The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Barkworth, M.E., K.M. Capels, S. Long & M.B. Piep. 2003. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 2. Fl. N. Amer. 25: i–xxv, 1–783.
  • Catalogus Plantarum Americae Septentrionalis 12. 1813. (Cat. Pl. Amer. Sept.)
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Funk, V. A., P. E. Berry, S. Alexander, T. H. Hollowell & C. L. Kelloff. 2007. Checklist of the Plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 55: 1–584.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Govaerts R. (ed). For a full list of reviewers see: (2015). WCSP: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (version Sep 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Hitchcock, A. S. 1951. Man. Grasses U.S. (ed. 2) 1–1051. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
  • Isotype: Steudel, E. G. von. 1854. Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 272.
  • Judziewicz, E. J. 1990. Family 187. Poaceae (Gramineae). 8: 1–727. In A. R. A. Görts-van Rijn (ed.) Fl. Guianas, ser. A, Phanerog. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein.
  • Long, R. W. & O. K. Lakela. 1971. Fl. Trop. Florida i–xvii, 1–962. University of Miami Press, Coral Cables.
  • Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 5(4): 49. 1894. (Mem. Torrey Bot. Club)
  • Peterson, P. M. & S.d.C. Boechat. 2001. Eragrostis. 41: 81–115. In P. M. Peterson, R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, T. S. Filgueiras, F. O. Zuloaga & E. J. Judziewicz (eds.) Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): II. Subfamily Chloridoideae, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Scribn. 1894. In: Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 5: 49
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
  • Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Thornhill, Robert, Krings, Alexander, Lindbo, David, Stucky, Jon (2014): Guide to the Vascular Flora of the Savannas and Flatwoods of Shaken Creek Preserve and Vicinity (Pender & Onslow Counties, North Carolina, U. S. A.). Biodiversity Data Journal 2, 1099: 1099-1099, URL:
  • Type fragment: Elliott, S. 1816. Bot. S. Carolina & Georgia. 1: 162.


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