Overview

Comprehensive Description

The millet known as tef (Eragrostis tef) is a minor cereal crop on a global scale, but a major food grain in Ethiopia and Eritrea. In 2003–2004, for example, this grass was planted on around 2 million hectares, accounting for 28% of the 8 cereal crops grown in Ethiopia, and yielded more than 1.5 million metric tons. Tef can be grown under a wide range of conditions, including situations not suitable for other cereals. However, the national average yield of tef is very low, less than one metric ton per hectare, and the development of higher yielding cultivars would be very beneficial. The primary use of tef is for grinding into flour to make injera, the spongy fermented flat bread that is a staple food for most Ethiopians. In addition, the vegetative portions of the plant are an important source of fodder for livestock. Tef and several other Eragrostis species have been introduced to many other African countries, India, the United States, and Australia, mainly as specialty foods and forage crops. (Ayele et al. 1996; Zeller 2003; Yu et al. 2006 and references therein; Yu et al. 2007)

Tef has been grown in the Horn of Africa for at least 2,000 years. The domestication history of tef appears to be different from that of some other cereals (a factor which may explain the difficulty encountered in identifying many Eragrostis seeds in archaeological samples). In contrast to the domestication of many grains, selection of large seed size and intensified tillage were not key factors in tef domestication. Early cultivators were likely selecting for increased branching and higher percentage seed set under conditions of minimal tillage. (D'Andrea 2008)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Shapiro, Leo

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 4.0 of 5

Brief

Flowering class: Monocot Habit: Herb Distribution notes: Exotic
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

"
Global Distribution

Native of Ethiopia; now spread to Tropical Asian countries

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Idukki, Alappuzha

"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution in Egypt

Nile region and oases.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Distribution

Ethiopia.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Annuals, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Stem internodes solid or spongy, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly basal, below middle of stem, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades linear, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, L eaf blade margins folded, involute, or conduplicate, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades scabrous, roughened, or wrinkled, Ligule present, Ligule a fringe of hairs, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence an open panicle, openly paniculate, branches spreading, Inflorescence a contracted panicle, narrowly paniculate, branches appressed or ascending, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence branches more than 10 to numerous, Lower panicle branches whorled, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets laterally compressed, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 3-7 florets, Spikelets with 8-40 florets, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating above the glumes, glumes persistent, Spikelets disarticulating beneath or between the florets, Spikelets not disarticulating, or tardy, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, e mpty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes equal or subequal, Glumes shorter than adjacent lemma, Glumes 1 nerved, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, or membranous, Lemma similar in texture to glumes, Lemma 3 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma apex acute or acuminate, Lemma awnless, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea shorter than lemma, Palea 2 nerved or 2 keeled, Palea keels winged, scabrous, or ciliate, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis, Caryopsis white, Caryopsis ellipsoid, longitudinally grooved, hilum long-linear.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 3.0 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Annuals. Clums 20-35 cm long, slender; nodes glabrous. Leaves 2-19 x 0.1-0.4 cm, linear-lanceolate or linear, base rounded, apex acuminate; sheaths to 3.5 cm long; ligules tufts of hairs. Panicles 6-12 cm long, contracted. Spikelets 2.5-4 mm long, oblong, 4-8-flowered. Lower glume c. 0.5 mm long, lanceolate. Upper glume c. 1 mm long, ovate-lanceolate. Lemmas 1-1.5 x 1 mm, ovate-oblong, 3-nerved. Paleas c. 1 mm long, oblong, hyaline. Stamens 3."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

Degraded forests and banks of backwaters
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Tested as a forage grass in Egypt and occasionally found as a casual. Cultivated cereal (Tef) only in Ethiopia, introduced elsewhere for forage and often escaping, under trial in some parts of the world as a possible gluten-free alternative to wheat.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: September-December
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Expectancy

Annual.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

Systematics and Taxonomy

The direct wild progenitor of Eragrostis tef is generally believed to be E. pilosa, a weedy species that occurs throughout the world in tropical and temperate regions and is common in Ethiopia. The only documented and consistent morphological distinction between E. pilosa and E. tef is spikelet shattering. The multi-floreted spikelets of E. pilosa readily break apart at maturity as a natural mechanism of seed dispersal, whereas the lemmas, paleas, and caryopses of E. tef remain attached to the rachis at maturity, which facilitates harvesting. Because of its importance in allowing farmers to control seed dispersal, the transition from shattering to non-shattering is one of the most common features seen in the domestication of grains. (Ingram and Doyle 2003)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Shapiro, Leo

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

Yu et al. (2006) constructed and analyzed an expressed sequence tag (EST) library as a resource for genetic research on tef. All tef cultivars that have been assessed are tetraploid, with a base chromosome number of 10 (2n = 4x = 40). The genome size of tef is roughly 50% larger than that of rice, small enough that it should be amenable to molecular mapping and analysis. (Ayele et al. 1996) Yu et al. (2007) mapped agronomically important quantitative trait loci for use in marker-assisted breeding programs.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Shapiro, Leo

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Eragrostis tef

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Tef has been grown in the Horn of Africa for at least 2,000 years. The domestication history of tef appears to be different from that of some other cereals (a factor which may explain the preponderance of indeterminate Eragrostis seeds in archaeological samples). Selection of large seed size and intensified tillage were not key factors in tef domestication. Early cultivators were likely selecting for increased branching and higher percentage seed set under conditions of minimal tillage. (D'Andrea 2008)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Shapiro, Leo

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Eragrostis tef

Eragrostis tef, teff, Williams lovegrass, annual bunch grass, taf (Amharic: ጤፍ? ṭēff; Tigrinya: ጣፍ? ṭaff), or xaafii (Oromo), is an annual grass, a species of lovegrass native to the northern Ethiopian Highlands and Eritrean Highlands of the Horn of Africa.[1] The word "tef" is connected by folk etymology to the Ethio-Semitic root "ṭff", which means "lost" (because of the small size of the grain).

Description[edit]

Eragrostis tef has an attractive nutrition profile, being high in dietary fiber and iron and providing protein and calcium.[2] It is similar to millet and quinoa in cooking, but the seed is much smaller and cooks faster, thus using less fuel.

Distribution[edit]

Eragrostis tef is adapted to environments ranging from drought stress to waterlogged soil conditions. Maximum teff production occurs at altitudes of 1,800 to 2,100 m, growing season rainfall of 450 to 550 mm, and a temperature range of 10 to 27 °C. Teff is daylight sensitive and flowers best with 12 hours of daylight.

Teff is an important food grain in Ethiopia and Eritrea, where it is used to make injera or tayta, and less so in India and Australia. It is now raised in the U.S., in Idaho in particular, with experimental plots in Kansas. In addition to people from traditional teff-consuming countries, customers include those on gluten-restricted diets.[3] Because of its small seeds (less than 1 mm diameter), a handful is enough to sow a large area. This property makes teff particularly suited to a seminomadic lifestyle.

History[edit]

Between 8000 and 5000 BC, the people of the Ethiopian highlands were among the first to domesticate plants and animals for food and teff was one of the earliest plants domesticated.[4] Teff is believed to have originated in Ethiopia and Eritrea between 4000 BCE and 1000 BCE. Genetic evidence points to E. pilosa as the most likely wild ancestor.[5] A 19th century identification of teff seeds from an ancient Egyptian site is now considered doubtful; the seeds in question (no longer available for study) are more likely of E. aegyptiaca, a common wild grass in Egypt.[6]

Cultivation and uses[edit]

In 1996, the US National Research Council characterized teff as having the "potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development and support sustainable landcare."[2]

Teff has been widely cultivated and used in the countries of Eritrea and Ethiopia. Teff accounts for about a quarter of total cereal production in Ethiopia.[7] The grain can be used by celiacs (the gluten in teff does not contain the a-gliadin-fraction that causes a reaction in those with celiac disease) and has a high concentration of different nutrients, a very high calcium content, and significant levels of the minerals phosphorus, magnesium, aluminum, iron, copper, zinc, boron and barium, and also of thiamin.[8] Teff is high in protein. It is considered to have an excellent amino acid composition, including all 8 essential amino acids for humans, and is higher in lysine than wheat or barley.[9][citation needed] Teff is high in carbohydrates and fiber. In one 2003–2004 study in Ethiopia, farmers indicated a preference among consumers for white teff over darker colored varieties.[10] Teff is gaining popularity in the western United States as an alternative forage crop, in rotation with a légume such as alfalfa, because it uses C4 photosynthesis, similar to that of corn. It is noted for its high quality and high yield, when compared to other forage rotations.[11] It is also known as an "emergency crop" because it is planted late in the spring when the growing season is warmer, and most other crops have already been planted. It does not tolerate any type of frost.[12] Teff is also valued for its fine straw, which is traditionally mixed with mud for building purposes.

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://books.google.se/books?id=lcHM2488JoUC&pg=PA9&dq=injera+eritrea&hl=sv&sa=X&ei=MaeGUsrJDMrd4QTZpICoDQ&ved=0CF0Q6AEwBDgU#v=onepage&q=injera%20eritrea&f=false
  2. ^ a b National Research Council (1996-02-14). "Tef". Lost Crops of Africa: Volume I: Grains. Lost Crops of Africa 1. National Academies Press. p. 222. ISBN 978-0-309-04990-0. Retrieved 2008-07-18. 
  3. ^ http://www.matr.net/article-6172.html Teff for gluten intolerance
  4. ^ Murphy, Denis J. People, Plants, and Genes: The Story of Crops and Humanity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
  5. ^ Ingram AL, Doyle JJ (2003). "The origin and evolution of Eragrostis tef (Poaceae) and related polyploids: Evidence from nuclear waxy and plastid rps16". American Journal of Botany 90 (1): 116–122. doi:10.3732/ajb.90.1.116. 
  6. ^ Germer, Renate (1985). Flora des pharaonischen Ägypten. Mainz: von Zabern. ISBN 3-8053-0620-2. 
  7. ^ Gabre-Madhin, Eleni Zaude. Market Institutions, Transaction Costs, and Social Capital in the Ethiopian Grain Market. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute, 2001
  8. ^ "Teff and Gluten Intolerance". Food Lorists. Retrieved 2008-09-18. 
  9. ^ http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14786419.2010.538924?#.Ugi3QtK7NyI
  10. ^ Belay G, Tefera H, Tadesse B, Metaferia G, Jarra D, Tadesse T (2006). "Participatory Variety Selection in the Ethiopian Cereal Tef (Eragrostis Tef)". Experimental Agriculture 42: 91–101. doi:10.1017/S0014479705003108. 
  11. ^ http://hayandforage.com/hay/teff-irrigated-alternative-forage
  12. ^ http://alfalfa.ucdavis.edu/+symposium/2009/files/talks/09WAS19_Miller_Tef.pdf
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!