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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Arrhenatherum elatius J.Presl & C.Presl 1819

Materials

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: catalogNumber: 32 ; recordedBy: student excursion of the Department of botany and plant physiology, Kyrgyz National University ; Taxon: family: Poaceae; genus: Arrhenatherum; specificEpithet: elatius; taxonRank: species; scientificNameAuthorship: (L.) J.Presl & C.Presl; Location: continent: Asia; country: Kyrgyzstan ; stateProvince: Ysyk-Köl Region; locality: Vicinity of Bosteri Village ; decimalLatitude: 42.6464 ; decimalLongitude: 77.1656 ; Identification: identifiedBy: G.A.Lazkov; dateIdentified: 08/15/2013; Event: eventDate: 01/06/2013-31/06/2013 ; year: 2013; month: 6; eventRemarks: alien plant; Record Level: collectionID: 88420; institutionCode: FRU ; basisOfRecord: specimen

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: catalogNumber: 33 ; recordedBy: A. Sennikov & G. Lazkov ; Taxon: family: Poaceae; genus: Arrhenatherum; specificEpithet: elatius; taxonRank: species; scientificNameAuthorship: (L.) J.Presl & C.Presl; Location: continent: Asia; country: Kyrgyzstan ; stateProvince: Talas Region; locality: Talas Valley, Koek-Say Village ; verbatimElevation: 1220; decimalLatitude: 42.510106 ; decimalLongitude: 71.117674 ; Identification: identifiedBy: A.N.Sennikov; dateIdentified: 08/08/2013; Event: eventDate: 08/08/2013 ; year: 2013; month: 8; day: 8; habitat: Remnants of old cultivation along an artificial brook, dispersed and established; fieldNumber: 195; eventRemarks: alien plant; Record Level: collectionID: 88420; institutionCode: FRU ; basisOfRecord: specimen

Native distribution and occurrence in Central Asia

This economically important species is very commonly cultivated in Europe as forage and ornamental plant, often escaping and getting established ( Tzvelev 1976 ). Its native distribution area lies in Europe, the Mediterranean and Western Asia ( Tzvelev 1976 ). In the mountainous Central Asia, in addition to the native occurrence in Turkmenistan ( Rozhevits 1932 , Nikitin and Geldykhanov 1988 ), it was locally cultivated on experimental fields but had never been commonly introduced ( Sidorenko 1957 ). In Kazakhstan Arrhenatherum elatius was cultivated for artificial grasslands and lawns, and characterized as easy to run wild ( Gamayunova 1956 ).

Occurrence in Kyrgyzstan

This species has never been reported from Kyrgyzstan. We observed Arrhenatherum elatius growing as self-sawn relics of abandoned cultivation in the private garden in Kök-Say Village (southwestern part of the Talas Depression), originally planted for forage and now spreading along artificial brooks outside the village. Another record (Fig. 8) comes from a student excursion to the northern side of the Ysyk-Köl Lake, where the species was cultivated as ornamental plant in the resort area.

Invasion status in Kyrgyzstan

The species may be considered locally established at Kök-Say because of its persistence and spread from the place of original cultivation. In the observed place the species does not show obvious threats to the native vegetation. The invasion status of the other locality is not ascertained.

  • Lazkov, Georgy, Sennikov, Alexander (2014): New records in vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan. Biodiversity Data Journal 2, 1018: 1018-1018, URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.2.e1018
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Plazi

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Description

Arrhenatherum elatius, tall oatgrass, is a perennial, cool-season bunchgrass generally grown in Europe where it once was a component of the grasslands. Culms are erect, from 3 to 5 feet tall. Leaf blades, from 3/8 to 3/4 inches wide, are flat and rough to the touch. Seed heads are narrow panicles 6 to 10 inches long with long, twisted, angled, exposed awns.

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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution and adaptation

Introduced from Europe in the early 1800s, tall oatgrass has become naturalized in meadows, fields, open ground, waste places, and roadsides from Newfoundland to British Columbia, south to Georgia, Louisiana, New Mexico, and California. For a current distribution map, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site.

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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Perennials, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Rhizomes present, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems geniculate, decumbent, or lax, sometimes rooting at nodes, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 1-2 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades scabrous, roughened, or wrinkled, Ligule present, Ligule an unfringed eciliate membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence an open panicle, openly paniculate, branches spreading, Inflorescence a contracted panicle, narrowly paniculate, branches appressed or ascending, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule , head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence branches more than 10 to numerous, Flowers bisexual, Flowers unisexual, Spikelets laterally compressed, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 2 florets, Spikelet with one perfect floret and one staminate floret, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets in paired units, 1 sessile, 1 pedicellate, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating above the glumes, glumes persistent, Rachilla or pedicel hairy, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes distinctly unequal, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Glume equal to or longer than spikelet, Glumes 1 nerved, Glumes 3 nerved, Lemma coriaceous, firmer or thicker in texture than the glumes, Lemma 5-7 nerved, Lemma body or surface hairy, Lemma apex acute or acuminate, Lemma distinctly awned, more than 2-3 mm, Lemma with 1 awn, Lemma awn less than 1 cm long, Lemma awn 1-2 cm long, Lemma awn subapical or dorsal, Lemma awns straight or curved to base, Lemma awn once geniculate, bent once, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea about equal to lemma, Palea 2 nerved or 2 keeled, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis.
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Dr. David Bogler

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Description

Culms erect or geniculate at base, rather stout, 1–1.5 m tall, 4–5-noded. Leaf sheaths loose, glabrous; leaf blades 14–30 cm, 3–9 mm wide, scabrid or abaxial surface smooth, apex acuminate; ligule 1–3 mm, obtuse or truncate. Panicle lanceolate to oblong in outline, loose to rather dense, 10–25 cm, greenish or purplish, shining; branches clustered,scabrid. Spikelets oblong, 7–9 mm, florets separated by short rachilla internode not more than 0.6 mm; glumes lanceolate, apex acute; lower glume 4–6 mm, upper glume equal to spikelet, punctiform scabrid; lemmas oblong-lanceolate, 7–9 mm, sparsely pubescent in lower 1/3 or glabrous, scabrid in upper 1/3; awn of lower lemma 1–2 cm, arising from lower 1/3 of lemma back; awn of upper lemma 1–2 mm, arising above middle or near apex. Anthers 4–5 mm. 2n = 28.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat & Distribution

Introduced to China as an ornamental garden plant and for forage [native to Russia; N Africa, SW Asia, Europe; introduced to Australia and North America].
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Dispersal

Establishment

Tall oatgrass is easily established, adapted to excessively drained low fertility soils, and compatible with legumes. A firm, weed-free seedbed is necessary for good stands. Spring seedings produce best results as the seedlings are not winter hardy. Seeding rates should range from 5 to 8 pounds pure live seed using hulled seed. Seed should be planted approximately 1/4 inch deep and cultipacked.

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Associations

Foodplant / miner
larva of Agromyza nigrociliata mines leaf of Arrhenatherum elatius

Foodplant / miner
solitary larva of Agromyza rondensis mines leaf of Arrhenatherum elatius

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Albotricha acutipila is saprobic on dead stem of Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: 4-8

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Albotricha albotestacea is saprobic on dead stem of Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: 2-8

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Arthrinium dematiaceous anamorph of Arthrinium phaeospermum is saprobic on dead stem of Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: esp. 7-8

Foodplant / spot causer
gregarious, with smoky-brown pore pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta graminicola causes spots on fading leaf of Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: late summer

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Bisporella scolochloae is saprobic on dead, on ground stem of Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: 7-8
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
Blumeria graminis parasitises live Arrhenatherum elatius

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Calameuta filiformis feeds within stem of Arrhenatherum elatius

Plant / resting place / within
puparium of Chromatomyia nigra may be found in leaf-mine of Arrhenatherum elatius

Foodplant / gall
stroma of Epichlo causes gall of stem of Arrhenatherum elatius

Foodplant / pathogen
immersed, mycelial matted perithecium of Gaeumannomyces graminis infects and damages dead leaf sheath (lower part) of Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: 3-10

Foodplant / pathogen
Fusarium anamorph of Gibberella zeae infects and damages spikelet of Arrhenatherum elatius
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked apothecium of Hymenoscyphus scutula is saprobic on dead stem of Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: 10-1

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Lachnum carneolum var. longisporum is saprobic on dead leaf of Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: (2-)6-8(-10)

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked apothecium of Lachnum palearum var. palearum is saprobic on dead stem of Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: 3-8

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Lachnum tenuissimum is saprobic on dead stem of Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: 5-8

Foodplant / saprobe
thyriothecium of Lichenopeltella alpestris is saprobic on dead stem of Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: 4-11

Foodplant / pathogen
pycnidium of Dilophospora coelomycetous anamorph of Lidophia graminis infects and damages live inflorescence of Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: 5-10, esp. 7

Plant / resting place / on
puparium of Liriomyza phryne may be found on leaf of Arrhenatherum elatius
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / miner
larva of Liriomyza pusio mines leaf of Arrhenatherum elatius
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent apothecium of Lophodermium culmigenum is saprobic on dead stem of Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: 3-8
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Tetraploa dematiaceous anamorph of Massarina tetraploa is saprobic on Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: 1-12
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Mollisia palustris is saprobic on dead stem of Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: 3-9

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Cercosporidium dematiaceous anamorph of Mycosphaerella recutita is saprobic on dead leaf of Arrhenatherum elatius

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pycnidial anamorph of Ophiosphaerella herpotricha is saprobic on stem internode (basal) of Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: 3-7
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Periconia dematiaceous anamorph of Periconia minutissima is saprobic on dead leaf of Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered, initially immersed pseudothecium of Phaeosphaeria fuckelii is saprobic on dead stem of Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: spring, summer

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered, initially immersed pycnidium of Septoria anamorph of Phaeosphaeria nodorum is saprobic on dead stem (esp node) of Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: spring, summer

Foodplant / saprobe
pycnidium of Hendersonia coelomycetous anamorph of Phaeosphaeria vagans is saprobic on dead stem of Arrhenatherum elatius

Foodplant / saprobe
perithecium of Phomatospora dinemasporium is saprobic on dead sheath of Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: 6-7

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pseudothecium of Pleospora phaeocomoides is saprobic on dead stem of Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: 2-10

Foodplant / spot causer
immersed, crowded or in rows pycnidium of Pseudoseptoria coelomycetous anamorph of Pseudoseptoria donacis causes spots on sheath of Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: 5-7

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Psilachnum acutum is saprobic on dead leaf of Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: 8-10
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Psilachnum eburneum is saprobic on dead leaf of Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: 4-9

Foodplant / parasite
hypophyllous telium of Puccinia coronata parasitises live leaf of Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: mid 8-

Foodplant / parasite
amphigenous uredium of Puccinia graminis f.sp. avenae parasitises live leaf of Arrhenatherum elatius

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous, numerous, black pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Septoria bromi var. arrhenatheri causes spots on leaf of Arrhenatherum elatius

Foodplant / feeds on
scattered or gregarious, immersed, pallid brown pycnidium of Stagonospora coelomycetous anamorph of Stagonospora arrhenatheri feeds on culm of Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: 8

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Helicosporium anamorph of Tubeufia paludosa is saprobic on dead leaf of Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: 3-11

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Typhula culmigena is saprobic on dead, decayed leaf of Arrhenatherum elatius

Foodplant / spot causer
long, linear, erumpent sorus of Urocystis agropyri causes spots on live, blistered, ribboned leaf of Arrhenatherum elatius

Foodplant / parasite
embedded sorus of Urocystis avenae-elatioris parasitises live leaf of Arrhenatherum elatius
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
sorus of Ustilago avenae infects and damages live ovary of Arrhenatherum elatius
Remarks: season: early 6+
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
long, linear, erumpent sorus of Ustilago striiformis causes spots on live, blistered, ribboned leaf of Arrhenatherum elatius

Foodplant / parasite
embedded sorus of Ustilentyloma brefeldii parasitises live leaf of Arrhenatherum elatius

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Arrhenatherum elatius

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 20
Specimens with Barcodes: 36
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: TNR - Not Yet Ranked

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status (e.g. threatened or endangered species, state noxious status, and wetland indicator values).

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Threats

Pests and potential problems

Tall oatgrass is highly resistant to disease and insects.

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Management

Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

Seed is available from commercial seed producers.

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Apply lime and fertilizer according to soil test results when seeding and for maintenance. Use of herbicides in the establishment year to control broadleaf weeds will improve success of the planting. Mow or graze for control in subsequent years.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Erosion control: Tall oatgrass is a useful conservation grass for cover and forage on surface mined lands and marginal pastureland.

Livestock: Tall oatgrass can be used for livestock forage beginning in its second growing season; however, it is not recommended as a major component of forage seedings as other grasses are superior for this purpose.

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Wikipedia

Arrhenatherum elatius

Arrhenatherum elatius, with the common names false oat-grass, tall oat-grass, tall meadow oat, onion couch and tuber oat-grass, is a perennial species of grass, common in the temperate regions of Europe.

This bunchgrass is often used as an ornamental grass.

It is native to Europe but can be found elsewhere as an introduced species. It is found especially in prairies, at the side of roads and in uncultivated fields. The bulbous variety can be a weed of arable land. It is palatable grass for livestock and is used both as forage (pasture) and fodder (hay and silage); it has high amounts of phosphorus and calcium in its tissues.[citation needed]

Two subspecies have been described:

Habitat[edit]

Arrhenatherum elatius is a principle species in two UK National Vegetation Classification habitat communities: the very widespread MG1 (Arrhenatherum elatius grassland) and the much rarer MG2 (Arrhenatherum elatius - Filipendula ulmaria tall-herb grassland). This means that it can be found with species such as Dactylis glomerata (also known as Cock's-foot and orchard grass), and of course Filipendula ulmaria (also known as Meadow-Sweet).

It is found on road verges, along hedges and riverbanks.

It can colonise and stabilise limestone scree, bare calcareous cliffs, maritime shingle and coastal dunes.

Description[edit]

This course grass can grow to 150cm tall. The leaves are bright green, broad, slightly hairy and rough. The ligule is 3mm long and smooth edged. The panicle is up to 30cm, and the bunched spikelet have projecting and angled awns up to 17mm long, green or purplish. The panicles often remain into winter.[1] The spikelets are oblong or gaping. It flowers from June to September.

The roots are yellow.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ BSBI Description retrieved 10 December 2010.
  2. ^ Grasses by C E Hubbard, 1978, published by Penguin books
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Not recognized in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007).

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