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Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Annuals, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 1-2 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Ligule present, Ligule an unfringed eciliate membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence a dense slender spike-like panicle or raceme, branches contracted, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence spike linear or cylindric, several times longer than wide, Inflorescence single raceme, fascicle or spike, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets sessile or subsessile, Spikelets laterally compressed, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 3-7 florets, Spikelet with 1 fertile floret and 1-2 sterile florets, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating above the glumes, glumes persistent, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes equal or subequal, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Glume equal to or longer than spikelet, Glumes keeled or winged, Glumes 1 nerved, Glumes 3 nerved, Glumes 4-7 nerved, Lemma coriaceous, firmer or thicker in texture than the glumes, Lemma becoming indurate, enclosing palea and caryopsis, Lemma 5-7 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma body or surface hairy, Lemma apex acute or acuminate, Lemma awnless, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea longer than lemma, Palea 2 nerved or 2 keeled, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis, Caryopsis ellipsoid, longitudinally grooved, hilum long-linear.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Type Information

Type collection for Phalaris angusta Nees ex Trin.
Catalog Number: US 990003
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Status verified by specimen annotations only
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): T. P. X. Haenke
Locality: Unknown
  • Type collection: Presl, J. S. 1830. Reliq. Haenk. 1: 245.
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Type collection for Phalaris angusta Nees ex Trin.
Catalog Number: US 101822
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Status verified by specimen annotations only
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): H. Cuming
Locality: Juan Fernandez Islands, Chile, South America
  • Type collection: Steudel, E. G. von. 1853. Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 11.
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Syntype for Phalaris angusta Nees ex Trin.
Catalog Number: US 101821
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Status verified by specimen annotations only
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): -. Sello
Locality: Montevideo., Brazil, South America
  • Syntype: Trinius, C. B. von. 1827. Sp. Gram. (Trinius). 1: t.78.
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Type collection for Phalaris angusta f. macra Hack.
Catalog Number: US 101823
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Status verified by specimen annotations only
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): T. Stuckert
Year Collected: 1909
Locality: Dep. Sta. Maria, Villa Garcia., Córdoba, Argentina, South America
  • Type collection: Hackel, E. 1911. Anales Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires. 21: 63.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Phalaris angusta

Phalaris angusta is a species of grass known by the common names timothy canarygrass and narrow canarygrass. It is native to the Americas, where it is most common in Chile and Argentina and can be found in northern South America and sections of the southwestern and southeastern United States. It is also known as an introduced species in Australia.[1] It grows in grassland, prairie, marshland, and other habitat.

Description[edit]

Phalaris angusta is an annual grass reaching up to 1.5 meters tall. The inflorescence is a narrow cylindrical spike of rough-haired, pointed spikelets.

Toxicity[edit]

Like some other Phalaris species, this grass is toxic to livestock. Calves that eat the grass develop neurological signs such as tremors and convulsions and gross examination of their brain tissue reveals large blue-green lesions.[2] Some cattle and sheep die suddenly after grazing in pastures of the grass, while some linger with signs of neurological compromise.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ New South Wales Flora
  2. ^ Sousa, R. S. & L. F. Irigoyen. (1999). Experimental poisoning by Phalaris angusta (Gramineae) in cattle. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 19 116-22. (Portuguese)
  3. ^ Odriozola, E., et al. (1991). Neuropathological effects and deaths of cattle and sheep in Argentina from Phalaris angusta. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 43:5 465-7.
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