The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • * D.R.Ayres et al. 2004. Extinction of a common native species by hybridization with an invasive congener. Weed Technology 18 1288-91.

    * C.K.Anttila, R.A.King, C. Ferris, D.R.Ayres and D.R. Strong. 2000. Reciprocal hybrid formation of Spartina in San Francisco Bay. Molecular Ecology 9: 765-770.
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  • 13.  Kiesling, Russell W.; Alexander, Steve K.; Webb, James W. 1988.        Evaluation of alternative oil spill cleanup techniques in a Spartina        alterniflora salt marsh. Environmental Pollution. 55(3): 221-238.        [15186]
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  • 16.  Lynch, John J. 1941. The place of burning in management of the Gulf        Coast wildlife refuges. Journal of Wildlife Management. 5(4): 454-457.        [14640]
  • 18.  Metcalfe, W. Scott; Ellison, Aaron M.; Bertness, Mark D. 1986.        Survivorship and spatial development of Spartina alterniflora Loisel.        (Gramineae) seedlings in a New England salt marsh. Annals of Botany. 58:        249-258.  [15187]
  • 19.  Mooring, Molly T.; Cooper, Arthur W.; Seneca, Ernest D. 1971. Seed        germination response and evidence for height ecophenes in Spartina        alterniflora from North Carolina. American Journal of Botany. 58(1):        48-55.  [15192]
  • 2.  Bertness, Mark D. 1984. Ribbed mussels and Spartina alterniflora        production in a New England salt marsh. Ecology. 65(6): 1794-1807.        [15194]
  • 20.  Neely, William W. 1962. Saline soils and brackish waters in managment of        wildlife, fish, and shrimp. Transactions of the North American Wildlife        Conference. 27: 321-335.  [14643]
  • 21.  Penfound, William T. 1952. Southern swamps and marshes. The Botanical        Review. 18: 413-446.  [11477]
  • 22.  Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of        the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of        North Carolina Press. 1183 p.  [7606]
  • 24.  Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS:        Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p.  [13158]
  • 25.  Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2d ed.        Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L.        Moldenke. 611 p.  [7604]
  • 26.  Teal, John; Teal, Mildred. 1969. Life and death of the salt marsh.        Boston, MA: Little, Brown. 278 p.  [15106]
  • 27.  Thompson, John D. 1991. The biology of an invasive plant. Bioscience.        41(6): 393-401.  [14583]
  • 29.  Webb, James W.; Alexander, Steve K.; Winters, J. Kenneth. 1985. Effects        of autumn application of oil on Spartina alterniflora in a Texas salt        marsh. Environmental Pollution. 38(4): 321-337.  [15184]
  • 3.  Bertness, Mark D. 1985. Fiddler crab regulation of Spartina alterniflora        production on a New England salt marsh. Ecology. 66(3): 1042-1055.        [15772]
  • 30.  Wunderlin, Richard P. 1982. Guide to the vascular plants of central        Florida. Tampa, FL: University Presses of Florida, University of South        Florida. 472 p.  [13125]
  • 31.  Zoodsma, Barb; Bratton, Susan. 1988. Manatee telemetry proves salt marsh        key habitat at Cumberland Island. In: Highlights of natural resources        management 1988. Natural Resources Report NPS-NR-89-01. Denver, CO: U.S.        Department of the Interior, National Park Service: 11.  [12052]
  • 4.  Bertness, Mark D. 1991. Interspecific interactions among high marsh        perennials in a New England salt marsh. Ecology. 72(1): 125-137.        [14510]
  • 5.  Bertness, Mark D. 1991. Zonation of Spartina patens and Spartina        alterniflora in a New England salt marsh. Ecology. 72(1): 138-148.        [14512]
  • 6.  Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1987. The Smithsonian guide to        seaside plants of the Gulf and Atlantic Coasts from Louisiana to        Massachusetts, exclusive of lower peninsular Florida. Washington, DC:        Smithsonian Institution Press. 409 p.  [12906]
  • 8.  Gallagher, John L. 1983. Seasonal patterns in recoverable underground        reserves in Spartina alterniflora Loisel. American Journal of Botany.        70(2): 212-215.  [15188]
  • 9.  Gallagher, John L.; Wolf, Paul L.; Pfeiffer, William J. 1984. Rhizome        and root growth rates and cycles in protein and carbohydrate        concentrations in Georgia Spartina alterniflora Loisel. plants. American        Journal of Botany. 71(2): 165-169.  [15185]
  • Anales del Instituto Botánico A. J. Cavanilles 34(2): 542. 1977[1978]. (Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles)
  • Barkworth, M.E., K.M. Capels, S. Long & M.B. Piep. 2003. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 2. Fl. N. Amer. 25: i–xxv, 1–783.
  • CONABIO. 2009. Catálogo taxonómico de especies de México. 1. In Capital Nat. México. CONABIO, Mexico City.
  • Cabrera, A. L. 1970. Gramíneas. 4(2): 1–624. In A. L. Cabrera (ed.) Fl. Prov. Buenos Aires. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Buenos Aires.
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
  • Daehler, C. 2000. Spartina alterniflora. In Bossard, C.C., J. M. Randall, and M. C. Hoshovsky (eds.) Invasive Plants of California’s Wildlands. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA. Available: www.cal-ipc.org
  • DiTomaso, J.M., and E. A. Healy. 2003. Aquatic and Riparian Weeds of the West. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 3421. Oakland, CA.
  • Edgar, E., H. E. Connor & J. E. Shand. 1991. Checklist of oryzoid, arundinoid, and chloridoid grasses naturalised in New Zealand. New Zealand J. Bot. 29: 117–129.
  • Espejo Serna, A., A. R. López-Ferrari & J. Valdés-Reyna. 2000. Poaceae. Monocot. Mexic. Sinopsis Floríst. 10: 7–236 [and index].
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Flora Gallica 719. 1807. (Fl. Gall.)
  • Flora of China Editorial Committee. 2006. Flora of China (Poaceae). 22: 1–733. In C. Y. Wu, P. H. Raven & D. Y. Hong (eds.) Fl. China. Science Press & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing & St. Louis.
  • Forzza, R. C. 2010. Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.
  • Funk, V. A., P. E. Berry, S. Alexander, T. H. Hollowell & C. L. Kelloff. 2007. Checklist of the Plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 55: 1–584.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Gould, F. W. 1979. Poaceae. In R. A. Howard (ed.). Fl. Lesser Antilles 3: 25–220.
  • Govaerts R. (ed). For a full list of reviewers see: http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/compilersReviewers.do (2013). WCSP: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (version Oct 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Hickman, J. C. 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California 1–1400. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Hitchcock, A. S. 1951. Man. Grasses U.S. (ed. 2) 1–1051. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
  • Hitchcock, C. H., A.J. Cronquist, F. M. Ownbey & J. W. Thompson. 1969. Vascular Cryptogams, Gymnosperms, and Monocotyledons. 1: 1–914. In C. L. Hitchcock Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N.W. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
  • Hokche, O., P. E. Berry & O. Huber. (eds.) 2008. Nuevo Cat. Fl. Vasc. Venez. 1–860. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela, Caracas.
  • ISSG, 2005. Spartina alterniflora. Global Invasive Species Database. Invasive Species Specialist Group, IUCN : www.issg.org
  • Invasive Spartina in Willapa Bay. www.willapabay.org/~coastal/nospartina/
  • Isotype: Merrill, G. M. 1902. U.S.D.A. Bur. Pl. Industr. Circ. 9: 9.
  • Judziewicz, E. J. 1990. Family 187. Poaceae (Gramineae). 8: 1–727. In A. R. A. Görts-van Rijn (ed.) Fl. Guianas, ser. A, Phanerog. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein.
  • Loisel. 1807. In: Fl. Gall. : 719
  • Long, R. W. & O. K. Lakela. 1971. Fl. Trop. Florida i–xvii, 1–962. University of Miami Press, Coral Cables.
  • Longhi-Wagner, H. M., V. Bittich, M. d. G. L. Wanderley & G. J. Shepherd. Poaceae. Fl. Fanerogâm. Estado São Paulo. 1: 1–292.
  • Longhi-Wagner. 2007. Synopsis Poacearum in Josephii Raddii Agrostografia brasiliense editarum. Kew Bull. 62(3): 381–405.
  • Mobberley, D. G. 1956. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Spartina. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 30(4): 471–574.
  • Nicora, E. G., M. E. D. Paula, A. M. Faggi, M. d. Mariano, A. M. M. A., L. R. Parodi, C. A. Petetin, F. A. Roig & Z. R. Agrasar. 1978. Gramineae. 8(3): 1–583. In M.N. Correa (ed.) Fl. Patagónica. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Buenos Aires.
  • Patten, K. 2002. The efficacy of mechanical treatment efforts in the 2001 on the control of Spartina in Willapa Bay in 2002. Unpublished report submitted to Willapa Bay Wildlife Refuge. Available: www.willapabay.org/~coastal/nospartina/
  • Peterson, P. M. 2001. Spartina. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): II. Subfamily Chloridoideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 41: 195–200.
  • R. W. Dexter, The marine communities of a tidal inlet at Cape Ann, Massachusetts: a study in bio-ecology, Ecol. Monogr. 17:263-294, from p. 287 (1947).
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Renvoize, S. A. 1984. Grass. Bahia 1–301. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Renvoize, S. A. 1988. Hatschbach's Paraná Grass. 1–76. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • San Francisco Estuary Invasive Spartina Project. www.spartina.org
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
  • Smith, L.B., D. C. Wasshausen & R.M. Klein. 1981. Gramíneas. Gêneros: 1. Bambusa até 44. Chloris. 1(GRAM): 1–435. In P. R. Reitz (ed.) Fl. Il. Catarin. Herbário "Barbosa Rodrigues", Itajaí, Brasil.
  • Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG:. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Spartina x townsendii
  • Swearingen, J. 2009. WeedUS Database of Plants Invading Natural Areas in the United States: Smooth Cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora). http://www.invasive.org/weedus/subject.html?sub=6470.
  • Type fragment: Lamarck, J. B. A. 1791. Tabl. Encycl. 1: 180.
  • Type fragment: Raddi, G. 1823. Agrostogr. Brasil. 21.
  • Type fragment: Sprengel, C. P. J., et al. 1820. Jahrb. Gewachsk. 1: 92.
  • USDA, NRCS. 2009. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
  • WoRMS (2014). Spartina alterniflora. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=234072
  • Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide Vasc. Pl. Florida i–x, 1–806. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
  • Zuloaga, F. O., E. G. Nicora, Z. E. Rúgolo de Agrasar, O. N. Morrone, J. F. Pensiero & A. M. Cialdella. 1994. Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en la República Argentina. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 47: 1–178.
  • Zuloaga, F. O., O. N. Morrone, M. J. Belgrano, C. Marticorena & E. Marchesi. (eds.) 2008. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares del Cono Sur. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 107(1–3): i–xcvi, 1–3348.

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