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Overview

Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Phalaris caroliniana Walter:
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
United States (North America)
Switzerland (Europe)
Germany (Europe)
Chile (South America)
Australia (Oceania)
Caribbean (Caribbean)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Annuals, Perennials, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Ligule present, Ligule an unfringed eciliate membrane, Inflorescence termi nal, Inflorescence a dense slender spike-like panicle or raceme, branches contracted, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence spike linear or cylindric, several times longer than wide, Inflorescence single raceme, fascicle or spike, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets sessile or subsessile, Spikelets laterally compressed, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 3-7 florets, Spikelet with 1 fertile floret and 1-2 sterile florets, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating above the glumes, glumes persistent, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes equal or subequal, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Glume equal to or longer than spikelet, Glumes 1 nerved, Glumes 3 nerved, Glumes 4-7 nerved, Lemma coriaceous, firmer or thicker in texture than the glum es, Lemma becoming indurate, enclosing palea and caryopsis, Lemma 5-7 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma body or surface hairy, Lemma apex acute or acuminate, Lemma awnless, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea about equal to lemma, Palea longer than lemma, Palea 2 nerved or 2 keeled, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis, Caryopsis ellipsoid, longitudinally grooved, hilum long-linear.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Type Information

Neotype for Phalaris caroliniana Walter
Catalog Number: US 2075588
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): W. H. Duncan
Year Collected: 1949
Locality: Ca. 1 1/3 mi due N of Clark Hill Dam., Mccormick, South Carolina, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 200 to 200
  • Neotype: Anderson, D. E. 1961. Iowa State Journ. Sci. 36 (1): 80.; Walter, T. 1788. Fl. Carolina. 74.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Type fragment for Phalaris occidentalis Nutt.
Catalog Number: US 87255
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): T. Nuttall
Locality: Inundated prairies, from Fort Smith on the Arkansas to Red River., United States, North America
  • Type fragment: Nuttall, T. 1837. Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. 5: 144.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Phalaris caroliniana

Phalaris caroliniana is a species of grass known by the common names Carolina canarygrass and maygrass. It is native to the southeastern United States, and it can be found as a naturalized species along the southern half of the United States to the west coast, as well as northern Mexico and parts of Europe and Australia. It is most often found in moist to wet habitat, such as marshy meadows, and it can thrive in disturbed areas. It is an annual grass reaching a maximum height between 1 and 1.5 meters. The hairy inflorescence is roughly oval in shape and up to 7 centimeters long by 2 wide.

This grass probably made up part of the diet of prehistoric natives of the eastern United States, its grains having been identified in archaeological sites from Texas to Indiana to Alabama which may be four millennia old.[1] Laboratory analysis of the grass seed indicates that it is quite nutritious, with a good amount of vitamins and minerals.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Roberts, K. M. Phalaris caroliniana. Laboratory Guide To Archaeological Plant Remains From Eastern North America. Washington University St. Louis.
  2. ^ Crites, G. D. & R. D. Terry. (1984). Nutritive value of maygrass, Phalaris caroliniana. Economic Botany 38:1 114-20.
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