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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Brief

Flowering class: Monocot Habit: Herb
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Brief

Habit: Grass
  • Mathew, K. M. ""The flora of Palani Hills."" Rapinat Herbarium, Tiruchirapalli, Part I-III.
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"
Global Distribution

Pantropical

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Kollam, Pathanamthitta, Palakkad

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Slopes & exposed river beds. Tropical & warm temperate regions.
  • Mathew, K. M. ""The flora of Palani Hills."" Rapinat Herbarium, Tiruchirapalli, Part I-III.
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Distribution in Egypt

Nile region, oases, Mediterranean region, Egyptian desert, Res Sea coastal strip, Gebel Elba and Sinai.

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Global Distribution

Tropical and warm temperate regions of the Old World.

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Distribution: Pakistan (Sind, Baluchistan, Punjab, N.WF.P. & Kashmir); tropical and warm temperate regions of the Old World; introduced to the New World.
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Widely distributed in the warmer regions of the world and can be used as a fodder grass.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Annual. Culms rather robust, 30–90 cm tall, 3–5 mm in diam., erect or geniculate at base, 3–5-noded, a line of glands below each node. Leaf sheaths with glands along veins, along summit with tubercle hairs; ligules a line of hairs, ca. 0.5 mm; leaf blades flat, glabrous, 6–20 × 0.2–0.6 cm, along midvein and margin glandular. Panicle oblong or pyramidal, 5–20 cm; branch usually solitary, ascending; branchlet glandular. Spikelets dark green, gray-green or yellowish white, compressed, oblong or ovate-oblong, 5–20 × 2–3 mm, 10–40-flowered. Glumes subequal or lower glume slightly shorter, 1-veined, upper glume 1–3-veined, along middle vein glandular. Lemmas chartaceous, broadly ovate-oblong, conspicuously 3-veined, along middle vein glandular, lower lemma 2.2–2.8 mm. Palea persistent; oblanceolate, apex rounded, 1.2–1.6 mm, along keels ciliolate. Stamens 3; anthers ca. 0.5 mm. Caryopsis oblong, ca. 0.5 mm in diam. Fl. and fr. Jul–Oct. 2n = 40.
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Physical Description

Annuals, Terrestrial, not aquatic, Stems nodes swollen or brittle, Stems erect or ascending, Stems geniculate, decumbent , or lax, sometimes rooting at nodes, Stems caespitose, tufted, or clustered, Stems terete, round in cross section, or polygonal, Plants viscid, sticky, glandular-hairy, Plants with glandular pits or bands below nodes, on branches or lemma, Plants aromatic or malodorous, Stem internodes solid or spongy, Stem internodes hollow, Stems with inflorescence less than 1 m tall, Stems, culms, or scapes exceeding basal leaves, Leaves mostly basal, below middle of stem, Leaves mostly cauline, Leaves sheathing at base, Leaf sheath mostly open, or loose, Leaf sheath smooth, glabrous, Leaf sheath hairy at summit, throat, or collar, Leaf sheath and blade differentiated, Leaf blades lanceolate, Leaf blades 2-10 mm wide, Leaf blades mostly flat, Leaf blade margins folded, involute, or conduplicate, Leaf blades mostly glabrous, Leaf blades scabrous, roughened, or wrinkled, Ligule present, Ligule a fringe of hairs, Inflorescence terminal, Inflorescence an open panicle, openly paniculate, bra nches spreading, Inflorescence a contracted panicle, narrowly paniculate, branches appressed or ascending, Inflorescence solitary, with 1 spike, fascicle, glomerule, head, or cluster per stem or culm, Inflorescence branches more than 10 to numerous, Flowers bisexual, Spikelets pedicellate, Spikelets laterally compressed, Spikelet less than 3 mm wide, Spikelets with 8-40 florets, Spikelets solitary at rachis nodes, Spikelets all alike and fertille, Spikelets bisexual, Spikelets disarticulating above the glumes, glumes persistent, Spikelets disarticulating beneath or between the florets, Rachilla or pedicel glabrous, Glumes present, empty bracts, Glumes 2 clearly present, Glumes equal or subequal, Glumes distinctly unequal, Glumes shorter than adjacent lemma, Glumes 1 nerved, Lemmas thin, chartaceous, hyaline, cartilaginous, or membranous, Lemma similar in texture to glumes, Lemma 3 nerved, Lemma glabrous, Lemma apex truncate, rounded, or obtuse, Lemma apex dentate, 2-fid, Le mma awnless, Lemma margins thin, lying flat, Lemma straight, Palea present, well developed, Palea membranous, hyaline, Palea shorter than lemma, Palea 2 nerved or 2 keeled, Palea keels winged, scabrous, or ciliate, Stamens 3, Styles 2-fid, deeply 2-branched, Stigmas 2, Fruit - caryopsis, Caryopsis ellipsoid, longitudinally grooved, hilum long-linear.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Description

Loosely tufted annual; culms 10-90 cm high, erect or ascending. Leaf-blades flat, up to 15 cm long and 8 mm wide, mostly glabrous and usually with a row of warty glands along the margin. Panicle ovate, 4-30 cm long, fairly dense, contracted, stiffly branched, usually with glands on pedicels and branchlets. Spikelets 5-60-flowered, narrowly ovate to narrowly oblong, rarely linear, 3-20 min long, 2-4 mm wide, pallid yellowish green to leaden grey, breaking up from the base, the rhachilla often breaking off above the glumes before all the lemmas have fallen; glumes subequal, oval, boat-shaped, 1.5-2.2 mm long, 1-3-nerved, often glandular on the keel, acute; lemmas broadly ovate to subrotund, (1.7)2-2.8 mm long, chartaceous, often glandular on the keel, the lateral nerves distinct, emarginate or obtuse (occasionally bluntly acute) when flattened, usually obtuse in side-view; palea ± scabrid on the keels, persistent; anthers 3, 0.3 mm long. Caryopsis typically subglobose, 0.5(0.7) mm long, rarely oblong, dark reddish brown.
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Description

Culm tufted. Blade linear-lanceolate, about 6 cm long by 4 mm wide, glandular along the midrib and margins; ligule a ring of hairs, about 0.5 mm long; sheath-mouth covered with tubercular hairs. Inflorescence an open panicle, about 11 cm long. Spikelets about 5.5 mm long by 2 mm wide, up to 12-flowered or more, linear-lanceolate; glumes chartaceous, boat-shaped, lanceolate in outline, 1-nerved, glandular along nerves; the lower about 1.2 mm long, slightly shorter than the upper; lemma chartaceous, broadly oblong, conspicuously 3-nerved, about 1.6 mm long; palea chartaceous, oblanceolate, rounded at the apex, 2-keeled, minutely ciliate on keels, about 1.2 mm long. Caryopsis about 0.5 mm long, oblong; embryo 1/2 the length of the caryopsis.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Culms loosely tufted, erect or geniculate, to 60 cm. Leaf-blades flat, 6-16 x 0.5-0.9 cm, glabrous, glandular on margins; ligule a ciliolate rim, to 0.25 cm. Panicles ovate-oblong, to 20 cm; rachis glabrous; branches and pedicels capillary and often glandular; pedicels shorter than spikelets. Spikelets narrowly ovate-oblong, 0.4-1.8 x 0.2-0.4 cm, breaking up from base, 8-60-flowered; rachilla breaking off above glumes. Glumes broadly ovate, 0.15-0.22 cm, subequal, acute, often glandular on keel; lemmas broadly ovate, to 0.28 cm, chartaceous, often glandular on keel; paleas obovate, to 0.25 cm, scabrid on keels, persistent. Grain subglobose, reddish-brown, to 0.06 cm."
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Synonym

Poa cilianensis All., Fl. Pedem 2: 246. 1785.
  Eragrostis major Host, Icon. Gram. Austr. 4: 14. pl. 24. ,1809.
  Eragrostis megastachya (Koel.) Link, Hort. Berol. 1: 187. 1827.
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Synonym

Poa cilianensis Allioni, Fl. Pedem. 2: 246. 1785; Eragro-stis major Host; E. megastachya (Koeler) Link; Poa mega-stachya Koeler.
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Type Information

Isotype for Briza purpurascens Muhl.
Catalog Number: US 1535783
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): Collector unknown
Locality: Carolina., United States, North America
  • Isotype: Muhlenberg, H. L. 1817. Descript. Gram. 154.
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Type collection for Eragrostis pappii Gand.
Catalog Number: US 1445661
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): A. Pappi
Locality: Eritrea, Africa
  • Type collection: Gandoger, M. 1920. Bull. Soc. Bot. France. 66: 299.
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Type fragment; Type fragment for Eragrostis argentina Jedwabn.
Catalog Number: US 2850748
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): P. G. Lorentz
Year Collected: 1879
Locality: Rio Negro, Patagonia., Río Negro, Argentina, South America
  • Type fragment: Döll, J. C. 1878. Fl. Bras. 2: 145.; Type fragment: Jedwabnick, E. 1924. Bot. Arch. 5: 193.
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Type fragment for Eragrostis virletii E. Fourn.
Catalog Number: US 2850749
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): M. Virlet d'Aoust
Year Collected: 1851
Locality: San Luis Potosi, Mexico, North America
  • Type fragment: Fournier, E. P. 1886. Mexic. Pl. 2: 116.
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Type fragment for Briza eragrostis L.
Catalog Number: US 3152245
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. Clayton
Locality: "Europa Australi", Europe
  • Type fragment: Linnaeus, C. 1753. Sp. Pl. 70.
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

Grasslands
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Damp sand and areas of cultivation.

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Habitat & Distribution

Waste places, fields, cultivated ground. Anhui, Beijing, Fujian, Guizhou, Hainan, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [tropical and subtropical regions of the world].
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: December-March
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. & Fr. Per.: May-October.
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Life Expectancy

Annual.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Eragrostis cilianensis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Eragrostis cilianensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Uses: Good fodder
  • Mathew, K. M. ""The flora of Palani Hills."" Rapinat Herbarium, Tiruchirapalli, Part I-III.
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Wikipedia

Eragrostis cilianensis

Eragrostis cilianensis is a species of grass known by several common names, including stinkgrass, candy grass, and gray lovegrass.

Distribution[edit]

This plant is native to much of Eurasia and Africa but it is widely naturalized elsewhere, including nearly all of North America.

Description[edit]

This is an annual bunchgrass forming tufts up to about half a meter in height. The stems are generally erect but may droop or bend. The stems have glandular tissue near the nodes and the long leaves are often dotted with glands as well. The plants have a strong scent.

The branching inflorescences have one to several spikelets per branch. Each spikelet is greenish brown, sometimes very slightly purple-tinted, and one half to two centimeters long. It is somewhat flattened and lined with 10 to over 40 florets.

References[edit]

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Notes

Comments

Henrard (in Blumea 3:420.1940) has pointed out that Allioni’s description of Poa cilianensis mentions 3-4 branches per node of the inflorescence, and has suggested that he was in fact describing Poa trivialis Linn. However, the rest of the description, the figure (which shows only 1-2 branches per node) and the isotypes all contradict this view. Clayton (in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. 234. 1974) has accepted Lutati’s conclusion that Poa cilianensis is synonymous with the plant at one time known as Eragrostis major Host and his treatment is adopted here. Lutati, however, doubted his own conclusion and would not formally make the new combination although it is often ascribed to him. Eragrostis major, often applied to this species, is a new name dating from 1809 and is predated by Poa cilianensis (1785), the basis of Lutati’s combination. Sprague & Hubbard (in Kew Bull. 1933: 17. 1933) have listed the full synonymy.

This species is best recognised by the warty, crateriform glands on the leaf-margins and the rather stiff panicles of yellowish green or leaden grey spikelets. It does, however, intergrade with Eragrostis minor Host.

Stinkgrass, so called in North America from its disagreeable odour when fresh, is occasionally used as fodder.

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Comments

The caryopsis of this species is subglobose and reddish-brown in color, while those of the similar species, E. poaeoides are dark brown and broadly oblong.
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