.; Murphy, J.P. (1999). "Progenitor germplasm of domesticated hexaploid oat". Crop science 39: 1208–1214. 
  2. ^ "World oats production, consumption, and stocks". United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 18 March 2013. 
  3. ^ Ingi, Hörður & Ólafur. "Icelandic Animals". Retrieved 18 March 2013. 
  4. ^ Gauldie, Enid (1981). The Scottish country miller, 1700–1900: a history of water-powered meal milling in Scotland. Edinburgh: J. Donald. ISBN 0-85976-067-7. 
  5. ^ "Grazing of Oat Pastures". eXtension. 2008-02-11. Retrieved 2013-03-27. 
  6. ^ The Compleat Housewife, p. 169, Eliza Smith, 1739
  7. ^ Food in Early Modern Europe, Ken Albala, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003, ISBN 0-313-31962-6
  8. ^ James A. Duke, Handbook of medicinal herbs, CRC Press, 2002.
  9. ^ a b c http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=54
  10. ^ http://www.webmd.com/cholesterol-management/features/the-new-cholesterol-diet-oatmeal-oat-bran
  11. ^ Molecular aspects of cereal b-glucan functionality: Physical properties, technological applications and physiological effects A. LazaridouÃ, C.G. Biliaderis
  12. ^ "www.heart.org". Americanheart.org. Retrieved 2013-03-27. 
  13. ^ "Seed Storage Proteins: Structures 'and Biosynthesis". Plantcell.org. Retrieved 2013-03-27. 
  14. ^ Lasztity, Radomir (1999). The Chemistry of Cereal Proteins. Akademiai Kiado (English). ISBN 978-0-8493-2763-6. 
  15. ^ Rottmann LH (2006-09-26). "On the Use of Oats in the Gluten-Free Diet". Celiac Sprue Association/United States of America, Inc. (CSA). Archived from the original on 2006-06-05. Retrieved 2006-10-31. 
  16. ^ "Info on Oats". Celiac Sprue Association/United States of America, Inc. (CSA). 2006-09-26. Retrieved 2007-09-29. 
  17. ^ Comino, Isabel; Ana Real, Laura de Lorenzo, Hugh Cornell, Miguel Ángel López-Casado, Francisco Barro, Pedro Lorite, Ma Isabel Torres, Ángel Cebolla, Carolina Sousa (12 February 2011). "Diversity in oat potential immunogenicity: basis for the selection of oat varieties with no toxicity in coeliac disease". Gut 60 (First Online): 915–22. doi:10.1136/gut.2010.225268. PMC 3112367. PMID 21317420. Retrieved 12 March 2011. 
  18. ^ Janatuinen, E., et al. (1995-10-19). "A Comparison of Diets with and without Oats in Adults with Celiac Disease". New England Journal of Medicine. 
  19. ^ Janatuinen, E.K.; Kemppainen, T.A.; Julkunen, R.J.K.; Kosma, V-M.; Mäki, M.; Heikkinen, M.; Uusitupa, M.I. (2002). "No harm from five year ingestion of oats in celiac disease". Gut 50 (3): 332–335. doi:10.1136/gut.50.3.332. PMC 1773136. PMID 11839710. 
  20. ^ "Oats – Chapter 7 – Official Grain Grading Guide – 5 / 7". Grainscanada.gc.ca. 2012-07-27. Retrieved 2013-03-27. 
  21. ^ The Sparkpeople cookbook: love your food, lose the weight, Galvin, M., Romnie, S., May House Inc, 2011, ISBN 978-1-1019-3132-2, page 98.
  22. ^ ["http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-oat-flour.htm "What is out flour?"] wiseGeek.com. Retrieved 07 July 2013.
  23. ^ Partridge, Eric; Janet Whitcut (ed.) (1995). Usage and Abusage: A Guide to Good English (1st American ed. ed.). New York: W.W. Norton, 1995. p. 82. ISBN 0-393-03761-4. 
  24. ^ List of Commodity Delivery Dates on Wikinvest
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 4.0 of 5

Notes

Comments

This species is cultivated as a cereal crop (oats) in north-temperate regions of the world, and also as a green fodder crop. Genetic evidence points to Avena sterilis as the wild ancestor of A. sativa, and A. fatua as a weedy derivative. Hybrids between A. sativa and A. fatua with hairy florets or well-developed awns may occur where the two species grow together.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Comments

Widely cultivated in non-tropical regions of both hemispheres for food and fodders.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!