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Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Perennials, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Rhizomes present, Rhizome short and compact, stems close, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems geniculate, decumbent, or lax, sometimes rooting at nodes, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem nodes bearded or hairy, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves m ostly basal, below middle of stem, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath hairy, hispid or prickly, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades more or less hairy, Ligule present, Ligule an unfringed eciliate membrane, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence an open panicle, openly paniculate, branches spreading, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence branches more than 10 to numerous, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets laterally compressed, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 2 florets, Spikelets with 3-7 florets, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating above the glumes, glume s persistent, Spikelets disarticulating beneath or between the florets, Rachilla or pedicel hairy, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes distinctly unequal, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Glumes keeled or winged, Glumes 1 nerved, Glumes 3 nerved, Lemma similar in texture to glumes, Lemma 5-7 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma apex dentate, 2-fid, Lemma distinctly awned, more than 2-3 mm, Lemma with 1 awn, Lemma awn less than 1 cm long, Lemma awn subapical or dorsal, Lemma awns straight or curved to base, Lemma awn once geniculate, bent once, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Callus or base of lemma evidently hairy, Callus hairs shorter than lemma, Palea present, well developed, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea longer than lemma, Palea 2 nerved or 2 keeled, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / miner
larva of Agromyza nigrella mines leaf of Trisetum flavescens

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
Blumeria graminis parasitises live Trisetum flavescens

Foodplant / pathogen
pycnidium of Dilophospora coelomycetous anamorph of Lidophia graminis infects and damages live inflorescence of Trisetum flavescens
Remarks: season: 5-10, esp. 7

Foodplant / parasite
uredium of Puccinia graminis f.sp. avenae parasitises live stem of Trisetum flavescens

Foodplant / parasite
amphigenous telium of Puccinia hordei parasitises live leaf of Trisetum flavescens

Foodplant / spot causer
long, linear, erumpent sorus of Ustilago hypodytes causes spots on live, blistered leaf of Trisetum flavescens

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Trisetum flavescens

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Trisetum flavescens

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 8
Specimens with Barcodes: 12
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Trisetum flavescens

Trisetum flavescens, golden oat grass or yellow oat grass, is a species of grass in the Poaceae family. It is native to Europe, Asia, and North Africa.

It can be found elsewhere, such as sections of North America, where it was introduced as a rangeland grass for grazing.[1] It now exists in the wild as a common weed.

Description[edit]

Trisetum flavescens is a perennial bunchgrass growing in clumps up to 60–80 centimetres (24–31 in) tall, and known to exceed 1 metre (3.3 ft) at times.

The inflorescence is a narrow panicle which is greenish yellow to purple when new and ages to bright golden yellow.[1][2]

The grass is susceptible to yellow oat grass mosaic virus (YOgMV), a virus of genus Tritimovirus.[3]

Toxicity[edit]

This grass is noted for being toxic to livestock, causing calcinosis, the deposition of calcium in soft tissues including muscle and tendons, the heart and large arteries including the aorta. Cattle suffer difficulty in moving and standing and reduced milk production.[4] Goats suffer heart murmurs and arrhythmias, weight loss, difficulty in walking, kneeling, and rising, and reduced milk production.[5] Horses suffer tenderness in tendons and ligaments, weight loss, and problems with movement.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Grass Manual Treatment
  2. ^ Dixon, J. M. (1995). Trisetum flavescens (L.) Beauv. (T. pratense Pers., Avena flavescens L.) Journal of Ecology 83:5 895-909.
  3. ^ Hassan, M., et al. (2009). Identification and characterization of a novel Tritimovirus species isolated from wild Trisetum flavescens L., family Poaceae. Virus Genes 39:1 146-52.
  4. ^ Braun, U., et al. (2000). Enzootic calcinosis in 16 cows from 6 dairy farms in Unterengadin. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 142:6 333-8.
  5. ^ Braun, U., et al. (2000). Enzootic calcinosis in goats caused by golden oat grass (Trisetum flavescens). Veterinary Record 146 161-2.
  6. ^ Grabner, A., et al. (1985). Enzootic calcinosis in the horse. Tierarztl Prax Suppl. 1 84-93.
  • Ess. Agrostogr. 88, 153. 1812
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