Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Grass Family (Poaceae). Sand cordgrass is a warm season, robust bunch grass, native to the U.S. The height ranges from 3 to 5 feet. Leaf blade is flat and rolls inward when drying; 1/4 inch wide; upper surface is dark green, lower light green and coarse ridges on upper surface. Leaf sheath is rounded. Seedhead has 5 to 12 spikes, each 1 1/4 to 2 1/2 inches long, lying close to stem; spikelets grow on one side of rachis and seedhead 2 to 8 inches long.

Management

This grass increases on ranges that are grazed continuously.

Establishment

Makes its major growth during spring. Seeds form during late May and June in most ranges, later in the northern parts. Vegetative growth continues until fall. Some basal leaves remain green during winter in south Florida. Mature plants often form bunches 18 to 20 inches in diameter. Adapted to margins of sand ponds and fresh marshes throughout range. During growing season, tolerates periodic flooding. Will not grow on saline soils.

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Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Perennials, Aquatic, leaves emergent, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem internodes solid or spongy, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with infloresc ence less than 1 m tall, Stems with inflorescence 1-2 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves conspicuously 2-ranked, distichous, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades very narrow or filiform, less than 2 mm wide, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blade margins folded, involute, or conduplicate, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades scabrous, roughened, or wrinkled, Ligule present, Ligule a fringe of hairs, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence a panicle with narrowly racemose or spicate branches, Inflorescence with 2-10 branches, Inflorescence branches 1-sided, Rachis angular, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets sessile or subsessile, Spikelets laterally compressed, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spik elets with 1 fertile floret, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating below the glumes, Spikelets secund, in rows on one side of rachis, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes distinctly unequal, Glumes equal to or longer than adjacent lemma, Glume equal to or longer than spikelet, Glumes keeled or winged, Glume surface hairy, villous or pilose, Glumes 1 nerved, Glumes 3 nerved, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, or membranous, Lemma 3 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma body or surface hairy, Lemma apex truncate, rounded, or obtuse, Lemma apex acute or acuminate, Lemma awnless, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea longer than lemma, Palea 2 nerved or 2 keeled, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Type Information

Isotype for Spartina bakeri Merr.
Catalog Number: US 81737
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. H. Baker
Year Collected: 1898
Locality: Near Tangarene [Tangerine?]., Florida, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Merrill, G. M. 1902. U.S.D.A. Bur. Pl. Industr. Bull. 9: 14.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 6 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1.5 - 1.5
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

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Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status, such as, state noxious status and wetland indicator values.

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USDA, NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Management

Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

Please contact your local NRCS Field Office.

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USDA, NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Sand cordgrass, burned in early fall, provides fair quality grazing for cattle during winter and spring. It is tough and unpalatable during summer months.

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USDA, NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Wikipedia

Spartina bakeri

Spartina bakeri is a species of grass known by the common names sand cordgrass and bunch cordgrass. It is native to the southeastern United States, where it grows along the coast and in inland freshwater habitat in Florida.[1]

This species forms dense bunches up to 20 feet wide with stems up to 4 feet tall. The wiry leaves are light green on the undersides and darker on top.[2] During winter the plant is more brown than during summer, when it is brownish-green.

This grass grows in aquatic and semiaquatic habitat, including beaches,[1] ponds, and more upland sites. It may be used to control erosion and can tolerate flooding.[2] It can be grown as an ornamental.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Spartina bakeri. Grass Manual Treatment.
  2. ^ a b c Spartina bakeri. University of Florida IFAS.
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